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Lymphatic System
Immune Response
40
Anatomy
Graduate
02/13/2015

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Term
Lymphatic vessels recover about ___% of the fluid filtered by capillaries.
Definition
15%
Term
Lymph is similar to blood plasma but very low in:
Definition
Protein
Term
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary _____ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
Definition
Lipids
Term
True or False? Lymph originates in blood capillaries that pick up tissue fluid.
Definition
False! Lymph originates as extracellular fluid drawn into lymphatic capillaries.
Term
All of these forces help lymph to flow except:

A) The skeletal muscle pump
B) The thoracic pump
C) Rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels
D) Arterial pulsations squeezing lymphatic vessels
E) The lymphatic node pump
Definition
E) The lymphatic node pump
Term
Where are lymphatic capillaries absent in the body?
Definition
1. CNS
2. Cartilage
3. Cornea
4. Bone
5. Bone marrow
Term
Which layer of the lymphatic vessels is composed of endothelium and valves?

A) Tunica externa
B) Tunica media
C) Tunica interna
Definition
C) Tunica interna
Term
Which layer of the lymphatic vessels is composed of elastic fibers and smooth muscle?

A) Tunica media
B) Tunica interna
C) Tunica externa
Definition
A) Tunica media
Term
The ___ duct is larger and longer than the ___ duct.
Definition
Thoracic duct; right lymphatic duct
Term
___ collect lymph from the thoracic duct.
Definition
Subclavian veins
Term
What factors affect the flow of lymph?
Definition
1. Skeletal muscle pump
2. Arterial pulsation
3. Thoracic pump
4. Valves which prevent backward flow
5. Exercise
6. Rapidly flowing blood in subclavian veins
Term
___ cells are large lymphocytes that attack and destroy bacteria, transplanted tissue, and cancerous cells.

A) T lymphocytes
B) B lymphocytes
C) Natural Killer (NK) cells
D) C cells
Definition
C) NK cells
Term
What causes the milky appearance in lymph fluid?
Definition
Lipids
Term
What are the three functions of the lymphatic system?
Definition
1. Immunity
2. Fluid recovery
3. Lipid absorption
Term
Describe the flow of lymph fluid.
Definition
1. Starts as interstitial fluid
2. Enters lymphatic capillaries
3. Travels in lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes
4. Lymph ascends or descends to the Left or Right Lymphatic Duct
Term
___ cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies.

A) T cells
B) B Cells
C) C cells
D) NK cells
Definition
B) B cells
Term
___ cells are branched and stationary, and they contribute to the stroma of a lymphatic organ.

A) Dendritic cells
B) Reticular cells
C) Lymphatic cells
Definition
B) Reticular cells
Term
___ cells are branched, found in the epidermis, and alert the immune system to pathogens that have breached the body surface.

A) Dendritic cells
B) Reticular cells
C) Lymphatic cells
Definition
A) Dendritic cells
Term
What are the primary lymphatic organs?
Definition
1. Red bone marrow
2. Thymus
Term
What are the secondary lymphatic organs?
Definition
1. Lymph nodes
2. Tonsils
3. Spleen
Term
Diffuse lymphatic tissue is prevalent in which body passages?
Definition
Respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
Term
___ are dense masses of lymphocytes and macrophages that congregate in response to pathogens.
Definition
Lymphatic nodules (follicles)
Term
___ are dense clusters in the ileum, the distal portion of the small intestine.
Definition
Peyer patches
Term
What is the site where T and B cells become immunocompetent?
Definition
In primary lymphatic organs (Red bone marrow, thymus)
Term
The thoracic duct begins as a prominent sac in the abdomen called the ___.
Definition
Cisterna chyli
Term
The ___ duct receives lymph from below the diaphragm.
Definition
Thoracic duct
Term
True or False? Lymph always flows away from the heart.
Definition
False!
Term
True or False? Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.
Definition
True! Plasma proteins that leaked into interstitial fluids gets returned to the blood via the lymphatic system.
Term
True or False? The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.
Definition
False!
Term
True or False? Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries.
Definition
True!
Term
Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ____.
Definition
Skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement.
Term
Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ___.

A) Lymph follicles
B) Lymph nodes
C) Axillary Nodes
D) Cisterna Chyli
Definition
B) Lymph nodes
Term
What is lymph composed of?
Definition
Water, plasma proteins, chemicals, and white blood cells
Term
Chemicals which are foreign to the body and trigger an immune response are called ___.
Definition
Antigens
Term
True or false? Both lymphatic tissues and lymphatic organs have distinct connective tissue capsules surrounding them.
Definition
False! Only the lymphatic organs have a connective tissue capsule.
Term
Using the components of the lymphatic system, describe the route from the tissue fluid back to the blood stream.
Definition
1. Lymph capillaries
2. Lymphatic vessels
3. Lymph trunks
4. Lymph ducts
5. Subclavian vein
Term
How do lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries?
Definition
1. Lymphatic capillaries have valves to prevent the backflow of fluid.
2. They are slightly larger in diameter.
3. They contain very thin endothelial cells that overlap each other like shingles of a roof.
4. They are closed at one end and attached to surrounding tissues by anchoring filaments.
Term
Identify two benefits in having lymphatic capillaries pick up tissue fluid that is not reclaimed by the blood capillaries.
Definition
1. Maintains blood volume (if fluid was lost, you would die of circulatory failure within hours)
2. Prevents edema (excessive accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces).
3. Interstitial fluid/proteins nourish nearby cells.
Term
Why can metastasizing cancer cells get into the lymphatic system more easily than they can enter the bloodstream?
Definition
Unlike the endothelial cells of blood capillaries, lymphatic endothelial cells are not joined by tight junctions, nor do they have a continuous basal lamina. The gaps between them are so large that bacteria, lymphocytes, and other cells and particles can enter along with the tissue fluid.
Term
Why does it make more functional sense for the lymphatic ducts to connect to the subclavian veins than it would for them to connect to the subclavian arteries?
Definition
Arteries carry blood away from the heart, whereas veins carry blood towards the heart. The whole point of the lymphatic system is to return excess fluid to the heart and circulatory system; therefore, it uses veins.
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