# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

math vocab
math vocabulary
116
Mathematics
11/08/2011

Term
 point
Definition
 a zero-dimensional figure; while usually left undefined, has four main representions - the dot, the node, the location, and the ordered pair of numbers
Term
 line
Definition
 a two-dimensional object that has no endpoints and continues on forever in a plane; formed of infinite points; the 3 orientations that lines may have are horizontal, vertical, oblique, and skew lines
Term
 plane
Definition
 a two-dimensional group of points that goes on infinitely in all directions; made up of infinite lines
Term
 face
Definition
 a polygonal region of a surface
Term
 edge
Definition
 a segment that helps to make up a face
Term
 vertex
Definition
 an end point of a shape
Term
 line segment
Definition
 A straight line which links two points without extending beyond them.
Term
 ray
Definition
 a one-dimensional figure that consists of one endpoint A, one point B, all of the points on , and all points for which B is between them and A
Term
 collinear
Definition
 in the same line
Term
 coplanar
Definition
 within the same plane
Term
 skew
Definition
 non-coplanar lines that don't intersect
Term
 angle
Definition
 he union of 2 rays that have the same endpoint; measured in degrees or radians (trig.); the five types of angles are zero, acute, right, obtuse, and straight
Term
 acute angle
Definition
 an angle less than 90 degrees
Term
 right angle
Definition
 an angle exactly 90 degrees
Term
 obtuse angle
Definition
 and angle greater than 90 degrees but smaller than 180 degrees
Term
 straight angle
Definition
 an angle exactly 180 degrees
Term
 bisect
Definition
 a ray that is in the interior of an angle and forms two equal angles with the sides of that angle
Term
 midpoint
Definition
 the point M of where AM = AB
Term
Definition
 2 nonstraight and nonzero angles that have a common side in the interior of the angle formed by the noncommon sides
Term
 vertical angle
Definition
 2 angles that share a common vertex and whose sides form 2 lines
Term
 linear pair
Definition
 2 supplementary adjacent angles whose noncommon sides form a line
Term
 complimenary
Definition
 2 angles whose measures, when added together, equal 90 degrees; see supplementary angles
Term
 supplementary
Definition
 2 angles whose measures, when added together, equal 180 degrees
Term
 parallel
Definition
 two lines that never touch
Term
 perpendicular
Definition
 2 segments, rays, or lines that form a 90 degree angle
Term
 congruence
Definition
 equilateral, equal, exactly the same (size, shape, etc.)
Term
 isometric
Definition
 a transformation that keeps the same size and shape of a figure but moves it to a new location; see reflection, rotation, translation, glide reflection
Term
 orthographic
Definition
 A drawing that represents a three dimensional object by showing separate drawings for the front, top and right side views
Term
 net
Definition
 a 2-D figure that can be folded on its segments or curved on its boundaries to form a 3-D figure
Term
 cube
Definition
 a 3-d figure made up of squares
Term
 cylinder
Definition
 the surface of a cylindric solid whose base is a circle
Term
 cone
Definition
 the surface of a conic solid whose base is a circle
Term
 prism
Definition
 the surface of a cylindric solid whose base is a polygon; see right prism, parallelpiped, box
Term
 pyramid
Definition
 the surface of a conic solid whose base is a polygon; see regular pyramid
Term
 sphere
Definition
 the set of points in space equidistant from a certain point
Term
 polyhedron
Definition
 a three-dimensional surface which is the union of polygonal regions and has no holes
Term
 platonic solid
Definition
 There are five Platonic Solids.Each one is a polyhedron with every face being a regular polygon of the same size and shape.
