Term

Definition
tells us about association and contingency variables 


Term
What are the measure of dispersion? 

Definition
Standard deviation & variance 


Term
What are the measures of central tendency? 

Definition


Term
How do you describe categorical data? 

Definition


Term

Definition
compare subjects (a lot of them) at one point in time 


Term
Theory of economic voting 

Definition
people vote based on the current economic conditions. incumbent is more likely to get reelected if the economic conditions are really good 


Term

Definition
degree of consistency within the results 


Term

Definition
Independent variable that you assign to only one group 


Term
What are the two requirements of measurement? 

Definition
1) Reliability 2) Validity 


Term

Definition
Measuring something with a scale/levels/degrees, like support levels 


Term

Definition
Measuring something with categories
Ex: Marital status, religious
You are assigned a category 


Term

Definition
compare subjects over time, how trends change 


Term

Definition
It is often referred to as "z"
Could make the relationship b/w X & Y spurious 


Term
What are the 4 hurdles to establish a causal relationship? 

Definition
1) is there a valid causal mechanism? 2) Could Y cause X? 3) Is there covariation b/w X & Y? 4) Are there any confounding variable that could make the relationship spurious? 


Term

Definition
Feedback mechanism for the relationship between X&Y
Would mean that Y can cause X, instead of having X cause Y
when the effect (dependent variable) could cause the cause (independent variable) 


Term
Example of experiment for voter turnout rate? 

Definition
Get out to vote experiment 


Term

Definition
average difference b/w values of Y and the mean of Y 


Term
What are the drawbacks to experimental research designs? 

Definition
1) Not every independent variable is controllable 2) Low degrees of validity bc samples of convenience 3) Ethical dilemmas 4) Mistake emphasis 


Term

Definition
A tentative opinion about the causes of some phenomenon of interests 


Term

Definition
the bigger the sample is, the closer to the middle the mean will get 


Term
What are the four types of measures? 

Definition
1) nominal 2) ordinal 3) interval 4) index 


Term

Definition
theoretical claim that specifies the relationship b/w the independent variable & dependent variable
Usually: If, then statement 


Term

Definition
Relationship b/w cause and effect 


Term
What do you need when you conduct an experiment? 

Definition
1) treatment group 2) control group 3) intervention 4) Random assignment 


Term
Experimental research design 

Definition
You have control over the intervention and the random assignment of people into groups 


Term

Definition
standard deviation/square root of N
population goes up, error goes down population goes down, error goes up 


Term

Definition
Making a conclusion about the population, based on the results from a sample 


Term

Definition
5 number summary Minimum Q1 Median Q3 Maximum 


Term

Definition
Has two different variables, one along the horizontal axis, and one along the vertical axis 


Term

Definition
Shows the frequency of a variable in bars on a graph 


Term

Definition
Measures exact difference
Example: age & height 


Term

Definition
Aggregation of various components
Example: measuring democracy 


Term
What are the two types of descriptive stats? 

Definition


Term

Definition
the larger the sample is, the better 


Term

Definition
Reflection of intended characteristics 


Term

Definition
shear spread around the mean 

