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MN3331 Test 1 Focus Questions

Additional Management Flashcards




Describe various program management office organizational structure models?
1. Functional (Traditional) Organization The classic organization. Typically a service or one product structure, with clear lines of authority in functional areas reporting ultimately to one head. Military services are functional organizations. PM over functional areas such as engineering, business/finance, logistics, production, staff.

2. “Pure” Product Organization An organizational structure centered on products or components of a major system with product managers reporting to a program manager (PM) or other central authority.

3. Matrix Organization Combines the advantages of the pure functional (traditional) structure and the product organizational structure. The program manager (PM) has total responsibility and accountability for program success. Functional managers provide technical and business assistance to the PM from outside the program management office (PMO).
Describe a system?
• Hardware End Items
• Software
• Logistics
• Facilities
• Training
• Spares
• Other???
Describe Acquistion?
*bulleted from slide, but also has definition*
Decribe Management?
Describe the acquisition environment and the challenges facing a program manager?
– Projects are generally very complex
– Projects progress in “Phases”
– Each Phase has unique & different goals, challenges, timelines and products
– Project Managers must bring together the specific expertise needed to address unique phase challenges, release those experts when complete, and bring together a new set of experts for the next Phase
Explain the key tenets of IPPD and the positive effects IPPD can have on systems acquisition?
• Customer Focus
• Equal emphasis on product and process development
• Early and Continuous Life Cycle Planning
• Focus on Robust Design and Improved Process Capability
• Multi-Disciplinary Teamwork
• Empowerment
• Proactive Risk Management
“What is the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) and why was it needed?
• Improve Quality & Professionalism
• Establish (uniform) policies and procedures for the effective management (including accession, education, training, and career development) of persons serving in acquisition positions in the Department of Defense
• Director of Acquisition Career Management for each service
Review some recent efforts to improve the acquisition workforce and reform the acquisition process?
1. Target Affordability and Control Cost Growth

2. Incentivize Productivity & Innovation in Industry

3. Promote Real Competition

4. Improve Tradecraft in Services Acquisition

5. Reduce Non-Productive Processes and Bureaucracy
Overarching IPTs (OIPTs)
- Focus on strategic guidance, program assessment, and issue resolution

-primary role is to provide strategic guidance and to help resolve issues early, as a program proceeds through its acquisition life cycle.

-Each ACAT ID program is assigned
to an OIPT for management oversight
Integrating IPTs (IIPTs)
-Is itself a WIPT, should coordinate WIPT efforts and cover all topics not otherwise assigned to another IPT

-IIPTs are essential for ACAT ID and IAM programs, in that they facilitate OSD Staff-level program oversight and review of MDAPs and MAIS programs at the program level

-The PM may form and lead a type of WIPT called an integrating IPT (IIPT) composed of a member from each of the other WIPTs. This team supports
the development of strategies for acquisition and contracts, cost estimates, evaluation of alternatives, logistics management, cost-performance trade-offs, etc. The IIPT also coordinates the activities of the other WIPTs and ensures that issues not formally addressed by those teams are reviewed.
Working IPTs (WIPTs)
-Team of representatives from all appropriate functional disciplines working together to build successful and balanced programs, identify and resolve issues, and make sound and timely decisions. WIPTs are usually chaired by the program manager (PM), or the PMs representative, and are advisory bodies to the PM.

-are formed at the Pentagon-level military department headquarters.
Program IPTs (PIPTs)
Focus on program execution and may include representatives from both government and industry after contract award.
State the principles upon which the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) was developed?
•Describing needs in terms of capabilities, instead of systems or force elements

•Deriving needs from a Joint perspective, from a new set of joint concepts

•Having a single general or flag officer oversee each DoD functional portfolio
Describe the Capabilities-Based Assessment (CBA) process?
The CBA provides recommendations (documented in the ICD) to pursue a materiel solution to an identified capability gap that meets an established capability need. The CBA does not provide specific recommendations as to a particular
materiel solution, but rather provides a more general recommendation as to the type of materiel solution (such as
Information Technology system, incremental improvement to an existing capability, or an entirely new "breakout" or other transformational capability).
Define Key Performance Parameter (KPP), threshold values, and objective values?
-Those attributes or characteristics of a system that are considered critical or essential to the development of an effective military capability and that make a significant contribution to the characteristics of the future joint force.

-A KPP normally has a threshold representing the minimum acceptable value achievable at low-to-moderate risk, and an objective, representing the desired operational goal but at higher risk in cost, schedule, and performance-
Define Affordability in the context of Defense Weapon Systems and Business Systems?
○ Affordability can be defined as the degree to which the life-cycle cost of an acquisition program is in consonance
with the long-range modernization, force structure, and manpower plans of the individual DoD Components, as well
as for the Department as a whole.

○ Applies to all acquisition programs
Define the purpose of an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA)?
-The Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) is an important element of the defense acquisition process. An AoA is an analytical comparison of the operational effectiveness, suitability, and life-cycle cost (or total ownership cost, if applicable) of alternatives that satisfy established capability needs.

