# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

midterm
slides
243
Physics
10/17/2013

Term
 AU – astronomical unit –
Definition
 1.5 x 10⁸ km – 93 million miles(distance to sun)
Term
 light yearour galaxy is about 100 light years across
Definition
 the distance light travels in one year (63,200 AU) – light travels 186,000 miles per second or 300,000 km/s
Term
 Steps of the Scientific Method
Definition
 Step 1- make an observation, pose a question or problemStep 2 – make a hypothesis (an educated guess) – should lead to new details about step 1Step 3 – experiment – hypothesis must be testable and reproducibleStep 4 – Conclusion - Results – Theory
Term
 north star
Definition
 polaris
Term
 Declination (Dec)
Definition
 similar to latitude - north or south of celestial equator (+90° to -90°)
Term
 right ascension
Definition
 similar to longitude – eastward from position of Sun at vernal equinox (0 hr – 24 hr)
Term
 changes in the north star
Definition
 Five thousand years ago, Thuban was the North Star. Five thousand years from now, the North Star will be Alpha Cephei. Seven thousand years after that, it will be Vega. Nine thousand years after that, Thuban will be the North Star again.
Term
 angular measure
Definition
 full circle contains 360 deg. 1 degree= 60' arc minutes and 1 arc minute' contains 60 arc seconds''
Term
 the same angular diameter (0.5°)
Definition
 The Sun and the Moon have
Term
 Angle is related to time by rotation:most important are 1 hour and 4 minutes
Definition
 24 hrs = 360°1 hr = 15°4 min = 1°1 min = 15΄1 sec = 15˝
Term
 Sidereal day
Definition
 Earth’s true rotation period)—the time taken for our planet to return to the same orientation in space relative to the distant stars. (the time between successive risings of a given star)
Term
 Earth’s Orbital Motion
Definition
 They are equal only once a year on Sept. 21. After that a solar day increases by 1° or 4 min everyday from a sidereal day. (so a star rises 4 minutes earlier everyday according to solar time)
Term
 the moon takes ____ days to cycle through its phases, and it makes the full 360 deg in ____ days
Definition
 29.527.3
Term
 crescent – close to new gibbous – close to full
Definition
 waxing – getting largerwaning – getting smaller
Term
 eclipses
Definition
 lunar: full moonsolar: new moon
Term
 penumbra
Definition
 the outer region of the shadow. (Partial eclipse – part of the Sun is blocked)
Term
 umbra
Definition
 the central region of the shadow. (total eclipse – all of Sun is blocked)
Term
 Why don’t eclipses happen every month
Definition
 Eclipses don’t occur every month because Earth’s and Moon’s orbits are not in the same plane. 3-dimensional
Term
 parallax
Definition
 Change in an object’s apparent position when viewed from two vantage points.Limit - 150 pc – 200 pc
Term
 The Measurement of Distance
Definition
 UnitsParallax – arc secondsDistance – parsecsp= 1/d
Term
 Mayans
Definition
 Temple at Caracol, in Mexico, has many windows that are aligned with astronomical events
Term
 Greeks knew 5 planets
Definition
 (visible to naked eye) Hermes, Aphrodite, Ares, Zeus, CronusWe know them by the Roman names: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn
Term
 planetes
Definition
 Term planet comes from___ which means wanderer in Greek
Term
Definition
 Complicated model – Introducted epicycles which accounted for retrograde motionModel lasted until 16th century
Term
 This is called heliocentric (Sun centered).
Definition
 Sun is at center of solar system. Only Moon orbits around Earth; planets orbit around Sun
Term
 heliocentric model of the solar system(copernicus)
Definition
 Much simpler – still had some epicyclesEarth spins on axis – explained seasonsAccounted for retrograde
Term
Definition
 caused when Earth passes a planet on the same side of the Sun.
Term
 Began with Copernicus and the heliocentric view
Definition
 The Birth of Modern Astronomy
Term
 Galileo
Definition
 did not invent telescopebuilt his own telescope and improved on itbelieved in Copernicus's workfirst to make observations of the sky using the telescope
Term
 tycho brahe
Definition
 He observed and collected data on Mars motion and used these results to form his own model of the solar system.