Term
 conjecture
Definition
 an educated guess or opinion; a hypothesis
Term
 axiom/postulate
Definition
 a statement assumed to be true without proof; see theorem
Term
 thearem
Definition
 a statement assumed to be true without proof
Term
 conditional statement
Definition
 a statement that tells if one thing happens, another will follow; written as pq; see antecedent, consequent, converse, inverse, contrapositive
Term
 hypothesis
Definition
 the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle
Term
 conclusion
Definition
 he outcome or result of an act, process, event,
Term
 converse
Definition
 a reversed conditional; if a conditional is pq, than its converse is qp
Term
 inverse
Definition
 a form of conditional; if not p, then not q; written ~p~q
Term
 contrapositive
Definition
 a type of conditional; if not q, then not p; written ~q~p; see inverse
Term
 biconditional
Definition
 a conditional and its converse where the converse is also true; uses the words if and only if; written pq
Term
 counterexample
Definition
 a situation in a conditional for which the antecedent is true, but the conditional is false; aka contradiction
Term
 deductive reasoning
Definition
 When we arrive at a conclusion using facts, definitions, rule, or properties, it is called Deductive Reasoning.
Term
 inductive reasoning
Definition
 Mathematical Induction is a method generally used to prove or establish that a given statement is true for all natural numbers.
Term
 construction
Definition
 a precise way of drawing which allows only 2 tools: the straightedge and the compass
Term
 distance
Definition
 the distance between points A and B is written as AB
Term
 distance formula
Definition
 x2 and y2 are the x,y coordinates for one pointx1and y1 are the x,y coordinates for the second pointd is the distance between the two points
Term
 slope
Definition
 the measure of the tilt of a line; rise over run (i.e., how much the line moves up for every movement to the right). The formula for slope is
Term
 slope formula
Definition
 m=y2-y1/x2-x1
Term
 midpoint formual
Definition
 (x1+x2/y1+y2)(x1+x2/y1+y2)
Term
 transversal
Definition
 A line that cuts across two or more (usually parallel) lines.
Term
 corresponding angles
Definition
 any pair of angles in similar locations with respect to a transversal
Term
 alternate exterior
Definition
 exterior angles on alternate sides of the transversal (not on the same parallel line)
Term
 alternate interior
Definition
 angles between two lines cut by a transversal; see exterior angles
Term
 same side exterior
Definition
 Exterior Angles are created where a transversal crosses two (usually parallel) lines. Each pair of these angles are outside the parallel lines, and on the same side of the transversal.
Term
 same side interior
Definition
 Created where a transversal crosses two (usually parallel) lines. Each pair of interior angles are inside the parallel lines, and on the same side of the transversal.
Term
 right triangle
Definition
 A right triangle is triangle with an angle of ( radians). The sides , , and of such a triangle satisfy the Pythagorean theorem
Term
 obtuse triangle
Definition
 An obtuse triangle is a triangle in which one of the angles is an obtuse angle. (Obviously, only a single angle in a triangle can be obtuse or it wouldn't be a triangle.) A triangle must be either obtuse, acute, or right.
Term
 acute triangle
Definition
 A triangle where all three internal angles are acute (less than 90 degrees).
Term
 equalangular
Definition
 a triangle whose sides are equal in length
Term
 isosceles
Definition
 a triangle with two sides of equal length
Term
 scalene
Definition
 a triangle with no equilateral sides
Term
 point of concurency
Definition
 The point where three or more lines intersect. (Usually refers to various centers of a triangle).
Term
 circumcenter
Definition
 The point where the three perpendicular bisectors of a triangle meet. One of a triangle's points of concurrency.
Term
 circumscribe
Definition
 A geometric figure that is drawn around another geometric figure so as to touch all its vertices is called Circumscribed.
Term
 incenter
Definition
 The point where the three angle bisectors of a triangle meet. One of a triangle's points of concurrency.
Term
 inscribe
Definition
 The angle subtended at a point on the circle by two given points on the circle.
Term
 centroid
Definition
 The point where the three medians of the triangle intersect. The 'center of gravity' of the triangle One of a triangle's points of concurrency.
Term
 median
Definition
 the segment connecting the vertex of an angle in a triangle to the midpoint of the side opposite it
Term
 orthocenter
Definition
 The point where the three altitudes of a triangle intersect. One of a triangle's points of concurrency.
