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Midterm 2 Key Terms
Political Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional Political Studies Flashcards




Civilizations (Define + Name all 7)
A group of human beings larger than a nation but smaller than humanity. They don't strive for statehood and are made up of several nations. There are 7 civilizations according to Sam Huntington. They do not provide anything that a state provides (security, taxes, laws, etc).

1. Sinic: China, Chinese communities of SE asia, Taiwan. Confucian values.
2. Japanese: Japan. One civilization with one country. They isolated themselves from China.
3. Hindu: India, Nepal (only Hindu kingdom of the world), parts of Sri Lanka. Defined mostly by religion and way of life.
4. Islamic: Most of middle east, north Africa, and into the sub continent of Asia (Pakistan, Bangladesh), Indonesia. Some would argue that you cannot group all of these into one civilization, but Huntington does.
5. Eastern Orthodox: Centered in Russia, but also parts of Eastern Europe, Serbia, and Greece.
6. Western: Western Europe, North America (not mexico) and British Commonwealth (Australia, New Zealand)
7. Latin America: Separate from western. Spanish and portuguese influence.

Significance: According to Huntington, clashes occur not between states, but between these Civilizations. Most conflict occurs between Western, Islamic, and Sinic. There can be wars within civilizations (see Western Europe), or between civilizations (See US vs Soviet Union). In the post cold war world, main conflicts are not geographical, but cultural. The civilization paradigm predicts more wars between civilizations than within.
Fault Line Wars
Wars that occur between adjacent states of different civilizations. It is different from interstate wars because civilizations don't fit perfectly with nation states.

Significance: This ties back to Huntington's Clash of Civilizations. Wars are fought more often between civilizations than within, so when civilizations are adjacent, fault line wars are common.
Intra-civilizational wars and inter-civilizational wars
Intra: Wars within civilizations (ex: Western Europe).
Inter: Wars between civilizations.

Significance: In the post cold war world, main conflict stems from cultural differences. Therefore, most clashes, according to Huntington, are between civilizations (intra-civilizational wars). Kissinger argues that post cold war world will have at least 6 powers (US, China, Europe, Russia, Japan, and India. These powers belong to 5 different civilizations.
The West against the Rest
This is how Huntington views the world, and that clashes usually occur between one civilization and the Western (US, Europe, etc). Wars generally occur between the West and Islam or China (sinic), according to Huntington.

Significance: The west is very different from the other civilizations, and therefore clashes occur. West tries to put their ideals onto other civilizations (see big mac vs. the magna carta). Other countries don't accept our western ideologies and that leads to conflict.
Big Mac vs. the Magna Carta
Big Mac represents consumerism, pop culture, Western modernization.
Magna Carta represents laws that the West believes in.

Significance: Modernization is not the same thing as Westernization. just because other civilizations accept our consumerism and pop culture doesn't mean that they will accept our western ideologies.
Islamic states and Islamic societies
Islamic states are states that fall under the Islamic rule (Iran, Saudi Arabia, etc). islamic societies are societies that are largely muslim.

Significance: Islamic states sometimes have islamic societies in them, but not always (See turkey, Jordan, egypt, etc). Islamic civilizations however are likely to clash with western civilizations, according to Huntington.
Globalization and Globalism
Globalism is the placing of the interest of the world above national interests. Tied to cosmopolitanism.

Globalization is economic interdependence leading to the spreading of ideas, values, cultures, and norms.

Significance: Both of these lead to the spreading of norms and values and cultures between civilizations. Globalization can lead to globalism, but the two are interdependent phenomena. Friedman sees these as key factors towards uniting the world.
A type of government that gives citizens of the state an equal opportunity to express their beliefs and wills. Built on the staple of limited government, so it has limited power to intervene on personal matters. The government is accountable to the people, and the people have the ability to vote the officials out of office if they're not doing an adequate job.

Significance: Because officials can be voted out, they tend to make decisions in the best interest of the represented and are firm to their commitments (audience costs). Also, according to the democratic peace theory, a democracy will not go to war with another democracy (Democratic Dyads).
Systems of exchange. They promote trading.

Significance: You want your market to be efficient, so trading is promoted. The most efficient markets are free exchange markets. An equilibrium is reached when one can no longer be better of without making others worse off.
Through economic integration, markets can become efficient, meaning they work better and more smoothly. Efficient markets generate wealth.

Significance: Greater peace and interdependence and an efficient market are closely tied. Going to war is bad for business and corruption and war kill efficiency.
Limited government
A type of government in which no one branch has too much power. In the US and in UK, there are branches of government that have unique power with checks and balances. Also have limited ability to intervene in private matters. Free press and democracy (being able to be voted out) are seen as checks on a government in a limited government.