Term
 tycho brahe
Definition
 His model was hybrid of Copernican and his own work. The Moon and Sun revolved about the Earth and the shell of the fixed stars was centered on the Earth. But Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn revolved about the Sun.
Term
 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion
Definition
 consisted of three laws summarizing the motions of the planets
Term
 Kepler’s First Law
Definition
 The orbital path of the planets are elliptical with the Sun at one focus.
Term
 The Laws of Planetary Motion
Definition
 Ellipses have different eccentricities.Eccentricity (e) – measure of the flatness of an ellipse.An eccentricity a circle is 0.Earth’s orbit has an eccentricity of 0.017.
Term
 Kepler’s Second Law
Definition
 An imaginary line connecting Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.
Term
 Perihelion (perigee):
Definition
 point closest to Sun and fastest speed
Term
 Aphelion (apogee):
Definition
 point farthest from Sun and slowest speed
Term
 Kepler’s Third Law
Definition
 The square of a planet’s period (P)is proportional to cube of semimajor axis (a)
Term
 Newtonian Mechanics
Definition
 Newton is most known for his three laws of motion.We will be looking only at his law of gravity.Newton’s law of gravity showed how two objects interacted with each other gravitationally.
Term
 Newtonian Mechanics
Definition
 For two massive objects, gravitational force is proportional to the product of their masses divided by the square of the distance between them.Gravity is an inverse square law
Term
 gravity
Definition
 If the mass are equal the center of mass is in the center; if the masses are not equal the center of mass changes.Kepler did not account for this in his orbits.
Term
 Newton’s Modification of Kepler’s First Law
Definition
 The orbit of a planet around the Sun is an ellipse, with the center of mass (of the planet–Sun system) at one focus.
Term
 Newton’s Modification of Kepler’s Third Law:
Definition
 Combines the law of gravity with Kepler’s Third law to give the masses of the objects.
Term
 Copernican theory
Definition
 Earth orbits the Sun therefore the Earth should move. The measurement of parallax should prove this. Was not detected because of lack of technology at the time.
Term
 orbits closer to Sun than Earth’s : Mercury, Venus
Definition
 Inferior planets
Term
 Inferior planets
Definition
 : 2 conjunctions (appears close to Sun)Inferior Conjunction – closest to Earth (same side of the Sun)Superior Conjunction– farthest from Earth (opposite side)
Term
 Superior planets
Definition
 orbits are farther away: Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and NeptuneConjunction –farthest from Earth(on opposite of the Sun from Earth)Opposition – closest to Earth (same side of the Sun)
Term
 Inferior planets:
Definition
 Never too far from SunBrightest near inferior conjunctionRetrograde at inferior conjunction
Term
 Superior planets:
Definition
 Not tied to Sun Exhibit retrograde motion at oppositionBrightest at opposition
Term
Definition
 Transmission of energy through space as a wave with varying electric and magnetic fields without physical connection.
Term
 Wave
Definition
 Propagation of a disturbance or energy (without the physical transport of material)
Term
 Wavelength (λ)
Definition
 Distance between successive crests (units in m)
Term
 Amplitude (A
Definition
 Distance between equilibrium and crest (units in m)
Term
 Frequency (f):
Definition
 Number of wave crests that pass a given point per second (units in Hz)
Term
 Period (P)
Definition
 Time between passage of successive crests (unit in s)
Term
 Electromagnetic waves (light waves):
Definition
 Oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Changing electric field creates magnetic field, and vice versa. Electromagnetic waves need no medium.
Term
 Velocity (v)
Definition
 : Speed at which wave moves (unit is m/s) v = λ f
Term
 Blackbody Curve
Definition
 The spread of the intensity of radiation emitted by any object over all possible frequencies. Radiation emitted depends only on its temperature. (the blue line is ideal, the dotted line is actual)
Term
 Intensity
Definition
Term
 Blackbody curve
Definition
 changes with temperature; as object heats up, curve peaks at different frequency or wavelength.That is why your stove top heats up (radiates in infrared) then turns red (now radiates in the visible-red).
