# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Measure While Drilling Voc.
Oil term for MWD
84
Geology
Professional
07/21/2010

## Additional Geology Flashcards

Term
 Accumulator
Definition
 storage device for nitrogen pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is used in operating the blowout preventers.
Term
 Accelerometer
Definition
 A device used during surveying to measure the acceleration of a ship or aircraft, or to detect ground acceleration in boreholes or on the Earth's surface produced by acoustic vibrations.
Term
 Air Drilling
Definition
 A drilling technique whereby gases (typically compressed air or nitrogen) are used to cool the drill bit and lift cuttings out of the wellbore, instead of the more conventional use of liquids.
Term
 AKO
Definition
 - Adjustable kickoff manipulates the angles of the motors
Term
 Annulus
Definition
 the space around a pipe in a well bore, sometimes termed the annular space.
Term
 Attenuation
Definition
 ss of energy or amplitude of waves as they pass through media.
Term
 Azimuth
Definition
 angle between the vertical projection of a line of interest onto a horizontal surface and true north or magnetic north measured in a horizontal plane, typically measured clockwise from north.
Term
 Backoff
Definition
 to unscrew one threaded piece (such as a section of pipe) from another.
Term
 Barrell
Definition
 a measure of volume for petroleum products in the United States. One barrel is the equivalent of 42 U.S. gallons or 0.15899 cubic meters (9,702 cubic inches).
Term
 Bell nipple
Definition
 A n enlarged pipe at the top of a casing string that serves as a funnel to guide drilling tools into the top of a well.
Term
 Bent Sub
Definition
 a short cylindrical device (generally angular) installed in the drill stem between the bottommost drill collar and a downhole motor.
Term
 BGGM
Definition
 Global Geomagnetic Model (BGGM) is a mathematical model of the Earth's magnetic field in its undisturbed state.
Term
 BHA
Definition
 (Bottom Hole Assembly) portion of the drilling assembly below the drill pipe. It can be very simple, composed of only the bit and drill collars, or it can be very complex and made up of several specialty components.
Term
 BIT
Definition
 the cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas wells.
Term
 BLIND RAMS
Definition
 Thick, heavy steel component of a conventional ram blowout preventer. In a normal pipe ram, the two blocks of steel that meet in the center of the wellbore to seal the well have a hole (one-half of the hole on each piece) through which the pipe fits. The blind ram has no space for pipe and is instead blanked off in order to be able to close over a well that does not contain a drillstring. It may be loosely thought of as the sliding gate on a gate valve.
Term
 Blowout
Definition
 an uncontrolled flow of gas, oil, or other well fluids from the well.
Term
 Blowout Preventer (BOP
Definition
 )- one or more valves installed at the wellhead to prevent the escape of pressure either in the annular space between the casing and the drill pipe or in open hole
Term
 Borehole
Definition
 Diameter of the hole penetrated by drill string
Term
 BRENT CRUDE
Definition
 A reference oil for the various types of oil in the North Sea, used as a basis for pricing. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Dubai are other reference oils.
Term
 CASING
Definition
 steel pipe placed in an oil or gas well to prevent the wall of the hole from caving in, to prevent movement of fluids from one formation to another and to aid in well control.
Term
 CHRISTMAS TREE
Definition
 the control valves, pressure gauges, and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control flow of oil and/or gas after the well has been drilled and completed. It is used when reservoir pressure is sufficient to cause reservoir fluids to rise to the surface.
Term
 COLLAR
Definition
 a coupling device used to join two lengths of pipe, such as casing or tubing. A combination collar has left-hand threads in one end and right-hand threads in the other.
Term
 CONVERGENCE
Definition
 movement of tectonic plates toward each other, generating compressional forces and ultimately resulting in collision, and in some cases subduction, of tectonic plates
Term
 CORE
Definition
 a cylindrical sample taken from a formation for geological analysis.
Term
 CUTTINGS
Definition
 the fragments of rock dislodged by the bit and brought to the surface in the drilling mud. Washed and dried cuttings samples are analyzed by geologists to obtain information about the formations drilled.
Term
 DAY TOUR- TOWER
Definition
 in areas where two 12-hour tours are worked, a period of 12 hours, usually during daylight, worked by a drilling or workover crew when equipment is being run around the clock.
