# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Midterm
Jour 3006
101
Journalism
03/10/2008

Term
 The Principle of Contrast and Affinity
Definition
 Contrast = IntensityAffinity = Less Intensity
Term
 Deep Space
Definition
 Illustration of a 3D world on a 2D screen.
Term
 Depth Cues for Deep Space (12)
Definition
 Perspective (most important!)Size DifferenceMovementTextural DiffusionAerial DiffusionShape ChangeTonal SeparationColor SeparationUp/ Down PositionOverlapFocus3D Pictures
Term
 One-Point Perspective
Definition
 The lines at the top and bottom of the plane appear to meet at a vanishing pointEg: Train tracks
Term
 Two-Point Perspective
Definition
 When the viewing position is raised/ lowered, the sides are no longer parallel.2 vanishing points: top/ bottom lines, and side lines.Eg: Looking up at the side of a building Corners of buildings Corners of roomsEnhances illusion of deep space
Term
 Three-Point Perspective
Definition
 Eg: View of a tall buildingEnhances illusion of deep space
Term
 Size Difference (Depth Cue of Deep Space)
Definition
 Farther away objects are smaller
Term
 Object Movement(Depth Cue of Deep Space)
Definition
 Objects can move parallel or perpendicular to the picture planeParallel: Single object can't create deep space, but 2+ objects moving in different planes can.Perpendicular: Single objects can create deep space
Term
 3 Camera Movements that create deep space
Definition
 Dolly: in/ out. The FG actor gets bigger faster than the BG.Track (or dolly): left/ right. FG actor passes camera faster than BG.Boom: up/down. FG actor passes more quickly to bottom of frame than BG.
Term
 Textural Diffusion(Depth cue of deep space)
Definition
 Objects showing more textural detail are closer
Term
 Aerial Diffusion(depth cue of deep space)
Definition
 Particles like dust, fog, rain, etc that obscure the BGCauses:Loss in detail and textureLowers the picture's tonal contrastChanges color of objectsFog= gray
Term
 Shape Change(depth cue of deep space)
Definition
 Apparent shape change = depthEg: windows at the top of a building are shaped differently
Term
 Tonal Separation(depth cue of deep space)
Definition
 Lighter objects appear closerDarker objects appear far away
Term
 Color Separation(depth cue of deep space)
Definition
 Warm colors = closerCool colors = farther away
Term
 Up/ Down Position(depth cue of deep space)
Definition
 objects high in the frame = far awayobjects low in the frame = closerDiagram 2 on page 41 for how horizon affects distance
Term
 Focus(depth cue of deep space)
Definition
 Blurred BG appears more distant, but the result is NOT deep space
Term
 3D Pictures(depth cue of deep space)
Definition
 parallax created by 2 screen images (one viewed by each eye)
Term
 Flat SpaceFlat Cues (10)
Definition
 Emphasizes 2D quality of screen surfaceFrontal PlanesSize ConstancyMovementTextural DiffusionAerial DiffusionTonal SeparationColor SeparationUp/ Down PositionOverlapFocus
Term
 Frontal Planesflat space
Definition
 perspective, converging lines, and vanishing points must be eliminated.frontal planes, not longitudinal ones.
Term
 Size ConstancyFlat Space
Definition
 All similarly sized objects should be the same size and on the same plane (parallel to picture plane)
Term
 Object MovementFlat Space
Definition
 Objects move parallel to picture plane
Term
 Camera Movements (3)Flat Space
Definition
 Pan: rotating the camera to the left or right of its horizontal axis.Tilt: moves the camera on a vertical axisZoom: flat space equivalent of the dolly. Enlarges everything at the same rate- no relative moving**As objects blur, they become flat.
