# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Measurement
Measurement
34
Bartending
09/16/2013

Term
 measurement
Definition
 numeral assigned to an object, event, or person of the (category) to which an object, event, or person is assigned according to rules
Term
 operational definition
Definition
 set of procedures that guide the process of obtaining a measurement; includes descriptions of the attribute (the person, place, thing, characteristic and so forth) that is to be measured, the conditions under which the measurement is to be taken, and the actions that are to be taken in order to obtain the measurement. What an attribute is and how it is measured
Term
 validity
Definition
 (soundness in operations) measures what its supposed to
Term
 reliability
Definition
 (consistency) get the same measure
Term
 precision
Definition
 what decimal place value extends to (4.019 more precise than 4.02)
Term
 derived measurement
Definition
 of an attribute that is obtained as the results of a math operation applied to an existing measurement
Term
 transformation of measurements
Definition
 frowned upon in research to change from, for example, ratio to ordinal levels of measurement. In PT we do it all the time. A person with adhesive capsulitis has WFL ROM (ratio), then they are categorized as acceptable to discharge (ordinal) over unacceptable to discharge. Measurements can also be transformed using descriptive anaylsis (mean, median, and mode).
Term
 ratio data
Definition
 has a zero no minus or negative value (e.g. ROM)
Term
 interval data
Definition
 (e.g. temperature) no zero- not absent
Term
 ordinal data
Definition
 (e.g. MMT) grouped into categories, can hace a mean, median, and mode, need for more operational definitions
Term
 nominal data
Definition
 categorization by disease types, simplest form of measurement
Term
 variance
Definition
 average squared deviation (difference) from the mean. The sum of all the measurements divided by N.
Term
 standard deviation
Definition
 square root of variance
Term
 criterion referenced
Definition
 comparisons used, score is compared with another score that is known to be good. (good or bad measurement based on the appropriate population)
Term
 norm referenced
Definition
 how the measurement stacks up to relevant populations (the norms)
Term
 test
Definition
 used to obtain a measurement (data); may require the use of an instrument  Ex: procedure (PROM) to obtain a measure (an angle)
Term
 measurement
Definition
 results of testing and measuring; a numeral assigned to an object, event, or person or class (category) to which an object, event, or person is assigned according to rules  Applies a label to something  Either denotes the quality of something or places in category
Term
 operational definition
Definition
 a set of rules that guides these procedures  Includes description of the attribute (the person, place, thing, characteristic), the condition under which the measurement is taken, and the actions that are to be taken in order to obtain the measurement. Without operational definitions we cannot determine if something is reliable  Theoretical soundness relates to validity
Term
 attribute
Definition
 variable; a characteristic or quality that is measured  i.e. the amount of motion found at GHJ and type of disc derangement  defining an attribute describing what to look for , what to do, and how to do what is needed in order to obtain desired measurement
Term
 examination
Definition
 - a test or group of tests used for the purpose of obtaining measurements Assess- to measure , place label or quantify  Evaluation- a judgment based on a measurement; judgment of the values or worth of something  Evaluation is not the same as examination
Term
 derived measurement
Definition
 - a test or group of tests used for the purpose of obtaining measurements Assess- to measure , place label or quantify  Evaluation- a judgment based on a measurement; judgment of the values or worth of something  Evaluation is not the same as examination
Term
 o No measurement should be obtained unless there is an identified attribute, characteristic, property, dimension, or variable o Should measure something unless you know what it is o Meaningful measurements cannot be obtain unless definitions are shared and what the therapist did to obtain the measurement
Definition
 where to begin when taking a measurement
Term
 scales
Definition
 o A system of ordered markers at fixed intervals used as a reference standard in measurement ; a progressive classification, as of size, amount, importance, or rank o Scales consist of two or more units/categories that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive Exclusive- when a measurement is applied to an attribute, only one measurement would be appropriate i.e. MMT has to be G or Fair not both  Exhaustive- the requirement no matter what form the attribute may take, there will be a label or quantity available to describe the attribute i.e. different types of McKenzie disc derangements
Term
 multidimensional scales
Definition
 Scales may reflect more than one attribute at the same time i.e. ADLs scales to measure both level of independence and amount of time performed
Term
 Ratio scales
Definition
  Ex. ROM, limb length, time, vital signs, and nerve conduction  A ration scale has a 0 point that represents the complete absence of the quantity represented The interval must all be equal size and cannot have a minus or neg value• i.e. – 30 degrees is incorrect
Term
 Interval scales
Definition
  ex. Temperature  A interval scale has no 0 point that represents the complete absence of the quantity represented  Interval must be equal and can have a negative value
Term
 ordinal data
Definition
  Ex. Manual muscle testing, motor performance (Fugl-Myer), ADL test, and most manual grades Measure are assigned to a number or category that represents an order or rank The presence or absence of an attribute can be ordered so that absence of a disease is better than the presence of one Each category must be operationally defined to separate it from the others i.e. good and fair in MMT• The definitional requirement of ordinal scales are harder than ration and interval  Ordinal data should be characterized by mode and median • These categories do not represent a percentage ever i.e. MMT Fair does not = 50% of normal
Term
 frequency data
Definition
 • When ordinal scale tests two or more people the summary data only counts the number of people in each category.• The various categories on the scale can then be added up and the sum of each category expressed as a percentage of the total number of people tested (20% of your patients were fair
Term
 nominal
Definition
  ex. Dz types, type of low back disorder, type of amputation, and breath sounds  The units are categories representing the difference on a attribute without indicating the order or rank difference Used to differentiate people/things into groups based on definition  Nominal is the simplest form of measurement
Term
 change measurements
Definition
  Consists of mathematical differences btwn 2 of the same kinds of measurements taken on the same person at two different points in time
Term
 statistic
Definition
 a single numerical value or index, derived from a set of measurements; statistics may summarize or describe all members of a group, dimension, or variable
Term
 descriptive statistic
Definition
 a single numerical value or index, derived from a set of measurements, that summarizes or describes members of a group on an attribute
Term
 inferential statistics
Definition
 obtain from samples and are used to reflect characteristics of a population; used to determine whether sets of data are different or the same- or related to one another
Term
 normal, bell curve
Definition
 o If the mean, median, and mode are close together it is reasonable to assume the population is essentially
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