Term
 Wien’s Law
Definition
 Peak wavelength is inversely proportional to temperature
Term
 500 nm
Definition
 Sun’s max (peak) wavelength
Term
 Stefan - Boltzmann's Law
Definition
 Total energy emitted is proportional to fourth power of temperature
Term
 Stationary source
Definition
 waves move out in all directions. λ and f are the same.
Term
 Moving source (the doppler effect)
Definition
 waves become “bunched up” in front of the wave causing higher frequency and lower, smaller wavelengthBehind the wave – longer wavelength and smaller frequency
Term
 For sound (doppler effect)
Definition
 waves moving toward an observer, higher f – away, lower f
Term
 For light (the doppler effect)
Definition
 waves moving toward an observer, shorter λ- away, larger λ
Term
 shorter λ
Definition
 shifted toward blue part of spectrum - blue shifted
Term
 longer λ
Definition
 moving away - shifted toward red part of spectrum - red shifted
Term
 The Doppler Shift
Definition
 Unshifted – stationary object (in lab)Redshifted – moving away from usBlueshifted – moving toward us
Term
 Spectra
Definition
 – (rainbow) looking at visible light only
Term
 Spectroscope:
Definition
 Splits incoming radiation into separate wavelengths
Term
 Spectrograph or spectrometer
Definition
 complex instrument that gathers light, splits it, and has a detector.
Term
 Spectral Lines
Definition
 History:William Wollaston – First noticed solar absorption lines – 1802Joseph von Fraunhofer – studied lines 10 years later – cataloged over 600Gustav Kirchhoff – 1859 – laws governing the formation of spectra
Term
 Kirchoff's 1st law
Definition
 - Continuous spectrum - Luminous solid, liquid, or dense gas produces continuous spectrum – emit light of all wavelengths (blackbody)
Term
 Kirchoff's 2nd law
Definition
 - Emission spectrum – glowing low-density hot gas – emits specific wavelengths that are characteristic of the chemical composition. (bright lines)
Term
 Kirchoff's 3rd law
Definition
 Absorption spectrum - cool, thin gas comes between emitting object (blackbody). Atoms of the gas will absorb the same wavelengths they emit. (dark lines – negative of emission lines)
Term
 Spectral Lines
Definition
 Emission spectrum can be used to identify elements. Lines are unique to each element. (like a fingerprint)
Term
 Spectral lines
Definition
 An absorption spectrum can also be used to identify elements. These are the emission and absorption spectra of sodium. Emission and absorption spectra are the negative of each other.
Term
 1912 – Bohr’s model of the electron (classical model)
Definition
 Emission energies correspond to energy differences between allowed integer levels
Term
 Einstein - photoelectric effect – Nobel Prize 1919
Definition
 Can only be understood if light behaves like particles – a photon with a quantized amount of energy due to the frequency.
Term
 The photoelectric effect
Definition
 Increased frequency—more energetic electrons Increased intensity—more electrons, same energy
Term
 Chemical composition Temperature Rotation Magnetic field Radial velocity (shown below)
Definition
 Information that can be gleaned from spectral lines:
Term
 Spectral-Line Analysis
Definition
 Spectral lines can be broadened and have a width. This is called equivalent width. This is a result of the environment not energy levels.Line broadening can be due to a variety of causes:Thermal BroadeningDoppler EffectRotational Broadening
Term
 Zeeman Effect
Definition
 split of spectral lines due to a magnetic field.
Term
 RefractorUses lensesReflectorUses mirrors
Definition
 Two Types of Telescopes:
Term
 A lens needs two optically acceptable surfaces; mirror needs only one Some light traveling through lens is absorbed Large lens can be very heavy, and can only be supported at edge
Definition
 Modern telescopes are all reflectors. Why?
Term
 Reflector, not refractor
Definition
 If you want to buy and optical telescope:
Term
 The Keck telescope
Definition
 a modern research telescope: 10 m scope in Hawaii
Term
 The Hubble Space Telescope
Definition
 The Hubble Space Telescope’s main mirror is 2.4 m in diameter and is designed for visible, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation
Term
 Resolving power:
Definition
 distinguishing objects that are close together in the sky
Term
 Diffraction
Definition
 an intrinsic property of waves, and limits telescope resolution
Term
 Resolution
Definition
 proportional to wavelength and inversely proportional to telescope size
Term
 Photometer (detector
Definition
 measures the total amount of light received in all or part of the field of view.Light is focused on a device rather than eye.No image is usually produced, but information about intensity and how it changes over time is obtained.