Term
 DEVIATION
Definition
 angle at which a wellbore diverges from vertical.
Term
 DIP- DIPMETER SURVEY
Definition
 surveying method that determines the direction and angle of formation dip in relation to the borehole.
Term
 DOGLEG
Definition
 an abrupt change in direction in the wellbore, frequently resulting in the formation of a keyseat
Term
 DOUBLE
Definition
 length of drill pipe, casing, or tubing consisting of two joints screwed together.
Term
 DP- Dynamic Positioning
Definition
 The stationing of a vessel, especially a drillship or semisubmersible drilling rig, at a specific location in the sea by the use of computer-controlled propulsion units called thrusters.
Term
 DRILL COLLAR
Definition
 a heavy, thick-walled tube, usually steel, used between the drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem, used to stiffen the drilling assembly an put weight on the bit so that the bit can drill.
Term
 DRILLER
Definition
 Mainly responsible for hoisting equipment, but duties can extend to downhole conditions.
Term
 DRILLSTRING
Definition
 he column, or string, of drill pipe with attached tool joints that transmits fluid and rotational power from the kelly to the drill collars and the bit. Often, the term is loosely applied to include both drill pipe and drill collars.
Term
 FIELD
Definition
 An accumulation, pool, or group of pools of hydrocarbons or other mineral resources in the subsurface.
Term
 FISH
Definition
 an object that is left in the wellbore during drilling or workover operations and that must be recovered before work can proceed.
Term
 FISHING
Definition
 recovering lost or stuck equipment in the wellbore.
Term
 FRACTURING
Definition
 a crack or crevice in a formation, either natural or induced. See hydraulic fracturing.
Term
 GYROSCOPE
Definition
 evice for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum
Term
 INCLINATION
Definition
 deviation from vertical, irrespective of compass direction, expressed in degrees.
Term
 JUNK
Definition
 metal debris lost in a hole.
Term
 KELLY
Definition
 the heavy square or hexagonal steel member suspended from the swivel through the rotary table and connected to the topmost joint of drill pipe to turn the drill stem as the rotary table turns.
Term
 KOP
Definition
 kickoff point)- the depth in a vertical hole at which a deviated or slant hole is started; used in directional drilling.
Term
 LCM
Definition
 (Lost Circulating Material)- substances added to drilling fluids when drilling fluids are being lost to the formations downhole.
Term
 Magnetic ToolFace
Definition
 hy referenced by hx coordinates.
Term
 MAGNETOMETER
Definition
 measure the strength or direction of the Earth's magnetic field.
Term
 MAKEUP
Definition
 added to a system (for example, makeup water used in mixing mud).
Term
 MEASURED DEPTH-
Definition
 length of the wellbore, as if determined by a measuring stick. differs from the true vertical depth of the well in all but vertical wells. Since the wellbore cannot be physically measured from end to end, the lengths of individual joints of drillpipe, drill collars and other drillstring elements are measured with a steel tape measure and added together.
Term
 MTBF
Definition
 Reliability is the probability of a product performing without failure, aspecified function under given conditions for a given period of time.A unit of measure is Mean Time Between Failure (
Term
 OFFSET WELL
Definition
 existing wellbore close to a proposed well that provides information for planning the proposed well.
Term
 OPEN HOLE
Definition
 any wellbore in which casing has not been set. No casing.No drill pipe or tubing is suspended.
Term
 PDC (bit)
Definition
 a special type of diamond drilling bit that does not use roller cones.
Term
 PLUG BACK
Definition
 to place cement in or near the bottom of a well to exclude bottom water, to sidetrack, or to produce from a formation higher in the well.
Term
 POLES
Definition
 Poles are formed in relation to the path taken through the bar. Flow is fromnegative (South) to positive (North). SeeThe Earth’s magnetic field (the geomagnetic field) hasa north and a south pole referred to as the magnetic poles. The magneticpoles are located around one thousand miles from the geographic poles.The geographic poles are located on the Earth’s spin or geographic axis,and it is these poles that define the direction of “true north” and “truesouth”. The angular separation of the geographic axis from thegeomagnetic axis is called the declination angle.
Term
 PSI
Definition
 Pounds per square inch to measure pressure.
