# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

MGT 325: Exam 2
Chapters 3 and 4: SPC and Product Design
77
Management
09/21/2014

Term
 Statistical process control (SPC)
Definition
 Involves monitoring the production process to detect and prevent poor quality; statistical procedure using control charts to see if any part of a production process is not functioning properly
Term
 True or False:Employee training in SPC is not a fundamental principle of TQM.
Definition
 False
Term
 Sample
Definition
 A subset of the items produced to use for inspection
Term
 All processes have variability - __________ and ___________.
Definition
 random; nonrandom
Term
 ___________ variability is identifiable and correctable.
Definition
 Nonrandom
Term
 SPC is a tool for identifying problems in order to ________________________.
Definition
 make improvements
Term
 Attribute
Definition
 A product characteristic that can be evaluated with a discrete response (good/bad, yes/no); qualitative
Term
 Variable measure
Definition
 A product characteristic that is continuous and can be measured (weight, length); quantitative
Term
 A ______________ is a failure to meet customer requirements.
Definition
 service defect
Term
 Control chart
Definition
 A graph that establishes the control limits of a process
Term
 Control limits
Definition
 The upper and lower bands of a control chart
Term
 What are the four types of commonly used control charts?
Definition
 • p-charts• c-charts• mean charts• range charts
Term
 What are the attribute control charts?
Definition
 • p-charts• c-charts
Term
 What are the variable control charts?
Definition
 • mean charts• range charts
Term
 Sigma limits are:
Definition
 the number of standard deviations.
Term
 True or False:A sample point can be within the control limits and the process still be out of control.
Definition
 True
Term
 p-chart
Definition
 Uses the proportion defective in a sample
Term
 c-chart
Definition
 Uses the number of defective items in a sample
Term
 A c-chart is used when:
Definition
 it is not possible to compute a proportion defective and the actual number of defects must be used.
Term
 Range (R-) chart
Definition
 Uses the amount of dispersion in a sample
Term
 Mean (x-bar) chart
Definition
 Uses the process average of a sample
Term
 Range
Definition
 The difference between the smallest and largest values in a sample; reflects the process variability
Term
 True or False:Both the process average and variability must be in control.
Definition
 True
Term
 A _________ can indicate and out-of-control process even if sample values are within control limits.
Definition
 pattern
Term
 Run
Definition
 A sequence of sample values that display the same characteristic
Term
 Pattern test
Definition
 Determines if the observations within the limits of a control chart display a nonrandom pattern
Term
 What are the general guidelines associated with the zones for identifying patterns in a control chart?
Definition
 • eight consecutive points on one side of the center line• eight consecutive points up or down• 14 points alternating up or down• two out of three consecutive points in zone a• four out of five consecutive points in zone a or B on one side of the centerline
Term
 Attribute charts require ________ sample sizes.
Definition
 larger
Term
 Variable charts require _________ sample sizes.
Definition
 smaller
Term
 Tolerances
Definition
 Design specifications reflecting product requirements
Term
 Process capability
Definition
 The range of natural variability in a process; what we measure with control charts
Term
 If the natural variability in a process exceeds tolerances:
Definition
 the process cannot meet design specifications.
Term
 In 6-sigma quality, we have ____ defective PPM, or _____ defects.
Definition
 3.4; zero
Term
 What is the difference between attribute control charts and variable control charts?
Definition
 Attribute charts use discrete values. Variable charts use continuous values.
Term
 What is the purpose of a pattern test?
Definition
 To identify if the observations within the limits are showing a nonrandom pattern
Term
 What determines the width of the control limits in a process chart?
Definition
 The limits are based on a number of standard deviations (z) from the process average according to a normal distribution. The smaller the value of z, the more narrow the control limits are.
Term
 Under what circumstances should a c-chart be used instead of a p-chart?
Definition
 If the proportion defective in a process cannot be determined (i,e., blemishes on a car)
Term
 What is the difference between tolerances and control limits?
Definition
 Tolerances are design specs and are externally imposed by designers. Control limits are a statistical measure of the production process and reflect process variability.
Term
 Why have companies traditionally used control charts with 3-sigma limits instead of 2-sigma limits?
Definition
 With wider limits, management is less likely to conclude that the process is out of control when points outside of the limits are due to normal, random variations.
Term
 Design can provide a _________________ by bringing new ideas to the market quickly.
Definition
 competitive edge
Term
 Perceptual map
Definition
 Visual method of comparing customer perceptions of different products or services
Term
 Benchmarking
Definition
 Comparing a product or process against the best-in-class product
Term
 Reverse engineering
Definition
 Carefully dismantling a competitor's product to improve your own product
Term
 A feasibility study consists of:
Definition
 A market analysis, an economic analysis, and a technical/strategic analysis.
Term
 Market analysis
Definition
 Assesses whether there's enough demand for the proposed product to invest in developing it further
Term
 Economic analysis
Definition
 Looks at estimates of production and development costs and compares them to estimated sales volume
Term
 Rapid prototyping
Definition
 Creating, testing, and revising a preliminary design model
Term
 Concurrent design
Definition
 A new approach to design that involves the simultaneous design of products and processes by design teams
Term
 Form design
Definition
 How the product will look
Term
 Functional design
Definition
 How the product will perform; performance characteristics considered during this phase of design or reliability, maintainability, and usability
Term
 Reliability
Definition
 The probability that a product will perform its intended function for a specified period of time
Term
 Maintainability
Definition
 The ease with which a product is maintained or repaired
Term
 MTBF
Definition
 Mean time between failures
Term
 MTTR
Definition
 Mean time to repair
Term
 Usability
Definition
 Ease-of-use of a product or service
Term
 Production design
Definition
 How the product will be made
Term
 Simplification
Definition
 Reduces the number of parts, assemblies, or options in a product
Term
 Standardization
Definition
 When commonly available and interchangeable parts are used
Term
 Modular design
Definition
 Combines standardized building blocks, or modules, to create unique finished products
Term
 Design for manufacture (DFM)
Definition
 Designing a product so that it can be produced easily and economically
Term
Definition
 Assists in the creation, modification, and analysis of a design
Term
 Computer aided engineering (CAE)
Definition
 A software system that tests and analyzes designs on the computer screen
Term
Definition
 The ultimate design to manufacture connection
Term
 CAD and its related technologies produce _______ designs _______.
Definition
 better; faster
Term
 Product lifecycle management (PLM)
Definition
 Managing the entire lifecycle of a product; storing, retrieving, and updating design data from the product concept through manufacturing, revision, service, and retirement of the product
Term
 Collaborative product design (CPD)
Definition
 A software system for collaborative design and development among trading partners
Term
 Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
Definition
 Systematic method of analyzing product failures; objective is to anticipate failures and prevent them from occurring
Term
 Fault tree analysis (FTA)
Definition
 Visual method for analyzing the interrelationships among failures
Term
 Value analysis (VA)
Definition
 A procedure for eliminating unnecessary features and functions
Term
 Extended producer responsibility (EPR)
Definition
 When companies are held responsible for their product even after its useful life
Term
 Eco-labeling
Definition
 A seal of approval for environmentally safe products
Term
 Carbon footprint
Definition
 A measure of greenhouse gases
Term
 Sustainability
Definition
 Meeting present needs without compromising future generations
Term
 Design for environment (DFE)
Definition
 Designing a product from material that can be recycled or easily repaired rather than discarded
Term
 Quality function deployment (QFD)
Definition
 Translates the voice of the customer into technical design requirements
Term
 Robust design
Definition
 Yields a product or service designed to withstand variations
Term
 Tolerances
Definition
 Allowable ranges of variation
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