Term
 Seeing
Definition
 describes the effects of turbulence of atmosphere (how well can good telescopic observations be made)
Term
 Active Optics – due to effects of mirror distortion because of movement, temperature fluctuations, and some atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive Optics - due to effects of the atmosphere.
Definition
 Techniques used to increase resolution
Term
 Active optics:
Definition
 Precise control of the mirror temperatureUse of pistons behind mirror or make minute modifications as its orientation changes.
Term
Definition
 – technique used to increase resolution by deforming the mirror to correct for the effects of the atmosphere. (mirror is not the primary, but a smaller one inserted in the light path)Tracks atmospheric changes with laser; adjust mirrors in real time.
Term
 Karl Jansky – Bell labs
Definition
 1931 – discovered static interference from specific direction in the sky – peak correlated with sideral day – not terrestrialLater found to be the center of the galaxy
Term
 Karl Jansky
Definition
 father of Radio AstronomyJansky (Jy) is the unit of intensity in radio astronomy
Term
Definition
 Similar to optical reflecting telescopes Prime focusDetector Less sensitive to imperfections (due to longer wavelength); can be made of rough material
Term
 300-m dish at Arecibo
Definition
Term
 Longer wavelength means poor angular resolution
Definition
Term
 Clouds, rain, and snow don’t interfere – λ larger than rain and snowCan observe 24 hours a day Observations at an entirely different wavelengths in radio; get totally different information
Definition
Term
 Interferometry
Definition
 Combine information from several widely spread radio telescopes as if they came from a single dish
Term
 Interferometry
Definition
 technique used to improve radio telescope resolution by combining several telescopes at the same time at the same λ
Term
 Ultraviolet observing
Definition
 must be done in space, as the atmosphere absorbs almost all ultraviolet rays.
Term
 one star (our Sun), moons, and planets. It also includes the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud objects, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. About 70,000 objects in the S.S. have diameters larger than 100 km (60 miles
Definition
 The solar system contains
Term
 Orbital period can be observed Distance from Sun known by Kepler’s laws Radius known from angular size Masses from Newton’s laws Rotation period from observations Density can be calculated knowing radius and mass
Definition
 Properties of the planets can be found using techniques we have already studied
Term
 Because the planet’s orbits are close to being in a plane, it is possible for them to appear in a straight line as viewed from Earth. This photograph was taken in April 2002.
Definition
 The Overall Layout of the Solar System
Term
 Is in orbit around the SunHas sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape Has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.
Definition
 The IAU said in a statement that the definition for a planet is now officially known as a celestial body that:
Term
 Orbits the Sun.Has enough mass to assume a nearly round shape.Has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.Is not a moon.
Definition
 According to the International Astronomical Union, which sets definitions for planetary science, a dwarf planet is a celestial body that:
Term
 Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Definition
 Terrestrial planets:
Term
 Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Definition
 Jovian planets
Term
 Only Earth has oxygen in its atmosphere and liquid water on its surface Earth and Mars spin at about the same rate and have the same tilt; Mercury is much slower and no tilt, Venus is slow and retrograde Only Earth and Mars have moons Only Earth and Mercury have magnetic fields
Definition
 Differences among the terrestrial planets:
Term
 Comets
Definition
 are icy, with some rocky partsFound in Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud
Term
 the Magellan orbiter, 1990–1994
Definition
 The most recent Venus expedition from the United States was
Term
 Spirit and OpportunitySpirit: Landed, Jan 3, 2004Opportunity: Landed, Jan 24, 2004
Definition
 Twin rovers on opposite sides of MarsWere built to last 92 days, but are still gathering info today.
Term
 The Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s moon, Titan. Cassini is still in orbit in the Saturn system gathering information.
Definition
 Cassini –Huygens mission arrived at Saturn in 2004
Term
 Giant Molecular Cloud (Nebula)
Definition
 slowly rotating collapsesAngular momentum is conserved – physics principle – states that product of radius and rotation rate must be constant.