Term
 RAM
Definition
 - the closing and sealing component on a blowout preventer. One of three types—blind, pipe, or shear—may be installed in several preventers mounted in a stack on top of the wellbore. Blind rams, when closed, form a seal on a hole that has no drill pipe in it; pipe rams, when closed, seal around the pipe; shear rams cut through drill pipe and then form a seal.
Term
 REAMING
Definition
 enlarging the wellbore by drilling it again with a special bit.
Term
 RESISTIVITY
Definition
 the electrical resistance offered to the passage of current; the opposite of conductivity.
Term
 RIG DOWN
Definition
 to dismantle a drilling rig and auxiliary equipment following the completion of drilling operations.
Term
 RIG UP
Definition
 to prepare the drilling rig for making hole, for example, to install tools and machinery before drilling is started.
Term
 RKB-
Definition
 In most drilling operations, the Rotary Table (RT) elevation is used as theworking depth reference (BRT or RKB). This is also referred to as derrickfloor elevation.
Term
 ROP
Definition
 (Rate of Penetration) - a measure of the speed at which the bit drills into formations, usually expressed in feet (meters) per hour or minutes per foot (meter).
Term
 RT- (Rotary Table)-
Definition
 The principal component of a rotary, or rotary machine, used to turn the drill stem and support the drilling assembly. It has a beveled gear arrangement to create the rotational motion and an opening into which bushings are fitted to drive and support the drilling assembly.
Term
Definition
 unskilled manual laborer on the rigsite.
Term
 ROUGHNECK
Definition
 worker on drilling rig.
Term
 SAVER SUB
Definition
 an expendable substitute device made up in the drill stem to absorb much of the wear between the frequently broken joints (such as between the kelly or top drive and the drill pipe).
Term
 SIDETRACK
Definition
 to use a whipstock, turbodrill, or other mud motor to drill around the original planned path of the well.
Term
 SKID THE RIG
Definition
 slide the rig over
Term
 SLIDING
Definition
 type of drilling that does uses mud to rotate the drill bit but does NOT rotate the drill string, used to change direction in the drilling
Term
 SPUD
Definition
 To start the well drilling process by removing rock, dirt and other sedimentary material with the drill bit.
Term
 STANDPIPE
Definition
 Two or three single joints of drillpipe or drill collars that remain screwed together during tripping operations.
Term
 STAND
Definition
 Two or three single joints of drillpipe or drill collars that remain screwed together during tripping operations.
Term
 SWEET CRUDE
Definition
 Crude oil containing low levels of sulfur compounds, especially hydrogen sulfide [H2S].
Term
 TD
Definition
 (Total Depth)- maximum depth reached in a well.
Term
Definition
 expendable threaded shape to mate with threads on drillstring and casing components.Protects the thread from damage when pipe is not in use.
Term
 TIGHT HOLE
Definition
 wellbore, usually openhole, where larger diameter components of the drillstring, such as drillpipe tool joints, drill collars, stabilizers, and the bit, may experience resistance when the driller attempts to pull them through
Term
 TOOLFACE
Definition
 hi-side of tool to be used as a reference point during measurments
Term
 TOOL PUSHER
Definition
 an employee of a drilling contractor who is in charge of the entire drilling crew and the drilling rig. Also called a rig superintendent, drilling foreman, or rig supervisor.
Term
 TORQUE
Definition
 e turning force that is applied to a shaft or other rotary mechanism to cause it to rotate or tend to do so. is measured in foot-pounds, joules, newton-metres, and so forth
Term
 TRIP
Definition
 the operation of hoisting the drill stem from and returning it to the wellbore. v: to insert or remove the drill stem into or out of the hole. Shortened form of "make a trip."
Term
 TVD
Definition
 True Vertical Depth- vertical distance from a point in the well (usually the current or final depth) to a point at the surface, usually the elevation of the rotary kelly bushing (RKB).
Term
 TWIST OFF
Definition
 To part or break the drillstring downhole due to either fatigue or excessive torque.
Term
 WHIPSTOCK
Definition
 A reference oil for the various types of oil in the North Sea, used as a basis for pricing. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Dubai are other reference oils. A long steel casing that used an inclined plane to cause the bit to deflect from the original bore hole at a slight angle.
Term
 WILDCAT
Definition
 Explatory well.
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