Shared Flashcard Set


MGMT 310A Exam 4 UA
Exam 4
Undergraduate 3

Additional Management Flashcards




7 Components of Organizational Structure
  1. Innovation and risk taking- employees encouraged to be innovative and take risks
  2. Attention to detail- employees expected to exhibit precision, analysis and attetion to detail
  3. Outcome orientation- management focuses on results rather than process to get there
  4. People orientation- management decisions take into account who is affected by it 
  5. Team orientation- work activities are organized around teams 
  6. Aggressiveness- people are aggressive and competitive
  7. Stability- organizational activities emphasize maintaining status quoin contrast to growth 
Organizational Culture
A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations
Dominant vs. Sub Culture
Dominant Culture- culture that expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization's members
Subculture- minicultures within organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation
Core Values
The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization
Strong vs Weak Culture
  • Strong culture is when most employees have the same opinions about the oganization's mission and values, if opinions vary widely, then culture is weak
  • Strong culture= a culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared
Functions of Culture
  • boundary defining role
  • conveys sense of identity for organizations members
  • facilitates committment to something larger than individual self-interest
  • enhances stability of the social system
  • guides and shapes employees attitudes
Organizational Climate
Shared perceptions organizational members have about  their organization and work environment
  • institutionalization= a condition that occurs when an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, and acquires immortality 
How Culture is Created
  • Founders hire and keep only employees who think and feel the same way they do
  • Founders indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling
  • Founders' own behavior encourages employees to identify with them and internalize their beliefs, values, and assumptions
How to Maintain Culture
  • Selection practices= picking people that will perform successfully but also fit in with the organization & its values
  • Actions of the top management= executives establish norms that filter through the organization 
  • Socialization methods= process that adapts new employees to the organization's culture 
Socialization Process Stages
  • Prearrival stage= learning period that occurs before new employee joins organization
  • Encounter stage= new employee sees what prganization is actually like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge
  • Metamorphasis stage= new employee changes and adjusts to the job, work group, and organization
  • Types: narratives of founders, rule breaking, rags-to-riches successes, reactions to past mistakes, etc
  • Stories can inspire employees to be even more committed to organization and can establish culture
  • repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization, which goals are most important, which people are important, and which are expendable
Material Symbols
  • what conveys to employees who is important, the degree of egalitarianism top management desires, and the kinds of behavior that are appropriate
  • used to help members identify with the culture, attest to thei acceptance of it, and help preserve it
Positive Organizational Culture
  • culture that emphasizes building on employee strengths, rewards more than punishes, and emphasizes individul vitality and growth
Core Purpose
  • the fundamental reasoning behind the core values
Selection Process
  1. Initial Selection= basic qualifications must be met based on application and background checks 
  2. Substantive Selection= determines more qualified person through written tests, performance tests, and interviews  
  3. Contingent Selection= most qualified may take drug test or have another background check before offering the job
Training Types
  • Basic Skills= basic reading and math skills 
  • Technical Skills= skills more tailored to specific work demanded
  • Problem-Solving Skill= sharpen their logic, reasoning, problem-defining skills, as well as assess causation, select solutions, and analyze & develop alternatives
  • Interpersonal Skills= improve listening, communicating, and team-building
  • Civility Training= be civil and show respect to coworkers, and dont undermine management
  • Ethics Training= be ethical 
Training Methods
  • informal training= unstructured, unplanned, and easily adapted to situation and individuals 
  • formal training= planned in advance and having a structured format
  • on-the-job= job rotations, apprenticeships, understudy
  • off-the-job= seminars, self-study programs
  • e-training= online quizzes, group discussions, simulations
Assessing Performance
  1. Task Performance= fulfilling tasks in job description
  2. Citizenship= helping others when not required
  3. Counterproductivity= not engaging in actions to damage organization 
Management Evaluates What?