Term
 Conservation of angular momentum:
Definition
 If a rotating object gets smaller, it will speed up.
Term
 Centripetal force
Definition
 flattens into disk shape with the matter in the plane of the disk (ecliptic)
Term
 outer planets
Definition
 – ices dominate due to temp – light elements – condensation better (low temp) – larger mass and radius – lower density
Term
 inner planets
Definition
 only metals, silicates (rock), and heavy elements could exist - poor condensation (heat) – small mass – rocky (high density) – small radius (size)
Term
 Orbital semi major axis (a) – 1 AU – 150 million kmOrbital eccentricity (e) – 0.017Perihelion – 0.98 AUAphelion – 1.02 AUMean (average) orbital speed – speed it moves around the Sun - 30 km/sOrbital inclination – 0.01°Mass – 5.98 x 10²⁴ kgRadius – 6378 kmDensity – 5520 kg/m² (highest of all the planets) ρ = M/VAxial tilt – 23.5°Magnetic tilt – 11.5°Albedo (fraction of light reflected from the Sun) – 0.37Surface Temp – 290 K – 62° FMoons – 1Surface gravity – 9.8 m/s²Escape speed – 11.2 km/sRotation period – 23.9 hours (approx. 24 hours)
Definition
 Planetary Data(earth)
Term
 Core - nickel and iron – high density A. Inner core – solid (1300 km thick) B. Outer core – liquid (2200 km thickMantle – silicates - Largest (2900 km thick) Thin crust – silicates (5 to 50 km thick)
Definition
 Overall Structure of Planet Earth
Term
 A. Lithosphere – crust and upper mantle B. Asthenosphere – mantle
Definition
 The upper part of the mantle and the crust consists of two parts:
Term
 Troposphere (0 – 12 km)
Definition
 where convection takes place—responsible for weather
Term
 Stratosphere (12 – 50 km
Definition
 2nd level of atmosphere
Term
 Ozone layer (O2)
Definition
 lies in the stratosphere (25 km); absorbs ultraviolet radiation
Term
 Mesosphere (50 – 80 km)
Definition
 3rd level of atmosphere
Term
 Ionosphere (above 80 km)
Definition
 top of atmosphere; named because particles are ionized by Sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays
Term
 Primary atmosphere was hydrogen, helium; also trace amounts of methane, ammonia, and water vapor; this escaped Earth’s gravity Secondary atmosphere, from volcanic activity, contained water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen compoundsUV light from Sun split compounds into components (sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen)Carbon and sulfur (rocks) - nitrogen and oxygen (atmosphere) – water vapor condensedLife appeared, creating most of atmospheric oxygen and ozone
Definition
 History of Earth’s atmosphere
Term
 Nitrogen (N2) – 78%Oxygen (O2) – 21%Traces of: Argon (Ar) – 0.9%Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – 0.03%Water vapor (H2O) – varies 0.1% to 3% The large amount of oxygen in our atmosphere is unique in the solar system.
Definition
 Composition - Today(earth's)
Term
 Pressure waves (P waves) are longitudinal and will travel through both liquids and solids. Shear waves (S waves) are transverse and will not travel through liquid, as liquids do not resist shear forces.
Definition
 two types of seismic waves
Term
 Earth’s MagnetosphereThe magnetopause is the boundary of the magnetosphere
Definition
 the region around the Earth where charged particles from the solar wind are trapped. Extends out 10 times the radius of the Earth
Term
 James Van Allen (1914 – 2006) – American Physicist
Definition
 These charged particles are trapped in areas called the Van Allen belts, where they spiral around the magnetic field lines
Term
 country
Definition
 Aurora borealis (Northern lights)Aurora australis (Southern lights)
Term
 Spring tides
Definition
 (Moon is full and new) the highest tides occur here
Term
 Neap tides
Definition
 (Moon is first or third quarter) the lowest tides occur here
Term
 Greatest elongation
Definition
 maximum point at which object is furthest from the Sun
Term
 fact
Definition
 Phases of Mercury can be seen best when Mercury is at its maximum elongation
Term
 Moon – 1:1Mercury – 3:2
Definition
 rotation rate for the moon and mercury
Term
 its rotation rate is the same as the time it takes to make one revolution, so the same side of the Moon always faces Earth
Definition
 Moon is tidally locked to Earth
Term
 Rather, Mercury’s day and year are in a 3:2 resonance; Mercury rotates three times while going around the Sun twice. Will never be 1:1 because of eccentricity.
