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Midterm
Midterm
71
Geography
03/06/2012

Term
 • Scattergram
Definition
 basic graph; shows how a dependent variable responds to an independent variable in a given set of data
Term
 o Independent variable
Definition
 is always located on the x-axis
Term
 o Dependent variable
Definition
 is always located on the y-axis
Term
 o Line of best fit
Definition
 a straight line “fitted” as close to the middle of the plotted data as possible. The slope of the line of best fit describes the relationship between the independent and dependent variables
Term
 • Positive Correlation
Definition
 as the independent variable increases, the dependent variable also increases
Term
 • Negative Correlation
Definition
 As the independent variable increases, the dependent variable decreases
Term
 o If you are given F
Definition
 Celsius = .556* (F – 32)
Term
 o If you are given C
Definition
 F = (1.8*C) + 32
Term
 • Great circle:
Definition
 any circle of Earth’s circumference whose center coincides with the center of the Earth
Term
 • Small circle:
Definition
 circles whose centers do not coincide with the Earth’s center
Term
 • Latitude:
Definition
 angular or arc distance north or south of the equator (the line running east to west half-way between the poles), measured from the center of Earth
Term
 o North Pole is
Definition
 90 deg N lat
Term
 South pole is
Definition
 90 deg S lat
Term
 Tuscaloosa is
Definition
 33 deg N lat
Term
 o Line connecting all points at the same latitudinal angle is called a
Definition
 parallel
Term
  Only one parallel – the equatorial parallel – is a
Definition
 great circle
Term
 o Tropic of Cancer
Definition
 33.3 deg N
Term
 Tropic of Capricorn
Definition
 33.3 deg S
Term
 Arctic Circle
Definition
 66.3 deg N
Term
 o Antarctic Circle
Definition
 66.3 deg S
Term
 • Longitude:
Definition
 angular or arc distance east or west of a point on Earth’s surface, measured from the center of Earth (lines run north/south at right angles to the equator and to all parallels)
Term
 o A line connecting all points at the same longitude is a
Definition
 meridian
Term
  Every meridian is
Definition
 -half of a great circle that passes through the poles
Term
  Earth’s prime meridian goes through
Definition
 Greenwich, England
Term
 • To the right of 0 deg. Latitude is
Definition
 Eastern Hemisphere, to the left is Western
Term
 o International Date Line
Definition
 extends from North Pole to South poles on the opposite side of Earth from the prime meridian
Term
 o Tuscaloosa longitude
Definition
 87 deg W
Term
 • 1 deg. Of latitude =
Definition
 69 miles
Term
Definition
Term
 o Earth intercepts only ___ of the entire solar output
Definition
 one two-billionth
Term
 • The place receiving maximum insolation is the point where insolation rays are perpendicular to the surface (radiating from directly overhead), called the
Definition
 subsolar point
Term
 o All other places receive insolation at less than a 90 deg. angle and thus experience
Definition
 more diffuse energy receipts
Term
 • The traveling boundary that divides daylight and darkness is called the
Definition
 circle of illumination
Term
 o June solstice rays over
Definition
 Tropic of Cancer
Term
 December Solstice rays over
Definition
 Tropic of Capricorn
Term
 March equinox rays over
Definition
 equator
Term
 September equinox rays over
Definition
 Equator
Term
 o June solstice – Arctic Circle
Definition
 24 hours of daylight
Term
 o Dec. solstice – Antarctic Circle
Definition
 24 hours of daylight
Term
 o March equinox – Both get
Definition
 12 hours of day/dark
Term
 o September equinox – Both get
Definition
 12 hours day/dark
Term
 o Seasonal variations are a response to the changes in the Sun’s
Definition
 altitude, the angle between the horizon and the noon Sun
Term
 o The Sun’s declination
Definition
 latitude of subsolar point
Term
 o The Sun’s declination, the latitude of the subsolar point, migrates annually through
Definition
 47 deg. of latitude – between the Tropic of Cancer (23.30 deg N) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.30 deg S)
Term
 o The analemma is a
Definition
 convenient device to track the passage of the Sun’s path & declination throughout the year
Term
  A 24-hour average day determines
Definition
 mean solar time
Term
 However, an apparent solar day is based on
Definition
 observed successive passages of the Sun over a given meridian.
Term
 • Any difference between observed solar time and mean solar time is called the
Definition
 equation of time
Term
 • Calculating altitude of the noon sun
Definition
 o Sun angle = 90 deg. minus (arc distance between your latitude & subsolar point)
Term
 • Temperature:
Definition
 a measure of sensible heat energy present in the atmosphere and other media
Term
 o Principal controls & influences upon temperature patterns include
Definition
 latitude, altitude, cloud cover, land-water heating differences, ocean currents, and sea-surface temperatures, and general surface conditions.
Term
 • Temperature Profiles
Definition
 o Thermosphereo Mesosphereo Stratosphereo Troposphere
Term
 • The transition area at the top of each temperature region is named using the suffix
Definition
 pause, which means to cause change
Term
 o Thermopause –
Definition
 300 mi, 1200 deg C (2200 deg F)
Term
 o Mesopause –
Definition
 50 mi, -90 deg C (-130 deg F)
Term
 o Stratopause
Definition
 31 mi, 0 deg C (32 deg F)
Term
 o Tropopause
Definition
 11 mi, -57 deg C (-70 deg F)
Term
 • Kinetic energy:
Definition
 the energy of motion, the vibrational energy stated as “temperature”
Term
 • Sensible heat:
Definition
 temperature we can sense and measure
Term
 • What physical properties produce a temp decrease with altitude in the troposphere (at the normal lapse rate?
Definition
 Density and pressure
Term
 • Why do temps increase throughout most of the stratosphere?
Definition
 UV rays are absorbing sun's heat
Term
 • Normal Lapse Rate of temperature change with altitude is
Definition
 6.4 deg C/1000 m or 3.5 deg F/1000 ft.
Term
 • Worldwide, mountainous areas experience
Definition
 lower temperatures than do regions nearer sea level, even at similar latitudes.
Term
  More moderate temp patterns are associated with
Definition
 water bodies compared to more extreme temperatures inland.
Term
 o Marine, maritime, is used to describe
Definition
 locations that exhibit the moderating influences of the ocean, usually along coastlines or on islands.
Term
 o Continentality refers to the
Definition
 condition of areas that are less affected by the sea and therefore have a great range between max and mini temps daily and yearly.
Term
  An isoline on temp maps is known as an
Definition
 isotherm
Term
 o An isotherm connects
Definition
 points of equal temperature
Term
 o Our perception of temp is described by the terms
Definition
 apparent temp & sensible temp
Term
 o Wind-chill factor indicates the
Definition
 enhanced rate at which the body heat is lost to the air
Term
  As wind speeds increase,
Definition
 heat loss from skin increases
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