-The AoA assesses potential materiel solutions to satisfy the capability need documented in the approved Initial Capabilities Document (ICD). It focuses on identification and analysis of alternatives, measures of effectiveness (MOEs), cost, schedule, concepts of operations, and overall risk, including the sensitivity of each alternative to possible changes in key assumptions
or variables.
Explain the concept of evolutionary acquisition?
Capability to the warfighter faster, read through slides for phases
Describe the activities of each phase in the defense acquisition process?
1. Materiel Solution Analysis Phase- study is conducted to assess alternatives to provide the desired capability identified in the ICD. Emphasis on innovation and competition and on existing commercial off the shelf and other solutions drawn from
businesses. This phase ends when material solution to the capability need identified in the ICD is recommended by the lead component.

2. Technology Development- purpose of this phase is to reduce technology risk, determine the appropriate set of technologies to be integrated into a full system, and complete a preliminary design

3. Engineering and Manufacturing Development- purpose of the EMD phase is to develop a system or an increment of capability; complete full-system integration; develop an affordable and executable manufacturing process; ensure operational supportability with particular attention to minimizing the logistics footprint; implement human systems integration (HSI); design for producibility; ensure affordability; protect critical program information by implementing appropriate techniques
such as anti-tamper; and demonstrate system integration, interoperability, safety, and utility.

4. Production and Deployment Phase- purpose of this phase is to achieve an operational capability that satisfies mission needs

5. Operations and Support Phase - The purpose of the Operations and Support Phase is to execute a support program that meets materiel readiness and operational support performance requirements, and sustains the system in the most cost-effective manner over its total life cycle.
Differentiate the different Acquisition Categories?
Major Defense Acquisition Programs
- RDT&E total expenditure of more that $365M, or
- Procurement total expenditure of more than$2.190B MDA designation as special interest

- Reviewed by the DefenseAcquisition Board (DAB)

ACAT IC: Component head,or Component Acquisition Executive (CAE) (cannot be further delegated)
- Reviewed by component HQ

• Does not meet ACAT I criteria
• Major System
- RDT&E total expenditure of more than $140M, or
- Procurement total expenditure of more than $660M
• MDA designation
• CAE or the individual designated by the CAE
• Reviewed in accordance with component policy

• Does not meet ACAT II or above criteria
• Designated by the CAE at the lowest appropriate level
• Reviewed in accordance with component policy “D” refers to the Defense Acquisition Board. These programs
- a review by an office of the Secretary of Defense Overarching Integrated Product Team and the Defense
Acquisition Board.
- USD(AT&L), as the Defense Acquisition Executive, makes the final decision.
Describe how and why defense acquisition programs are separated into acquisition categories?
- One key principle of the defense acquisition system is the use of acquisition categories, where programs of increasing dollar value and management interest are subject to increasing levels of oversight.

-The most expensive programs are known as Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) or Major Automated Information System (MAIS) programs. MDAPs and MAIS programs have the most extensive statutory and regulatory reporting requirements
Describe three categories of acquisition documents?
1. Acquisition Policy Documents
a. Laws, Directives, Policies and Regulations designed to provide guidance to the PM and controls to the PM and controls to the Acquisition Process
2. Acquisition Management Documents
a. Actively used by Acquisitions Professionals to assist in the monitoring, managing and decision making
3. Acquisition Reporting Documents
a. Used Primarily by high level decisions makers to maintain visibility over high cost programs
Explain the key aspects of the Acquisition Program Baseline (APB)?
○ 1. Contract between PM and Milestone Decision Authority (MDA) documenting program performance, schedule and
cost goals
○ 2. Provides reference point for measuring program status
○ 3. Established PM’s trade space
○ 4. Define the deviation limits (threstholds) beyond with the PM may not exceed without authorization fom the MDA
Identify the reports required by the Congress to perform its oversight role over Major Defense Acquisition Programs?
○ 1. Selected Acquisition Report (SAR)
○ 2. MAIS Annual Report (MAR)
○ 3. Unit Cost Report (UCR)
○ 4. Defense Acquisition Executive Summary (DAES)
Describe significant and critical cost growth UCR breaches (Nunn-McCurdy breaches)?
Significant Breeches
1. Service Secretary must notify Congress w/in 45 days after report
2. Submit a Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) with the required additional unit cost breach information

Critical Breach
1. In addition to the the congressional notification and SAR, the USD(AT&L) must certify to congress w/in 60 days of SAR that
a. program is essential to the national Security
b. there is no alternative with will provide equal or grearter capability at less cost
c. the new estimates of the PAUC and APUC are reasonable
d. the management structure is adequate to control PAUC and APUC
If there was a Nunn-McCurdy breach in the program described in the previous two questions, which of the following would not be a consequence?
A. No new contracts could be awarded without MDA approval
B. (Answer for the quiz) The program must repeat the milestone A certification
C. An additional certification to Congress is required
D. The program must be restructured to address root causes of cost growth
Recognize the principle considerations for developing a sound acquisition strategy?
??? Tailored for EACH program
??? Structured to achieve stability by minimizing risk
Charateristics of a critical path?
- Longest path through the process
- Delays of critical path tasks delay the entire project
- Identification of the critical path helps focus management on tasks that impact project schedule.
- Minimum time to complete the project
- Just because a particular task is behind schedule, doesn’t mean that the entire project is behind schedule – must check to see if that task is in the critical path!
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