# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

mid term physical science review GMHS
mid term review
74
Science
01/27/2010

Term
 Pure Science
Definition
 Research simply for the sake of research or "the search for new information"
Term
 Applied Science (technology)
Definition
 involves actually using science to improve the technology around us and ease everyday life
Term
 Steps of the scientific method
Definition
 1. State the question 2. Collect information 3. Form a hypothesis 4. Test the hypothesis 5. Observe the results 6. Record the data 7. Analyze the data 8. Form a conclusion
Term
 Independent (manipulated) variable
Definition
 The variable in an experiment that you change. There can only be ONE independent variable.
Term
 Dependent (responding) variable
Definition
 The factor in an experiment you are measuring as a result of changing the independent variable.
Term
 Valid scientific experiment
Definition
 valid experimental set up valid experimental subjects (One independent variable, one measurable dependent variable and all other variables kept constant)
Term
 Controls
Definition
 the group in an experiment that is used as a standard for comparison. In this group no variables get changed.
Term
 Constants
Definition
 all the other variables in an experiment that remain unchanged
Term
 When graphing what do you put of the:- x-axis- y-axis
Definition
 Independent goes on the x-axisDependent goes on the y-axis
Term
 Uses of line graphs vs. bar graphs
Definition
 line graph- two quantitative variablesbar graph- one qualitative and one quantitative variable
Term
 Distance
Definition
 Total distance the object has traveled
Term
 Displacement
Definition
 How far the object is from its original position
Term
 velocity
Definition
 the amount of distance traveled in a specific amount of time plus a direction (vector quantity)
Term
 Speed
Definition
 the amount of distance traveled in a specific amount of time (scalar quantity so abosolute value of velocity)
Term
 equation for speed
Definition
 s = d/t
Term
 acceleration
Definition
 the rate of change in an objects velocity
Term
 equation of acceleration
Definition
 a = (Vf-Vi)/t
Term
 what must take place for acceleration to occur
Definition
 - change in direction - speeding up - slowing down
Term
 units for speed, distance and acceleration
Definition
 speed- m/s distance- m acceleration- m/s2
Term
 Force
Definition
 the push or pull one object exerts on another
Term
 balanced and unbalanced forces?? (still dont really get this one)
Definition
 balanced- the net force on the object is 0 unbalanced- the net force on the object is more or less than 0
Term
 inertia
Definition
 the tendency of objects to resist any change in motion
Term
 gravity
Definition
 the attractive force of one object on another that exists everywhere that matter exists (holds us down to the earth)
Term
 mass
Definition
 how much matter an object contains
Term
 weight
Definition
 the measure of the force of gravity on an objects mass
Term
 acceleration due to gravity on earth
Definition
 9.8 m/s2
Term
 Newton's first law
Definition
 An object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force
Term
 Newton's second law
Definition
 the acceleration of an object is related to the net force acting on it and the mass of the object
Term
 Newton's third law
Definition
 For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Term
 Newton's law of Universal Gravitation
Definition
 Any two objects exert a gravitational force of attraction on eachother
Term
 terminal velocity
Definition
 when an object stops accelerating due to the force of gravity equaling the air resistance because of the increase in velocity as the object falls
Term
 air resistance
Definition
 the force which air molecules exert upon a moving object
Term
 Friction
Definition
 a force that opposes motion between two touching surfaces
Term
 momentum
Definition
 the quantity of motion that an object has because of its mass and velocity (kgm/s)
Term
 Law of conservation of momentum
Definition
 the total momentum of a group of objects does not change unless outside forces (usually friction) act upon the objects
Term
 energy
Definition
 the ability to do work or cause change
Term
 1 form of energy
Definition
 electrical energy- the energy of charged attraction (energy we get from a household circuit)
Term
 2 form of energy
Definition
 magnetic energy- the energy of polar attraction (magnet picking up "magnetic substances)
Term
 3 form of energy
Definition
 mechanicle energy- the energy of machines doing work (a turning motor)
Term
 4 form of energy
Definition
 heat (thermal) energy- the energy of burning calories, usually noticed through changes in temperature (warming a cup of water until the water undergoes a phase change)
Term
 5 form of energy
Definition
 light (radiant) energy- the energy radiating from waves (UV rays from the sun give off light energy)
Term
 6 form of energy
Definition
 chemical energy- the energy of breaking bonds in chemical reactions (a battery that turns a chemical reaction inside itself into energy)
Term
 7 form of energy
Definition
 nuclear energy- the energy of atomic reactions in the nucleus of the atoms (radioactive decay like at nuclear power plants)
Term
 8 form of energy
Definition
 gravitational energy- the energy from using the pull of gravity (water from a waterfall)
Term
 kinetic energy
Definition
 the energy of motion
Term
 potential energy
Definition
 the energy of position
Term
 factors that affect kinetic energy
Definition
 mass and velocity
Term
 factors that affect potential energy
Definition
 mass, gravity and height
Term
 law of conservation of energy
Definition
 in a closed system, all energy is conserved (the energy is transferred)
Term
 work
Definition
 the amount of energy required to move an object a certain distance with a specific force
Term
 machine
Definition
 any device that makes work easier
Term
 the six simple machines
Definition
 - wheel and axel - screw - lever - pulley - wedge - inclined plane
Term
Definition
Term
 three types of levers
Definition
 first class lever- the fulcrum is located in between the resistance arm and the effort arm second class lever- the resistance is located between the effort force and the fulcrum third class lever- the effort force is located in between the fulcrum and the resistance
Term
 how does work input compare to work output???
Definition
 work output will always be less than work input due to friction
Term
 waves
Definition
 a disturbance that transfers energy
Term
 how are waves created
Definition
 when a source of energy causes a vibration in a medium
Term
 three types of waves
Definition
 - longitudinal - transverse - surface
Term
 four characteristics of waves
Definition
 - amplitude - frequency - speed - wavelength
Term
 longitudinal waves
Definition
 waves whose mediums move the same direction as overall wave travel
Term
 transverse
Definition
 waves whose mediums travel perpendicualr to overall wave travel
Term
 what type of waves are sound waves
Definition
 longitudinal
Term
 factors that affect the speed of sound
Definition
 - elaticity - density - temperature
Term
 pitch
Definition
 how high or low the sound appears to our ears - affected by frequency
Term
 intensity
Definition
 how much of a mediums vibrations pass in a given time - affected by amplitude
Term
 reflection
Definition
 when a wave hits a surface that it cannot pass through and bounces back
Term
 refraction
Definition
 the bending of a wave due to change in speed
Term
 diffraction
Definition
 the bending of waves due to an obstacle in its path
Term
 constructive interference
Definition
 crests aline with crests and troughs with troughs so amplitudes combine to be greater than the original amplitude
Term
 destructive interference
Definition
 troughs aline with crests and crests with troughs so amplitudes cancel eacthother out
Term
 electromagnetic waves
Definition
 waves that carry energy without requiring a medium  are created by changing electrical and magnetic feilds
Term
 what type of waves are EM
Definition
 transverse
Term
 what is the speed of EM waves in a vacuum
Definition
 300,000,000 m/s
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