Definition
 Mercury was long thought to be tidally locked to the Sun; measurements in 1965 showed this to be false.
Term
 moon
Definition
 Called Luna by the Romans (Latin) Moon is name – capitalizedDistance known by radar – parallax beforeBrightest and largest object in the sky (besides Sun)Orbits EarthSemi major axis – 384,000 kmEccentricity – 0.055Mean Orbital Speed – 1.02 km/
Term
 mercury
Definition
 has an extremely thin atmosphere and is essentially a vacuum. It can be considered as having no atmosphere.
Term
 First spacecraft to fly past Moon: January 1959 First spacecraft to (crash) land on Moon: September 1959 First pictures of far side of Moon: October 1959
Definition
 Soviets had first contact with Moon:
Term
 First person on Moon: July 1969 Last person on Moon: December 1972
Definition
 The United States is (so far) the only country to send people to the Moon:
Term
 Maria (plural of Mare
Definition
 which means seas) - dark flat areas, due to lava flow.
Term
 Regolith
Definition
 Thick layer of dust left by meteorite impacts
Term
 caloris basin
Definition
 very large impact feature; weird terrain on opposite side of planet (mercury)
Term
 fact
Definition
 Mercury is much denser –than the Moon (large metal core) and has a weak magnetic field—not well understood!
Term
 Glancing impact of Mars-sized body on the still-liquid Earth caused enough material, mostly from the mantle, to be ejected to form the Moon
Definition
 Current theory of Moon’s origin
Term
 4.6 billion yrs
Definition
 Formation of Moon; heavy bombardment liquefies surface
Term
 Venus is much brighter than Mercury, and is farther from the Sun Called morning or evening star, as it is still “tied” to Sun Brightest object in the sky, after Sun and Moon
Definition
 orbital properties of venus
Term
 venus
Definition
 Earth’s sister planet – similar in size
Term
 venus
Definition
 has a magnetic field too small to be considered
Term
 venus
Definition
 Rotation period (Sidereal): -243 days (negative means retrograde)Orbital period: 225 days
Term
 venus
Definition
 Dense atmosphere and thick clouds make surface impossible to see and make the planet the hottest in the solar system.
Term
 venus
Definition
 Surface is relatively smoothNo plate tectonicsMountains, a few craters, many volcanoes and large lava flows(planet)
Term
 fact
Definition
 volcanos in venus are mostly shield volcanos and they are active today
Term
 Carbon dioxide 96.5%Nitrogen 3.5%Trace of sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxideEarth – 90% of atmosphere lies within 10 kmVenus – 90% of atmosphere lies within 50 km90 times more massive of an atmosphere than earth
Definition
 Atmosphere Composition: of venus
Term
 venus
Definition
 is the victim of a runaway greenhouse effect—just kept getting hotter and hotter as infrared radiation is reabsorbed
Term
 venus
Definition
 No magnetic field, because rotation is so slowProbably has similar coreNo evidence for plate tectonics
Term
 mars'
Definition
 orbit is fairly eccentric which affects amount of sunlight reaching it
Term
 Tharsis
Definition
 bulge the size of north america on mars
Term
 martian surface
Definition
 Northern hemisphere (left) is rolling volcanic terrain Southern hemisphere (right) is heavily cratered highlands; average altitude 5 km above northern
Term
 Valles Marineris:
Definition
 Huge canyon, created by crustal forces mars
Term
 Olympus Mons
Definition
 Mars has largest volcano in solar system:
Term
 mars
Definition
 Much of northern hemisphere may have been ocean
Term
 martian
Definition
 Two ______ meteorites found in Antarctica show possible signs of microbial life, but evidence is disputed
Term
 mars
Definition
 atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide (95.3%), and very thin (low pressure)
Term
 As water ice froze, Mars became more and more reflective and its atmosphere thinner and thinner, freezing more and more water and eventually carbon dioxide as well.As a result, Mars may have had a thicker atmosphere and liquid water in the past, but they are now gone
Definition
 Mars may be victim of runaway greenhouse effect in the opposite sense of Venus’s:
Term
 Phobos - Fear -(left, 28 km x 20 km) Deimos – Panic - (right, 16 km x 10 km) Named for the son’s of Ares (Mars)Captured from the asteroid belt: Both have 1:1 resonance
Definition
 Mars has two tiny moons:
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Surface gravity: 2.5 times the Earth Escape speed: 5.3 times the Earth
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Fastest rate of all planets-causing rotational flattening
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Magnetic field – highest of all planets (14 times the Earth (surface))
Term
 jupiter 63
Definition
 planet with the most moons
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Great Red Spot has existed for at least 300 years, possibly much longerColor and energy source still not understood
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Composition of AtmosphereH – 86.1%He – 13.8 %Methane, ammonia, water vapor – 1%
Term
 Most of its heat is from gravitational energy slowly released from the planet’s formation.