Significance: As the old saying goes, power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. A limited government is a main staple of democracy, making sure no one branch has too much power. It is a reason that democracies are seen as more peaceful because there isn't a corrupt leader who calls all the shots.
Democratic Dyads
The relationship between two democratic countries that is used to study the democratic peace theory.

Significance: Evidence has shown that two democratic dyads do not go to war with eachother. It promotes the democratic peace theory. Democracies don't necessarily go to war less, they just don't go to war with eachother.
United Nations
created in 1945 to replace the League of nations, it is the best known global organization. It is an international organization that aims in facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights and world peace.

Significance: It acts as sort of an overarching authority over the anarchy that is International Relations, serving and protecting the interests of its 193 members. Also promotes collective security
UN Security Council
Composed of the Big 5 (US, China, Russia, France, Britain) and 10 non-permanent members. It is in charge of promoting peace and security.

Significance: One of the branches of the United Nations, serves and protects its 193 members. If an aggressor challenged one of the members, the members would protect one another (collective security)
UN General Assembly
A broader and more popular forum in which states can talk problems out. It is a branch of the United Nations

Significance: Plays a small role in collective security. It is important for peacekeeping.
Collective Security
A way to maintain peace. The idea is that if an aggressor challenges one state, then all aligned will back the state being challenged.

Significance: Promotes peace. If you mess with one, you mess with all. It has been attempted by the League of Nations and the UN
Different from collective security. They are lightly armed, and aren't trying to scare off a violator or win a war. They have little fighting capacity, they just want to separate warring parties and create a forum for negotiations to take place.

Significance: This is a more peaceful and calm approach to International peace. However, because there are no arms, PK's effectiveness is questions. It has no self defense capacity and must have consent from both parties in order to work. Can also take a very long time.
The Zone of Peace
An area in which no warfare occurs due to it being populated by democratic dyads.

Significance: According to the democratic peace theory, two democracies (democratic dyads) don't fight eachother. The ensuing peace is called the zone of peace.
Interdependence is the idea that one country is economically invested in another. They have mutual gains from trade and when one's economy improves, so does the other.

Significance: It is one of the 3 aspects of the Kantian triangle. Because of interdependence (having a hand in the other countries cookie jar) they will not go to war. It promotes peace. This is a very liberal belief.
"audience costs" in democracies
Because people have a vote in democracies, elected officials accountable to the will of the ruled. If a leader makes a commitment or a threat, and then doesn't follow through, he will be seen as less credible and possible voted out of office.

Significance: As a result, democracies tend to follow through a lot more on their commitments.
The Kantian Triangle
The Kantian triangle is made up of three things that lead to why democracies don't fight one another.
1. Democracy (government)
2. Institutions (membership of international organizations). Democracies tend to have more membership in these.
3. Trade (interdependence). Democracies trade more with one another.

Significance; Each of these three attributes lead to peace. Everything is fully looped. It is rare to see just one of these things in two peaceful states.
From "is" to "ought"
Difference of material and ideation. Is represents what is actually the current condition, and ought represents what ideally will occur.

Significance: Eventually the oughts result in normative shift, ie, the change in norms. The ought can quickly become the is.
International Institutions
A part of the Kantian Triangle that promotes peace between democracies. The point of international law and international institutions is to help foster cooperation and well as punish defectors.

Significance: Through improved communication, trust is improved. Preferences are thus more visible, and it can reduce uncertainty you may have about another country.
Prisoners' Dilemma Game
A two player game in which each player seeks to maximize their gains. The dilemma is choosing whether to cooperate or defect. There is a table with cells, representing payoffs of whether to defect or cooperate. You don't know what the other guy is going to do

Significance: In the game, they both end up defecting, so the nash equilibrium is the bottom right corner. This model helps us understand why states make decisions they do through using cost benefit analysis.
The value of reputation
Your reputation is what you have done in the past, and how other countries view you and your decisions in the future.

Significance: This is significant in the study of IR because it helps predict how certain states will act in future situations. It is also important to other states in determining another states next move. For example, if a country has the reputation that it is a democracy, then there is a good chance they will follow through on their commitments because of audience costs.
Jus in Bello vs. Jus ad Bellum
Jus in Bello: Law of war (ie you don't nuke a country because one soldier was killed)
Jus ad Bellum: War tradition. Conditions under which war is justified.

Significance: These are norms. They are not law. As the saying goes, alls fair in love in war, but there are norms in which warfare is fought, and violating these can hurt your reputation.
Battle of Agincourt
King Henry V ordered soldiers to kill French prisoners of war because he was afraid they would turn on him if the French bested his small British army. The soldiers refused to kill the prisoners because of the ethics behind it.

