# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

MorganSquaredHatesScience
Bickford
68
Science
02/27/2013

Term
 Speed/Velocity
Definition
 v = d/t     (distance / time) meters/second
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 a = (v2-v1)/t     meters/second^2
Term
 Height of a falling object
Definition
 hfalling object = 1/2gt2   meters
Term
 Force
Definition
 f=ma N, Newton
Term
 Weight
Definition
 wt=mg Newton, Pound
Term
 Force (centripetal)
Definition
 fcentripetal = mv2/r] N, Newton
Term
 Work
Definition
 W=fd Joule
Term
 Power
Definition
 p=w/t Watts
Term
 Kinetic Energy (In Motion)
Definition
 Ek = ½ mv2 (1/2xMassxVelocity2) Joule
Term
 Potential Energy (Stored)
Definition
 Ep = mgh (mass xheight xgravity) Joule
Term
 Total Energy
Definition
 Et = Ek + Ep (Kinetic + Potential) Joule
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 p = mv (mass x velocity)
Term
 Percent Efficiency
Definition
 % efficiency = Wout/Win x100%
Term
 Kelvin Heat
Definition
 TK = ToC + 273 (Celsius + 273) Kelvin
Term
 Heat
Definition
 Q = m x c x T (Mass x Specific heat x Change in Heat) Joules, BTUs, Calories
Term
 State Change
Definition
 Q = m x L
Term
 Impulse (change in momentum)
Definition
 I = F x t (force x time)
Term
 Acceleration due to gravity
Definition
 9.8 m/s²
Term
 Specific and Latent Heats
Definition
 cwater = 4.2 J/g Co, Lfusion = 335 J/g, Lvaporization = 2260 J/g
Term
 Fahrenheit
Definition
 Boiling: 212 degrees Freezing 32 degrees Room: 70 degrees
Term
 Celsius
Definition
 Boiling: 100 degrees Freezing: 0 degrees Room: 20
Term
 Kelvin
Definition
 Celsius + 273  0 Absolute Zero
Term
 What is required for work to be done?
Definition
 work happens when a force is applied through distance. Ex: a book falling, picking it back up and putting on lab table. How much work was needed?
Term
 Energy is:
Definition
 the ability to do work. Energy can go through transformations from Potential to Kinetic.
Term
 Potential Energy
Definition
 Stored energy ex. a loaded spring
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 Energy in motion
Term
 Conservation of Energy
Definition
 :  total energy of an isolated system remains constant. Law of Conservation of Energy- energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only change forms.
Term
 Power
Definition
 The rate of doing work work/time
Term
 Apply the law of conservation of linear and angular momentum
Definition
 Angular momentum- object going in a circle has a regular momentum. Law of conservation of angular momentum- in a system, angular momentum remains constant.
Term
 Impulse and real world situations
Definition
 The change in momentum, If time is short then force is large, and if time increases then the force decreases.
Term
 Incline Plane
Definition
 Get more force out then put in, but have to go over a greater distance. ex. ramp
Term
 Screw
Definition
 Incline plane wrapped around a pole. ex. winding staircase
Term
 Wedge
Definition
Term
 Levers
Definition
 3 parts: 1) effort arm (f in) 2) resistance (load, f out) 3) fulcrum (pivot point)
Term
 First Class Levers
Definition
 Fulcrum is located between effort and resistance arm. Ex. Crow Bar. Purpose: Increase force, change direction, and get more distance.
Term
 Second Class Levers
Definition
 Resistance arm is located between effort and fulcrum. Ex. Wheel Barrel. Purpose: increase force (more f out then in)
Term
 Third Class Levers
Definition
 Effort located between fulcrum and resistance. Ex. Purpose: to increase distance (or speed) out compared to what’s in.
Term
 Pulley
Definition
 1.       ex. Flag Pole- 1st class lever- fulcrum is the wheel. a.       Simple Fixed Pulley: no mechanical advantage. Purpose: change direction.  b.   Compound with Moveable Pulley: increase force out but cover more distance (put in)
Term
 Wheel and Axle
Definition
 ex. Small Wheel touching Big Wheel- Big wheel and smaller connected at picot point (1st class lever)
Term
 % efficiency
Definition
 Ideal World (no friction)- W-out=W-in Real World (with friction) W-out < W-in (<- lost as heat)  %efficiency= W-out/ W-in x 100%
Term
 Simple machine and the amount of work that you have to do plus the trade-off
Definition
 The amount of work put in does not change, but with simple machines the amount of effort decreases. Spreading the work over a greater distance
Term
 Temperature vs. Heat
Definition
 Temperature: Heat: Definition: a measure of hotness or coldness. Measure of average Kinetic energy of particles in a substance Units: °C, °F, K How to measure: Thermometer Definition: a form of energy (thermal energy)     Units: Joules, BTU’s, Calories How to measure: no device for direct measure
Term
 Kelvin Scale
Definition
 Celsius + 273 = Kelvin
Term
 What happens to the size of a substance when you heat or cool it?
Definition
 When something freezes into a solid it usually expands and then when it is melted to a liquid it usually decreases in size. Water behaves differently than most substances.
Term
 States of Matter:
Definition
 Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
Term
 Solid
Definition
 has constant shape and volume, particles are closed and hold in a fixed arrangement.
Term
 Liquid
Definition
 takes shape of its container, but has constant volume. Particles are closed, but free to move around each other.
Term
 Gas
Definition
 takes shape and volume of container particles are far apart and move independently of each other.
Term
 Plasma
Definition
 “gas like”, high energy.
Term
 What happens to the temperature when you heat a substance?
Definition
 The temperature rises.
Term
 What happens to the temperature of a substance when it is changing states?
Definition
 The temperature remains the same.
Term
 Liquid > Gas
Definition
 Evaporation
Term
 Liquid>Solid
Definition
 Freezing
Term
 Solid>Liquid
Definition
 Melting
Term
 Gas>Liquid
Definition
 Condensation
Term
 Solid>Gas
Definition
 Sublimation
Term
 Gas>Solid
Definition
 Deposition
Term
 Latent Heat
Definition
 the amount of heat energy necessary to change the state of a substance.
Term
 Latent Heat Fusion
Definition
Term
 Latent Heat Vaporization
Definition
 heat energy for vaporization or condensation
Term
 Direction of Heat flow
Definition
 heat energy moves any direction as long as going from high temp to low temp, hot air rises, not heat.
Term
 Ways heat can be transferred?
Definition
Term
 Conduction
Definition
 when particles are touching ex. metal
Term
 Convection
Definition
 heat energy is transferred by the movement of a large amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that mixes with fluid of a different temperature ex. stirring a pot
Term