Term
 Textural DiffusionFlat Space
Definition
 All objects must have the same amount of textural detail
Term
 Aerial DiffusionFlat Space
Definition
 Diffusion must cover up all depth cues
Term
 Shape ChangeFlat Space
Definition
 Objects should never change shape
Term
 Tonal SeparationFlat Space
Definition
 Reduction of the gray scale range (because brighter objects seem closer and dark seem farther)
Term
 Color SeparationFlat Space
Definition
 Warm/ cool range must be reduced
Term
 Up/ Down PositionFlat Space
Definition
 All objects on the same frontal plane
Term
 OverlapFlat Space
Definition
 Objects shouldn't overlap
Term
 FocusFlat Space
Definition
 Out of focus objects become flat
Term
 Reversing Depth Cues
Definition
 Switching the following turns deep space into flat:Tonal Separation (bright in BG)Color Separation (warm colors in BG)Textural Diffusion (more textural detail in BG)Size Difference (large objects in BG)
Term
 Limited Space
Definition
 Combination of deep and flat space. Uses all depth cues but 2:Longitudinal planes are replaced with flat, frontal planesPerpendicular object movement is replaced with parallel movement2-3 frontal planes
Term
 Ambiguous Space
Definition
 When the viewer is unable to understand the spatial relationshipsCreated by:Lack of movementObjects of unknown size/ shapeCamouflageMirrors/ ReflectionsDisorienting camera anglesCreates anxiety, tension, confusion.Thrillers/ horror movies
Term
 Aspect Ratio
Definition
 Ratio between width and height of a frameFilm: 1:33:1. "Full Aperture" or "Super 35" Special effects, high resolution, easy to reposition image Smaller than Full Aperture= Academy ApertureScreen: 1:85:1. Shape of picture plane and the screen. Imax and Omnimax: 65mm cameras with 70mm projectors. 1:3:1.
Term
 Surface Divider
Definition
 Anything that divides the frame into 2+ areasEg: split screen, doorway, tonal change in a wall, horizon
Term
 4 Purposes of Surface Divisions
Definition
 1. Emphasize similarities and differences2. Help direct the eye to specific areas3. Alter a picture's fixed aspect ratio4. Comment on a story situation (make a character feel trapped)
Term
 Closed Space vs Open Space
Definition
 Closed: Frame lines create closureOpen: Picture pushes past the frame lines. Achieved by: Large screens Strong visual movement 1. Random, multidirecional that fills the frame 2. Movement in or out of the frame 3. Camera movement Elimination of stationary lines
Term
 7 perceptual types of lines
Definition
 EdgeContourClosureIntersection of planesImitation through distanceAxisTrack
Term
 Edge
Definition
 Line around borders of a 2D object
Term
 Contour
Definition
 Apparent line around the border of a 3D object
Term
 Closure
Definition
 Primary points of interest in a picture (eg dots) create imaginary linesViewers connect the dots
Term
 Intersection of Planes
Definition
 When 2 planes meet, they appear to create a line
Term
 Imitation through distance
Definition
 When an object is far away and appears to be a line
Term
 Axis
Definition
 Objects have an axis through them, perceived as a line
Term
 Track
Definition
 Path of a moving objectActual or Virtual
Term
 Linear Motif
Definition
 Reducing a picture to simple lines
Term
 Line: Contrast and Affinity
Definition
 Orientation: angle of lines created by stationary objects Horizontal, vertical, diagonalDirection: angle of lines created by moving tracks 8 directions in which an object can moveQuality: linear or curvilinear Certain adjectives and emotions are associated with quality
Term
 Shape
Definition
 Basic: circle, square, equilateral triangle Shapes are only basic if its unseen sides are same as seenRound: indirect, passive, romantic, softSquare: direct, ordered, linear, adultTriangle: bold, aggressive, dynamic, angry
Term
 Tone
Definition
 Brightness of objectsDirects audience's attention
Term
 Reflective Control
Definition
 Way to control the tone in a shot.Controlling the brightness of a picture by controlling the actual reflectance value of objectsEg: dark, light, contrastyTV comedies use reflective control to solve technical problems
Term
 Incident Control
Definition
 Way to control tone of a shotControl the amount of light falling on objects
Term
 Exposure
Definition
 WAy of controlling the tone of a pictureAdjust the lens- as the f-stop is adjusted, the picture gets brighter or darker
Term
 Coincidence of Tone
Definition
 The tonal range reveals the subjectFilms, comedies
Term
 Noncoincidence of Tone
Definition
 The tonal range obscures the subjectHorror, mystery, suspense filmsMakes audience more aware of sound
Term
Definition
 Mixing colored light to produce a thirdTheatrical lighting- spotlights
Term
 Primary Colors in the additive system
Definition
 Red, Green, BlueRed+Blue= MagentaGreen+Blue= CyanRed+Green= Yellow When all three additive primaries are combined, they produce white
Term
 Subtractive System
Definition
 Mixing of pigments (paints, dyes) to produce a new colorColors subtract wavelengths from each other
Term
 Subtractive System Color Wheel
Definition
 Primary colors are magenta, yellow, cyanMagenta+Yellow= RedYellow+Cyan= GreenCyan+Magenta= BlueMixing yellow, cyan, magenta creates blackColored filters on camera lenses and gels
Term
 Hue
Definition
 Position of a color on the color wheelRedOrangeYellowGreenCyanBluePurpleMagenta
Term
 Brightness
Definition
 Value. Addition of white or black to the hue.Position of color in relation to the gray scale.
