# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

MCAT Physics Formulas
Memorized Physics Formulas
98
Physics
06/08/2011

Term
 When multiplying numbers with exponents
Definition
Term
 When dividing numbers with exponents
Definition
 subtract exponents
Term
 When a number with an exponent is raised to a power...
Definition
 multiply exponents
Term
 When adding or subtracting numbers with exponents...
Definition
 convert both numbers to the same exponent then do simple math
Term
 θ = 0
Definition
 Sin = 0   Cos = 1
Term
 θ = 30
Definition
 Sin = 0.5   Cos = 0.866
Term
 θ = 45
Definition
 Sin = 0.707   Cos = 0.707
Term
 θ = 60
Definition
 Sin = 0.866   Cos = 0.5
Term
 θ = 90
Definition
 Sin = 1   Cos = 0
Term
 θ = 180
Definition
 Sin = 0   Cos = -1
Term
 Pythagrean Triples
Definition
 3:4:5   5:12:13
Term
 e =
Definition
 2.71828
Term
 Kinematics Equations
Definition
 x=V0t + (1/2)at2   V=V0 + at   V2=V02 + 2ax   X=(1/2)(V+V0)t
Term
 Newton's First Law of Motion
Definition
 A body in motion at constatnt velocity or rest will stay that way unless a net force acts upon it.   F=ma=0
Term
 Newton's Second Law of Motion
Definition
 No acceleration of an object with mass, m, will occur when the vector sum of the forces results in a cancellation of the forces.   ∑F=ma
Term
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
Definition
 To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.   FB=-FA
Term
 112
Definition
 121
Term
 122
Definition
 144
Term
 132
Definition
 169
Term
 142
Definition
 196
Term
 152
Definition
 225
Term
 162
Definition
 256
Term
 172
Definition
 289
Term
 182
Definition
 324
Term
 192
Definition
 361
Term
 202
Definition
 400
Term
 252
Definition
 625
Term
 √1
Definition
 1
Term
 √2
Definition
 1.414
Term
 √3
Definition
 1.732
Term
 √4
Definition
 2
Term
 √5
Definition
 2.236
Term
 √6
Definition
 2.45
Term
 √7
Definition
 2.65
Term
 √10
Definition
 3.16
Term
 √11
Definition
 3.32
Term
 √12
Definition
 3.46
Term
 Gravitational Force
Definition
 F=Gm1m2     r2
Term
 Rotational Motion (Torque)
Definition
 τ = rFsinθ
Term
 Circular Motion (Centripial Force)
Definition
 Fc = mv2      r
Term
 Static Friction
Definition
 0≤ ƒs ≤ μsFn
Term
 Kinetic Friction (Fk)
Definition
 ƒk = μkFn
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 K=½mv2
Term
 Potential Energy
Definition
 U=mgh
Term
 Total Mechanical Energy
Definition
 E = U + K
Term
 First Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Energy is never created or destroyed, merely transferred from one system to another.
Term
 Conservation of Mechanical Energy (conservative forces)
Definition
 Gravity and Electrostatic Forces   1) If net work done to move a particle in any round-trip path is zero, the force is conservative.   2) If the net work needed to move a particle between two points is the same regardless of the path taken, the force is conservative.
Term
 Work
Definition
 W=Fdcosθ
Term
 Power
Definition
 P = W       Δt
Term
 Work-Energy Theorem
Definition
 Wnet = ΔK = Kf - Ki
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 p=mv
Term
 Impulse
Definition
 J = FΔt = Δp = mvf - mvi
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 mavai + mbvbi = mavaf + mbvbf
Term
 Completely Elastic Collisions
Definition
 When two or more objects collide in such a way that both total momentum and total kinetic energy are conserved.   ½mavai2 + ½mbvbi2 = ½mavaf2 + ½mbvbf2
Term
 Inelastic Collisions
Definition
 Momentum is conserved and kinetic energy is lost.   ½mavai2 + ½mbvbi2 > ½mavaf2 + ½mbvbf2
Term
 Completely Inelastic Collision
Definition
 The objects that collide stick together rather than bouncing off each other and moving apart.   mavai + mbvbi = (ma + mb)vf
Term
Definition
 Inclined Plane Wedge Axle and Wheel Lever Pully Screw
Term
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 The entropy of the universe is always increasing except at absolute zero.
Term
 Third Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 A system will asymptotically approach an entropy minimum as it asymptotically approaches absolute zero.
Term
 Zeroeth Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 No net heat flows between objects in thermal equilibrium.
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 Related to the average motional (kinetic) energy of the particles.   Difference in temperature determines direction of heat flow.
Term
 Kelvin
Definition
 Starts at absolute zero, no negative temps.
Term
 Celsius
Definition
 °C = Kelvin - 273
Term
 Farenheit
Definition
 (9/5)(°C) + 32
Term
 Thermal Expansion
Definition
 Rising temps cause an increase in length and falling temps cause a decrease in length.   ΔL = αLΔT   (α = coefficient of linear expansion.)