  1. Individual Task Outcome= evaluating results
  2. Behaviors= evaluating employees performance throughout doing work
  3. Traits= evaluating qualities employees have 
Methods of Performance Evaluation
  • Written Essays= narative describing an employees strengths, weaknesses, performance, suggestions for improvement, also writing skill of paper is assessed
  • Critical Incidents= describing incidents where employee was effect and ineffective 
  • Graphic Rating Scales= rating aspects by giving a number by evaluator 1-5
  • Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)= employees evaluated on a scale but points are examples of actual behavior on the given job 
  • Forced Comparisons= evaluated based on comparing one employees work to anothers 
Forced Comparison Types
  • group order ranking= evaluator places employees into a particular classification , like top 1/5 percentage
  • individual ranking= evaluator places employees from worst to best
Methods to Improve Evaluations
  • Use Multiple Evaluators
  • Evaluate Selectively 
  • Train Evaluators 
  • Provide Employees with due process
6 Forces for Change
  • Workforce= aging population, immigration, outsourcing, cultural diversity
  • Technology= faster, cheaper, more computers and handheld devices, growing social netwroks
  • Economic Shocks= global recession, financial sector collapse, rise and fall of global housing market
  • Competition= global competitors, mergers, increased gov regulations
  • Social Trends= increased enivronmental awareness, more multitasking and connectivity, changing attitudes toward gay employees
  • World Politics= rising health care costs, openning markets in China, negative attitudes toward business
Types of Cultures
  • clans= collaborative & cohesive
  • adhocracy= innovative & adaptable
  • heirarchy= controlled & consistent
  • market= competitive & customer focus
In-class activities
  • Michael Tompkins= Owns Kenyan Ranch
  • offered to open up casinos, made millions, but quit because he got too unhealthy
  • Lecture Title: Echoing Passion
  • About work/life Balance
  • Dr. G's rap
Planned Change
  • change= making things different. reactive to when something occurs
  • planned change= activities that are intentional and goal oriented. deliberate change to adopt new strategy, or change to business process. Proactive and part of business plan
  • Change agents= persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities
Goals of planned change
  • imporving the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment
  • changing the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization
Forms of resistance to change
  • overt, implicit, immediate, or deffered
  • overt and immediate resistance: easy to deal with such as work slowdown, complaints, or strike threat
  • implicit or deffered resistance: hardest to deal with such as loss of loyalty or motivation, increased errors or absenteeism 
Companies mentioned in Ch 16
  • Southwest- look at persoanlity characteristics and personal values when searching employees 
  • Nike- Stories and its effects on culture
  • Disney- core purpose is to make people happy
  • Nordstrom- employees know what is expected of them and these expectations shape their behavior
Individual Sources for Resistance to change
  • habit
  • security
  • economic factors
  • fear of the unknown
  • selective information processing
Organizational Sources of resistance to change
  • structural inertia
  • limited focus of change
  • group inertia
  • threat to expertise 
  • threat to established power relationships
8 ways of overcoming resistance to change
  • education and communication= making sure employees are full knowledgeable of change and that it is communicated properly
  • participation= people's resistance drops if they are involved in the change decision
  • building support and commitment= committed employees due fine with change, and offering paid leave or therapy, or new training skills can help anxiety
  • develop positive relationships= managers establishing trust with employees lowers resistance
  • implenting change fairly= making sure when change is implemented it is perceived fair
  • manipulation and cooptation= manipulating employees to stop resisting change lke fake threats to fire people, or finding the leader of group against change and "buy them off"
  • Selecting people who accept change= hiring people who accept change and are open to experience
  • Coercion= applying direct force or threats to resisters like real threats to fire people
Lewin's 3 step model of the change process
  • Unfreeze status quo
  • Movement to a desired end state
  • Refreezing the new change to make it permanent
3 ways to Unfreeze status quo in Lewins 3-step model
  • driving forces= direct behavior away from staus quo
  • restraining forces= hinder movement away from equilibrium 
  1. Driving forces must increase
  2. Restraining forces must decrease
  3. combine first 2 approaches 
Kotters 8 step plan
  • Steps 1-4 unfreeze status quo
  • Steps 5-7 move towards new end states
  • Step 8 is refreezing
Action research