Definition
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Central core ice and rock10,000 km thick - 2 times size of EarthHighest density of planet
Term
 jupiter's magnetic field
Definition
 Rotation of planet causes magnetic field – Similar to SunIntrinsic field strength is 20,000 times that of EarthMagnetosphere can extend beyond the orbit of Saturn
Term
 fact
Definition
 Aurora are seen on Jupiter just as they are on Earth
Term
 Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto (from closest to furthest from Jupiter)
Definition
 the four largest moons of jupiter (galilean)
Term
 Galilean moons
Definition
 have similarities to terrestrial planets – solid, density decreases as distance from Jupiter increases
Term
 Ganymede
Definition
 Largest moon in solar system – larger than the planet MercuryEarly plate tectonics – stopped 3 billion years ago – shown by grooves and ridgesDarker regions – older – original icy surface (similar to highlands on the Moon) Lighter regions – younger – not as heavily cratered (similar to maria on Moon)
Term
 ganyede
Definition
 First moon discovered to have magnetic field (1996)
Term
 Ganymede, Callisto, Io, Europa
Definition
 Galilean moons From largest to smallest moons
Term
 Jupiter
Definition
 largest planet in solar system
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Surface gravity: 2.5 times the Earth Escape speed: 5.3 times the Earth
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Fastest rate of all planets-causing rotational flattening
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Magnetic field – highest of all planets (14 times the Earth (surface))
Term
 jupiter 63
Definition
 planet with the most moons
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Great Red Spot has existed for at least 300 years, possibly much longerColor and energy source still not understood
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Composition of AtmosphereH – 86.1%He – 13.8 %Methane, ammonia, water vapor – 1%
Term
 Most of its heat is from gravitational energy slowly released from the planet’s formation.
Definition
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Central core ice and rock10,000 km thick - 2 times size of EarthHighest density of planet
Term
 jupiter's magnetic field
Definition
 Rotation of planet causes magnetic field – Similar to SunIntrinsic field strength is 20,000 times that of EarthMagnetosphere can extend beyond the orbit of Saturn
Term
 fact
Definition
 Aurora are seen on Jupiter just as they are on Earth
Term
 Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto (from closest to furthest from Jupiter)
Definition
 the four largest moons of jupiter (galilean)
Term
 Galilean moons
Definition
 have similarities to terrestrial planets – solid, density decreases as distance from Jupiter increases
Term
 Ganymede
Definition
 Largest moon in solar system – larger than the planet MercuryEarly plate tectonics – stopped 3 billion years ago – shown by grooves and ridgesDarker regions – older – original icy surface (similar to highlands on the Moon) Lighter regions – younger – not as heavily cratered (similar to maria on Moon)
Term
 ganyede
Definition
 First moon discovered to have magnetic field (1996)
Term
 Ganymede, Callisto, Io, Europa
Definition
 Galilean moons From largest to smallest moons
Term
 Jupiter
Definition
 largest planet in solar system
Term
 saturn
Definition
 Mass: 5.7 × 1026 kg (95 times Earth)Radius: 60,000 km (9.5 times Earth)Density: 700 kg/m3 (lowest of the planets) - less than water!