Term
 ΔU=Q-W   (Q=energy transfered through heat to the system) (W=work done by the system)
Definition
Term
 Volume Expansion
Definition
 ΔV = βVΔT   (β = 3α)
Term
 Heat
Definition
 Process by which a quantity of energy is transferred between two objects as a result of a difference in temperature.
Term
 Heat (units)
Definition
 1 Cal = 103cal = 3.97 Btu = 4,184J
Term
 Convection
Definition
 Transfer of heat by the physical motion of the heated material.    Involves flow, only liquids and gases.
Term
 Conduction
Definition
 Direct transfer of energy from molecule to molecule through molecular collisions.
Term
Definition
 The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
Term
 Specific Heat (c)
Definition
 The amount of heat energy required to raise 1 kg of a substance by 1°C or 1K.   Q = mcΔT = mc(Tf - Ti)
Term
 Heat of Transformation
Definition
 Q = mL   (Q=heat gained or lost) (m=mass of substance) (L=HEAT OF TRANSFORMATION)   Liquid to solid/solid to liquid=heat of fusion Liquid to gas/gas to liquid=heat of vaporization
Term
 Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Adiabatic(no heat exchange) (Q=0) First law becomes ΔU=-W   Closed Cycle(constant internal energy)aka:isothermal (ΔU=0) First law becomes Q=W   Isovolumetiric(constant volume) aka:isochoric (W=0) First law becomes ΔU=Q   First Law(ΔU=Q-W)
Term
 Entropy
Definition
 Measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy at a specific temperature.   ΔS = Q         T
Term
 Reversible Process
Definition
 The net change in the entropy of the system and it's surroundings is zero.
Term
 Density
Definition
 ρ = m       V
Term
 Specific Gravity
Definition
 Ratio of the density of a substance to that of pure water at 1atm, 4°C
Term
 Density of Water
Definition
 1,000kg/m3   1g/cm3
Term
 Pressure
Definition
 P=F     A   Pascal=Pa=N/m2   1.013x105 Pa = 1 atm = 760 torr = 760mm Hg
Term
 Gauge Pressure
Definition
 The difference between the absolute and atmospheric pressures.   Pg = P-Patm = (P0 + ρgh) - Patm   (h=depth)
Term
 Hydrostatics
Definition
 THE STUDY OF FLUIDS AT REST AND THE FORCES AND PRESSUJRES ASSOCIATED WITH STANDING FLUIDS
Term
 Pascal's Principle
Definition
 For incompressible fluids, change in pressure is applied to an enclosed fluid, the pressure change will be transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and to the wall of the containing vessel.   P=F1=F2      A1  A2   F2=F1(A2/A1)
Term
 Archimedes' Principle
Definition
 A body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid will be buoyed up by force equal to the wieight of the fluid that it disipates.   Fbouy=(Vfluid displaced)(ρfluid)(g)=(Vobject submerged)(ρfluid)(g)
Term
 Surface Tension
Definition
 Results from cohesion which is the attractive force that a molecule of liquid feels toward other molecules of the liquid.
Term
Definition
 Attractive force that a molecule of the liquid feels toward the molecules of some other substance.
Term
 Viscosity
Definition
 Resistance of a fluid to flow... A measure of fluid friction.
Term
 Ideal Fluids
Definition
 Have no viscosity.
Term
 Laminar Flow vs Turbulent Flow
Definition
 Laminar Flow=smooth and orderly Turbulent Flow=rough and disorderly Critical velocity=turbulence arises once v exveeds vc Significant amount of energy is lost as frictional force.   THE MCAT ALWAYS ASSUMES LAMINAR FLOW   For a fluid flowing through a tube of diameter D vc can be calculated as: vc=NRη       ρD   (NR=Reynolds Number) (η=viscosity of fluid)
Term
 Transverse Waves
Definition
 Oscillates perpendicular to propagation.
Term
 Visible Light Spectrum
Definition
 380nm-760nm Shorter = violet Longer = red
Term
 Electromagnetic Spectrum (long waves/low energy->short waves/high energy)
Definition
 Radio waves Micro waves Infrared waves Visible light UV-Raysw X-Rays Gamma-Rays
Term
 Wave equation
Definition
 c = ƒλ
Term
 Index of Refraction (n)   Definition and Equation
Definition
 Compares speed of light in a vacuum to to speed of light in a particular medium.   n = c/v
Term
 Indicies of refraction are always >1. Larger n = smaller v   Indices for water and glass respectively...
Definition
 water=1.3 glass=1.5
Term
 Snell's Law   What does it represent?   What is it?
Definition
 Angle of refraction   n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2
Term
 Energy of a Photon Equation
Definition
 E = hƒ
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