  • change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicates
Action research 5 steps
  • change agent diagnosis by researching records, asking questions 
  • agent analyzes information found to show problem areas and possible actions 
  • feedback is then given from employees after seeing information and develop action plans for change
  • then action is taken to enforce change on the probem
  • finally evaluation of action plans effectiveness is done
Organizational development and underlying values
  • collection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being
  1. Respect for people= treated with dignity and respect
  2. trust and support= organization is characterized as trusting, authentic, supportive, and open
  3. power equalization= nonhierarchial authority and control
  4. confrontation= problems opennly confronted
  5. participation= more involvement of people in change 
OD techniques
  • sensitivity training= training groups that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction
  • survey feedback= use of questionairres to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows, and remedies are suggested
  • process consultation= meeting in which a consultant assists a client in understanding process events with which he or she must deal and identifying processes that need improvement 
  • team building= high interaction among team members to increase trust and openness
  • intergroup develpoment= OD efforts to change attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other
  • appreciative inquiry= approach that finds organizations strength, speculates future, common vision of future & strength, then design plan to reach future
How organizations can use culture for change
  • creating learning organization
  • stimulating innovative culture 
Stimulating Innovative culture
  • innovation= a new idea applied to initiating or imroving a product, process, or service
  • sources of innovation include:
  1. Having organic structure in organization
  2. long tenure in management 
  3. abundance of resources to afford to purchase innovations, bear the cost of instituting them, and absorb failures
  4. high use of committees, task forces, cross functional teams
  • idea champions= people who enthusiastically promote new ideas to build support for implementation
Creating a learning organization
  • an organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change
  • single loop learning= process of correcting errors using past routines and present policies (most organizations)
  • double loop learning= process of correcting errors by modifying the organization's objectives, policies, and standard routines (learning organizations) 
3 fundamental problems of traditional organizations
  • fragmentation= walls created by separating different functions into independent operations
  • competition= undermines collaboration amongst managers, departments, and team managers
  • reactiveness= misdirects managements attention to problem solving rather than creation
Managing Learning
  • establish strategy= management established comitment to continuous improvement 
  • redesign organization's structure= combining departments and increasing use of corss functional teams reinforces interdependence & reduces boundaries
  • reshape organization's culture= encourage people to take risks and admit failures
Stress & Stressors
  • unpleasant psychological process that occurs in response to environmental pressures
  • challenge stressors= stressors associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency
  • hindrance stressors= stressors that keep you from reaching your goals 
  • stress is typically associated with demands (responsibilites, pressures) and resources (control to resolve demands)
Sources of Stress
  • Environemental Factors include:
  1. economic uncertainties= bad economy makes people worried about job security
  2. political uncertainties= if political system is poor then stress occurs
  3. technological uncertainties= technology becoming more advance threatens peoples jobs 
  • Organizational Factors include:
  1. Task demands= design of job, working conditions
  2. Role demands= pressures from expectations based on role in company
  3. Interpersonal Demands= pressures from other employees
  • Personal Factors include family issues, personal economic problems, inherent personality characteristics
Individual differences with stress
  • perception= employees interpretation of situations can effect how they react
  • experience= the longer youve been on the job, the little that stresses you out
  • social support= good collegial relationships can help with the reaction to stress
  • personality= neurotics are more prone to freak out and look for stressors, workaholics are strained if work becomes too heavy
Consequences of Stress
  • physiological symptoms= stress can affect metabolism, increase heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure, induce heart attacks and headaches
  • psychological symptoms= stress can create job dissatisfaction, anxiety, tension, irritability, boredom, and procrastination