Term
 saturn
Definition
 Furthest planet known to Greeks Named for Kronos - god of agricultureAlso was the Titan ruler and father of Jupiter
Term
 saturn
Definition
 H – 92.4%He – 7.4%Methane – 0.2%Ammonia – 0.2%
Term
 saturn
Definition
 Details of formation are unknown: Too active to have lasted since birth of solar system Either must be continually replenished, or are the result of a catastrophic event
Term
 Roche limit
Definition
 critical distance from a gravitational body inside of which objects are pulled apart due to tidal forces.
Term
 saturn
Definition
 Six medium-sized moons (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, and Iapetus)One large moon (Titan) which is almost as large as Ganymede
Term
 titan
Definition
 Discovered by Christian Huygens in 1655.Saturn’s largest moon – 2nd largest in S.S – half the size of Earth (larger than Moon and Mercury)Titan’s atmosphere thicker and denser than Earth’s
Term
 90% - Nitrogen, 10% - Argon, traces of hydrocarbons, ethane, methane, carbon dioxide, and propanetrace chemicals in titan's atmosphere make it chemically complex
Definition
 Atmosphere composition: of titan
Term
Definition
 Active geysers Strongest evidence for liquid ocean under surface –increases odds of life in S.SMay contain organic chemicals – ingredients for lifeHow is it heated? (liquid water) Mostly radioactivity and tidal forces
Term
 venus
Definition
 The brightest object in the sky is the sun; next comes the moon. The third brightest object is a planet. Name that planet.
Term
 Planets shine by reflecting the sun's light.
Definition
 How do planets shine?
Term
 Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptunec. My Very Energetic Mom Just Sliced Up Nectarines
Definition
 Name the eight planets which go around the sun in their correct order.
Term
 Mercury has the shortest year (88 Earth days), and Neptune has the longest year (165 Earth years).
Definition
 Name the planet with the shortest year and the planet with the longest year.
Term
 Venus is the hottest, while Neptune is the coldest.
Definition
 In the solar system, which planet would be the hottest one to live on, and which planet would be the coldest one to live on?
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Which planet rotates the fastest?
Term
 Jupiter (5 rings), Saturn (7 major ring systems, totaling in excess of 100,000 individual rings and at least a half dozen minor rings), Uranus (12 rings), Neptune (6 rings)
Definition
 Name the four planets that astronomers are positive have rings around them.
Term
 Jupiter
Definition
 Which planet has the shortest day?
Term
 Venus, Earth, and Mars
Definition
 Which planets in our solar system have volcanoes on their surfaces?
Term
 Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
Definition
 Name the four hard and rocky planets in the solar system. Astronauts, if they landed on them, would be able to walk on their hard surfaces.
Term
 Mercury and Venus
Definition
 Name the two planets that have no moons.
Term
 new horizons
Definition
 Give the name of the spacecraft that is currently headed towards Pluto.
Term
 uranus
Definition
 Which planet was the first one to be discovered with a telescope?
Term
 Clyde W. Tombaugh
Definition
 Please give the name of the American who discovered Pluto.
Term
 Pluto, Eris, and Ceres
Definition
 Name two dwarf planets in our solar system.
Term
 its tail
Definition
 What makes a comet look like a comet?
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Name the only planet in the solar system to have ever experienced a major comet crash that was seen from the Earth.
Term
 Hans Lippershey (1570-1619), a Dutch optician invented the telescope in 1608.
Definition
 State the name of the person who invented the telescope
Term
 mercury
Definition
 What is the closest planet to the Sun?
Term
 saturn
Definition
 What is the name of the 2nd biggest planet in our solar system?
Term
 venus
Definition
 3. What is the hottest planet in our solar system?
Term
 sputnik
Definition
 What is the name of the first satellite sent into space?
Term
 jupiter
Definition
 Ganymede is a moon of which planet?
Term
 titan
Definition
 What is the name of Saturn’s largest moon?
Term
 mars
Definition
 Olympus Mons is a large volcanic mountain on which planet?
Term
 4.54 billion years old
Definition
 all the planets in the solar system are estimated to be
Term
 andromeda
Definition
 the ____ galaxy is both the nearest barred spiral galaxy and the most distant object that can be seen with the naked eye
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