Term
 triangle
Definition
 a polygon with three sides; see equilateral triangle, isoscoles triangle, right triangle, scalene triangle
Term
 cpctc
Definition
 t is intended as an easy way to remember that when you have two triangles and you have proved they are congruent, then each part of one triangle (side, or angle) is congruent to the corresponding part in the other.
Term
 side side side
Definition
 Triangles are congruent if all three sides in one triangle are congruent to the corresponding sides in the other.
Term
 Side Angle Side
Definition
 Triangles are congruent if any pair of corresponding sides and their included angles are equal in both triangles.
Term
 Angle Side Angle
Definition
 Triangles are congruent if any two angles and their included side are equal in both triangles.
Term
 side Angle Angle
Definition
 Click on the "other triangle" under the triangle on the right.
Term
 HL
Definition
 Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and one corresponding leg are equal in both triangles.
Term
 angle angle angle
Definition
 a triangle that is angled
Term
 Similar
Definition
 Two polygons are similar polygons if corresponding angles have the same measure and corresponding sides are in proportion.
Term
 similarity
Definition
 Two polygons are similar polygons if corresponding angles have the same measure and corresponding sides are in proportion.
Term
 ratio
Definition
 Ratio is a concept that you have probably encountered in other math classes. It is a comparison of sizes.
Term
 proportion
Definition
 The mean proportional of two positive numbers a and b is the positive number x such that . When solving, .
Term
 included angle
Definition
 the angle made by two sides of a polygon
Term
 right triangle
Definition
 A triangle where one of its interior angles is a right angle (90 degrees).
Term
 pythagorean thearom
Definition
 In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. A2+B2=C2
Term
 pythagorean triples
Definition
 A right triangle where the sides are in the ratio of integers. (Integers are whole numbers like 3, 12 etc)
Term
 SOCAHTOA
Definition
Term
 central angles
Definition
 The angle subtended at the center of a circle by two given points on the circle.
Term
 apothem
Definition
 The perpendicular distance from the center of a regular polygon to any of its sides.
Term
 consecutive
Definition
 Numbers which follow each other in order, without gaps, from smallest to largest.
Term
 regular
Definition
 A polyhedron whose faces are identical regular polygons.
Term
 parallelogram
Definition
 A quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel.
Term
 rectangle
Definition
 A 4-sided polygon where all interior angles are 90°
Term
 rhombus
Definition
 : A quadrilateral with all four sides equal in length.
Term
 square
Definition
 A 4-sided regular polygon with all sides equal and all internal angles 90°
Term
 trapazoid
Definition
 A quadrilateral which has at least one pair of parallel sides
Term
 kite
Definition
Term
 prism
Definition
 A solid object that has two identical ends and all flat sides.
Term
 cylinder
Definition
 PrismA solid object that has two identical ends and all flat sides.
Term
 cone
Definition
 A solid (3-dimensional) object that has a circular base and one vertex
Term
 circle
Definition
 A line forming a closed loop, every point on which is a fixed distance from a center point.
Term
 secant
Definition
 A secant is a line that intersects a circle at two points
Term
 chord
Definition
 A line that links two points on a circle or curve. (pronounced "cord")
Term
 tangent
Definition
 A line which touches a circle or ellipse at just one point. Below, the blue line is a tangent to the circle c. Note the radius to the point of tangency is always perpendicular to the tangent line.
Term
 semicircle
Definition
 Half a circle. A closed shape consisting of half a circle and a diameter of that circle*.
Term
 major arc
Definition
 Given two points on a circle, the minor arc is the shortest arc linking them. The major arc is the longest.
Term
 minor arc
Definition
 Given two points on a circle, the minor arc is the shortest arc linking them. The major arc is the longest.
Term
 sector
Definition
 The part of a circle enclosed by two radii of a circle and their intercepted arc. A pie-shaped part of a circle.
Term
 arc length
Definition
 The distance along the curved line making up the arc
Term
 inscribed angle
Definition
 The angle subtended at a point on the circle by two given points on the circle.
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