Term
 Saturation
Definition
 Purity of a hueDesaturation: saturated hue and its complementary colorWhen equal amounts of a color and its comp are mixed, they produce gray.
Term
 Warm Hues
Definition
 Red-magentaRedOrange Yellow
Term
 Cool Hues
Definition
 Blue-magentaBlueGreenCyanYellow-green
Term
 Extension
Definition
 A color's brightness and physical proportion in relation to other colors.
Term
 Surrounding a color with white or black
Definition
 White: color looks darkerBlack: color looks lighter
Term
 The Bezold Effect
Definition
 If the proportion and distribution of the black or white changes in relation to the hue, the opposite result occurs. Color surrounded by white appears lighter Color surrounded by black appears darker
Term
Definition
 A color appears brighter when placed around white and darker when placed around black
Term
 Complementary Colors
Definition
 Opposites on the color wheelWhen placed next to each other, their saturation increases
Term
 Analogous Colors
Definition
 Neighbors on the color wheelWhen placed next to each other, they appear to push apart in their position on the color wheel.
Term
 Afterimage
Definition
 After staring at one color for a while, your eyes create the complementary color- it tries to balance out and create white.
Term
 Color Scheme: Complementary Hues
Definition
 Most common is blue/orange.Each group is assigned one color.
Term
 Color Scheme:Split Complementary Hues
Definition
 Three colors: One color is split off into a pair of neighboring hues
Term
 Color Scheme:Three-Way Split
Definition
 Any three hues, usually equidistant around the color wheel
Term
 Color Scheme:Four Way Split
Definition
 4 hues, equidistant around the color wheel
Term
 Localization
Definition
 Colors photograph differently from how they look in real life
Term
 Filters
Definition
 Subtractive Used on lenses and lighting
Term
 Colors of:SunriseNoonSunset
Definition
 Sunrise: lavenderNoon: blueSunset: red
Term
 Flashing
Definition
 Film is exposed twice: once when the scene is photographed, and again in the lab.Desaturation of color, lower contrast, hue cast
Term
 Developing
Definition
 Altering the time the film is developed in the chemicalPushing: leaving photo in for a longer time. Desaturation.Bleach Bypass: adds density to darker tones, increases saturation.
Term
 Photochemical Timing
Definition
 Using clocks to control how long photo was in chemical solutions.Hue changes.Can't target one color.
Term
 Golden Section
Definition
 No 2 divisions will ever be the same size, yet they will relate back to the overall frame.
Term
 Digital Timing
Definition
 Timing done using computers.Color control
Term
 Actual Movement
Definition
 Occurs only in the real world
Term
 Apparent Movement
Definition
 When one stationary object is replaced by another, and movement is perceivedFilm, lit arrows
Term
 Induced Movement
Definition
 When a moving object transfers its movement to a nearby stationary object.Movement transfers to smaller, brighter object.
Term
 Relative Movement
Definition
 Movement of one object is gauged by its changing position to a second, stationary object.Eg movement can't be created in a desert, but it can be in a forest
Term
 Simple Movement
Definition
 2D directions: horizontal, vertical, diagonal, circular
Term
 Complex Movement
Definition
 3D movement- moving towards or away from screen.Object is moving in many different directions- eg car coming towards you, all sides are moving out.
Term
 Object Movement: Quality
Definition
 Straight or curved
Term
 Where an audience looks in a picture
Definition
 1. Movement2. Brightness3. Most saturated color4. Actors' eyes5. Object with most visual component contrast
Term
 Rhythm requires:
Definition
 AlterationRepetitionTempo
Term
 Continuum Grid
Definition
 9-area grid that indicates where the audience is looking
Term
 Ways of creating Primary Rhythm:
Definition
 1. Entering and exiting the frame2. moving in front of or behind another object3. Moving and stopping4. Changing direction
Term
 Primary Rhythm
Definition
 When an entire object moves
Term
 Secondary Rhythm
Definition
 Movement of part of an object that already generates primary rhythm
Term
 Editorial Rhythm
Definition
 When an editor makes a cut, a new rhythmic beat is produced
Term
 Story Exposition
Definition
 character, story, time period
Term
 Visual Exposition
Definition
 defines how basic visual components are used
Term
 Calculating Aspect Ratio
Definition
 Height divided by Width
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