# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

POLI SCI RESEARCH MIDTERM 1
MIDTERM 1
36
Political Studies
02/27/2013

Term
 Cross-tab
Definition
 tells us about association and contingency variables
Term
 What are the measure of dispersion?
Definition
 Standard deviation & variance
Term
 What are the measures of central tendency?
Definition
 MeanModeMedian
Term
 How do you describe categorical data?
Definition
 pie charts
Term
 Cross-section
Definition
 compare subjects (a lot of them) at one point in time
Term
 Theory of economic voting
Definition
 people vote based on the current economic conditions. incumbent is more likely to get reelected if the economic conditions are really good
Term
 Reliability
Definition
 degree of consistency within the results
Term
 Intervention
Definition
 Independent variable that you assign to only one group
Term
 What are the two requirements of measurement?
Definition
 1) Reliability2) Validity
Term
 Ordinal (measure)
Definition
 Measuring something with a scale/levels/degrees, like support levels
Term
 Nominal
Definition
 Measuring something with categoriesEx: Marital status, religiousYou are assigned a category
Term
 Time Series
Definition
 compare subjects over time, how trends change
Term
 Confounding variable
Definition
 It is often referred to as "z"Could make the relationship b/w X & Y spurious
Term
 What are the 4 hurdles to establish a causal relationship?
Definition
 1) is there a valid causal mechanism?2) Could Y cause X?3) Is there covariation b/w X & Y?4) Are there any confounding variable that could make the relationship spurious?
Term
 Endogeneity
Definition
 Feedback mechanism for the relationship between X&YWould mean that Y can cause X, instead of having X cause Ywhen the effect (dependent variable) could cause the cause (independent variable)
Term
 Example of experiment for voter turn-out rate?
Definition
 Get out to vote experiment
Term
 Standard deviation
Definition
 average difference b/w values of Y and the mean of Y
Term
 What are the drawbacks to experimental research designs?
Definition
 1) Not every independent variable is controllable2) Low degrees of validity bc samples of convenience3) Ethical dilemmas4) Mistake emphasis
Term
 Theory
Definition
 A tentative opinion about the causes of some phenomenon of interests
Term
 Central limit theory
Definition
 the bigger the sample is, the closer to the middle the mean will get
Term
 What are the four types of measures?
Definition
 1) nominal2) ordinal3) interval4) index
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 theoretical claim that specifies the relationship b/w the independent variable & dependent variableUsually: If, then statement
Term
 Causal story
Definition
 Relationship b/w cause and effect
Term
 What do you need when you conduct an experiment?
Definition
 1) treatment group2) control group3) intervention4) Random assignment
Term
 Experimental research design
Definition
 You have control over the intervention and the random assignment of people into groups
Term
 Standard error
Definition
 standard deviation/square root of Npopulation goes up, error goes downpopulation goes down, error goes up
Term
 Statistical inference
Definition
 Making a conclusion about the population, based on the results from a sample
Term
 Box plot
Definition
 5 number summaryMinimumQ1MedianQ3Maximum
Term
 Scatterplot
Definition
 Has two different variables, one along the horizontal axis, and one along the vertical axis
Term
 Histograms
Definition
 Shows the frequency of a variable in bars on a graph
Term
 Interval (measures)
Definition
 Measures exact differenceExample: age & height
Term
 Index
Definition
 Aggregation of various componentsExample: measuring democracy
Term
 What are the two types of descriptive stats?
Definition
 NumericalGraphical
Term
 Law of large number
Definition
 the larger the sample is, the better
Term
 Validity
Definition
 Reflection of intended characteristics
Term
 Variance
Definition