Significance: This is relating to jus in bello, in that there was no real law against this but the norm of warfare is that it is unethical.
The Red Cross
A swiss banker said that everyone should be protected by international law (jus in bello) while fighting and should have access to medical care if theyre wounded. He advocated for more medical personnel on battlefields.

Significance: Related to the jus in bello law within warfare norm.
INGOs and IGOs
An NGO is a nongovernmental organization that still have a big impact in world politics. INGOs are NGOs that extend across borders and promote global interests. IGOs and governmental groups that serve the same purpose.

Significance: These groups promote peace and cooperation. Participation in them also promotes peace between countries. They rely on soft power (information, communication)
The Unipolar moment

Argument: After the cold war, the world is unipolar with the US in power and its best for the world. If unipolarity ends, the world will be in chaos. In order to prevent this, the US cannot lose power.

3 features of post cold war world: Unipolarity, isolationism (not worry about meddling in other countries affairs), threats of war increased due to rise of small aggressive states

The US can support its unipolar status. If it fails, it will be because of domestic problems (economy).

There are still threats in IR. There are rising weapon states (small states that are aggressive in warfare).

Solution: denying them technology they need to use their weapons, disarming them (taking weapons away), defending ourselves with our own weapons.


Asymmetric weapons: cannot match up with US power, but can be crafty and use their large numbers to do different things that are less expensive.
Other countries are wary of China's growing military, but depend on China economically and turn to the US for protection.

US China relationship Engagement and hedging. We interact without trying to contain them, but have power to deter them whenever we want to.

It won't be a bipolar world with china. China wants to be a regional power, due to its desire to protect the region and them knowing they cannot best the US.
Sam Huntington
Clash of Civilizations

Civilization: largest cultural group outside of humanity as a whole. Focus on culture, language, history, values

Most likely to go to war:
-adjacent states of different civilizations
-Within states of multiple civilizations
-West vs. Sinic (china) and Islamic

Friedman: Globalization will make world closer. Argues against Huntington's point saying that globalization and globalism, the spreading of cultures and norms will actually unite civilizations and make them less worried about different cultures.

Big mac vs. Magna carta
-Just because other civilizations accept western modernization, doesn't mean they will accept our norms and laws. West vs. the rest.

Weakness: Civilizations are not homogenous. They see themselves differently (ex US and Europe). Still conflicts within civilizations in this regard.

Questions the democratic peace theory: is it true or is it just that the west civilization doesn't fight eachother?
Suicide bombers and terrorists are not tended to be religiously based, but they are strategic tools to get their homeland back.

West vs. Islam and Sinic: Realists would say they should team up to balance west's power, but differences in culture will prevent them from teaming up ever.

3 issues on international agenda:
-weapons proliferation. West cannot stop this.
-human rights and democracy (other countries don't see this the same way as west). China gets away with it b/c of trade
-immigration: influx of muslims seen as threat in europe, influx of mexicans seen as threat in US.
Democratic peace theory: Democracies don't fight eachother
-not less prone to war

Democratic mechanism 1: Norms and culture: resolve disputes through political process domestically. Easy to deal and negotiate with countries who have the same political processes. New democracies are likely to go to war with others because they have unstable democratic norms.

Democratic mechanism 2: Structures and Institutions: Checks and balances are a structure. Other non democracies can act faster which forces democracies to start war. Democracies when dealing with one another have the opportunity to arrive at a negotiated settlement.

Alternative theories:
-transnational and international institutions: put in place with purpose to solve negotiations diplomatically.
-Distance prevents war, wars happen between adjacent states and democracies are few and far between.
-Alliances make peace: common interests between aligned democracies
-Wealth: democracies more likely to go to war in a recession.
-Stability: how long you are in your same political system determines your likelihood to fight

Russett believes some are true but democracy also helps explain them.
OECD: wealthy nations interdependent on each other.

Says that the invasion of Iraq under Bush Admin was bad because democratizing states are more prone to war when theyre in the process. Incomplete democratizing states are even worse

Have to obtain accountability mechanisms first before holding elections
-rights, laws, protection, etc
-democratic norms are more important to establish first than elections

Forcing democracies=more dangerous world.
Normative shift: process of changing domestic or international rules about what is acceptable behavior.
Laws have escape clauses but are also written down.
Norms have no escape clauses but there isn't real definition and punishment
(ex thou shall not kill is norm, murder is a crime)

Some laws never become norms (ex prohibition)

Normative shifts: feminism, gay marriage, equal rights

3 factors driving normative shift: institution of diplomacy, end of cold war beginning unipolarity, internet and information/communication revolution

Normative shift occurs slowly

West vs. Non-west. Western norms were similar originally, but now West has changed norms and is more likely to have conflict
Keck and Sinnick
Transnational Advocacy Networks: relevant actors working internationally on an issue and that are bound together by shared values and common discourse

Goal: they want to change behavior of states (norms)
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