  • behavioral symptoms= stress can create reductions in productivity, absence, and turnover, changes in eating habits, increased drinking and smoking, rapid speech, fidgetoing, and sleep disorders
Individual Approches to Managing Stress
  • developing time-management skills
  • increasing physical exercise
  • participating in relaxation training
  • expanding social support networks
Organizational Approach to Managing Stress
  • improving employee selection and job placement
  • training employees 
  • realistic goal setting
  • redesign of jobs
  • increasing employee involvement
  • improving organizational communication
  • employee sabbaticals (extended voluntary leaves for travel or relaxation)
  • corporate wellness programs= programs for employees mental and physical health 
How Employees Learn Culture
  • Stories
  • Rituals 
  • Material Symbols
  • Language
5 Steps to Work/Life Balance
  1. Identify Priorities
  2. Set Goals 
  3. Assess the Present
  4. Make and Take Action Plans
  5. Evaluate the Results
Step 1: Identifying Priorities
  • Knowing life priorities can prevent work/life conflict and know what is important to you
  • Value Questionaire can help identify priorities 
Step 1: Identifying Priorities for Managers helping Employees
  • Managers can offer 5 step plan to employees with life/work conflict
  • Managers should be open to talk about work/life balance and should offer more control and flexibility to workers
  • managers should make sure procedures and policies encourage a balanced life for employees
Step 2: Set Realistic Goals Based on Priorities
  • superhuman syndrome= the "you-can-do-it-all" attitude that has replaced the old sterotypes of roles for men and women in media and culture where people balance work and home perfectly
  • Setting personal and career goals help so people do not fall victim to this false image
  • SMART goals are a good tool
Step 2a: Set sound career and job goals
  • consider jobs with flexibility like telecommuting, part-time work, job sharing, or flextime
  • managers should choose positions carefully based on life priorities
  • alternate strategies when setting career goals include person concentrating heavily on work in early adulthood, and not so much when they have kids
Step 2a: Setting Realistic Career Goals for Managers helping Employees
  • can offer flexible work options wherever possible to see performance gains and better organizational citizenship 
  • organizational citizenship= behaviors that go above and beyond job requirements
  • can offer benefits to part-time employees and let full-time go to part-time if they need to -> loyal, productive employees
  •  can offer career goal setting seminars 
Step 2b: Set sound personal goals
  • making sure goals are set for personal life as well like finding a compatible partner, having kids, or leisure time anything that is a life priority
Step 3: Assess the Present
  • personal SWOT analysis help you know starting point for goal just set
  • assess current lifestyle choices and if they align with priorities and goals with questionare or time log
Step 3: Assess the Present for Managers helping Employees
  • giving constructive and realistic feedback about their performance and use of time and how behaviors align or dont align with goals
  • logs can show examples of employee's behavior both positive and negative 
Step 4: Make and Take Action Plans
  • breaking goals into smaller, more tangible action steps
  • roadmap for how to get from where you are now (step 3) to where you want to be (achieving Step 2 and satifying Step 1)
Additional suggestions when making action plans
  • personalize success= celebrate successes when accomplishing goal
  • set boundaries= respecting established limits to stay focused on goal and not try to do it all
  • manage time= time management helps
  • Bundling= finding ways to spend time that combine multiple goals
  • personal outsourcing= consider assitance with both personal and professional tasks 
  • avoid work/life spillover= where work interferes with personal life or vice versa, being mindful helps
  • Personal and career mentors
Step 4: Make and Take Action Plans for Managers Helping Employees
  • managers are an excellent source for feedback and information about action steps
  • focus on results meaning no matter where the employee may be as long as they are performing well thats what matters
  • help employees separate the domains of work and home by avoiding breakfast meetings, policies prohibiting calling home during dinner or sleep hours 
Step 5: Evaluate Progress
  • creating accounability so priorities, goals, and action plans are actually carried out
  • focusing on rewards help maintain progress
  • make sure choices and use of time reflect important priorities
Step 5: Evaluating Progress for Managers helping Employees
  • provide honest positive and negative feedback when evaluating employee
  • have periodic reviews of goal attainment 
  • use important rewards as a tool to maintain proper progress such as compensation, promotions, and resources
  • help indirectly by being a role model of good work/life balance
Supporting users have an ad free experience!