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lymphatic system
Notes for final on lymphatic system
383
Physiology
Undergraduate 4
11/28/2010

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Cards

Term

Fluid recovery

Definition

Fluid continually filters from the blood capillaries into the tissue spaces. 15% is not reabsorbed but rather is reabsorbed by the lymphatic system and returned to the blood

 

Term

 

            Immunity – 

Definition

It picks up foreign cells and chemicals from the tissues. It passes it through lymph nodes with immune cells that provide an immune response if needed.

 

  

Term
         Lipid absorption – 
Definition
In the small intestine, special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary lipids that are not absorbed by blood capillaries.
Term

2.  What are the 4 components of the lymphatic system, and what is their role (in general)?

Definition
(1) lymph, the recovery of fluid, (2) lymphatic vessels, which transport the lymph, (3) lymphatic tissue, composed of aggregates of lymphocytes and macrophages that populate many organs in the body, (4) lymphatic organs, in which these cells are especially concentrated and which are set off from surrounding organs by connective tissue capsules. (Saladin, p. 816)
Term

 

 

3.  What is elephantiasis and what causes it?

Definition

mosquito-borne roundworms infect lymph nodes and block the flow of lymph and recovery of tissue fluid. It results in chronic edema which leads to fibrosis and elephant-like thickening of the skin. (Saladin, p. 817)

 

Term

 

4.  In what way(s) is lymph different from blood?

Definition
it is clear, colorless fluid, low in protein. (Saladin, p. 817)
Term

5.  Describe the structure of a lymphatic capillary.

Definition

They are closed at one end. They consist of a sac of thin endothelial cells that loosely overlap each other like the shingles of a roof. The cells are tethered to surrounding tissue by a protein filament that prevents the sac from collapsing. (Saladin, p. 817)

 

Term

 

6.  Explain how the lymphatic capillaries receive lymph.  

Definition

It starts as tissue fluid that has been taken up by lymph vessels. (Saladin, p. 819)

 

Term

 

7.  The largest of the lymphatic vessels are called        The larger and longer of the two is the 

 


Definition
collecting ducts.   thoracic duct.
Term
8.  The collecting ducts dump their lymph into the       veins where it is then returned via the blood to the heart. . (Saladin, p. 820)
Definition
subclavian
Term

9.  Why does it make more functional sense for the collecting ducts to connect to the subclavian veins than it would for them to connect to the subclavian arteries?

Definition
Because the veins have more capacity for fluid. . (Saladin, p. 820)
Term

 

 

10.  What is the primary mechanism of lymph flow?  What prevents backflow of lymph? 

Definition
The primary mechanism of flow is rhythmic contractions of the lymphatic vessels themselves, which contract when the fluid stretches them, the valves of lymphatic vessels, like those of veins, prevent fluid from flowing backwards.
Term

Natural killer (NK) cells

Definition

are large lymphocytes that attack and destroy bacteria, transplanted tissue cells and host cells that have either become infected with viruses of turned cancerous. The are responsible for the mode of defense.

 

Term

 

            T lymphocytes

Definition

are lymphocytes that mature in the thymus and later depend on thymic hormones. The T stands for the thymus-dependent. There are several subclasses of T cells.are lymphocytes that mature in the thymus and later depend on thymic hormones. The T stands for the thymus-dependent. There are several subclasses of T cells.

 

 

Term

 

            B lymphocytes –

Definition

are lymphocytes that differentiate into plasma cells-connective tissue cells that secrete the antibodies of the immune system.

 

Term

 

            Macrophages –

Definition

are very large, avidly phagocytotic cells of the connective tissues.

 

Term

 

            Dendritic cells –

Definition
are branched, mobile APC’s found in the epidermis, mucous membranes, and lymphatic organs. They play an important role in alerting the immune system to pathogens that have breached the body’s surface.
Term

 

 

            Reticular cells -

Definition
.are branched stationary cells that contribute to the stroma of the lymphatic organs and act as APC’s in the thymus.
Term

Lymphoid tissue – 

Definition

are aggregations of lymphocytes in the connective tissues of mucous membranes and various organs.

 

Term

 

            Diffuse lymphatic tissue – 

Definition

 in, which the lymphocytes are scattered rather than densely clustered.

 .

Term

 

            Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)

Definition

in body passages that open to the exterior- the respitory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.

 

Term

 

            Lymphatic nodules –

 

 

Definition

 

            Lymphatic nodules – lymphatic and macrophages congregate in dense masses, which come and go as pathogens invade the tissues and the immune system answers the challenge.

 

  

Term
         Peyer patches – 
Definition
an area of abundant lymphatic nodules
Term

13.  Red bone marrow is involved in      (blood production) and 

Definition
hemopoiesis   immunity. . (Saladin, p. 822)
Term
14.  The     houses developing lymphocytes and secretes hormones that regulate the development and action of T cells.  This organ is atrophied in     and is barely noticeable. . (Saladin, p. 823)
Definition
thymus   age
Term

15.  The most numerous lymphatic organs are

Definition

lymph nodes. . (Saladin, p. 823)  

 

Term

17.  What is the only organ that filters lymph as it flows along its course?

Definition

Lymph node. (Saladin, p. 823)

 

Term

 

18.  What causes the bottleneck effect that slows down lymph in the lymph node?   What is the benefit of this?

Definition

the lymph node which allows time for cleaning (Saladin, p. 824)

 

 

Term

 

19.  What is lymphadenitis and what causes it? 

Definition
when a lymph node is under challenge from a foreign antigen, it may become swollen and painful to the touch. (Saladin, p. 824)
Term

 

20.  Cancer of the lymph node is called        Describe a cancerous lymph node and how it would be different from lymphadenitis.

Definition
. lymphoma.         It is swollen but relatively firm and usually painless. (Saladin, p. 826)
Term

 

21.  Where are tonsils located?  What is their purpose? 

Definition

the entrance of the pharynx. They guard against ingested and inhaled pathogens. (Saladin, p. 827)

 

Term

 

22.   The largest lymphatic organ is the 

 

Definition

spleen. (Saladin, p. 827)

 

Term

 

23.  What is the red pulp of the spleen? 

Definition

Consists of sinues gorged with concentrated erythrocytes (Saladin, p. 828)

 

Term

 

24.  What is the white pulp of the spleen? 

Definition

Which consist of lymphocytes and macrophages aggregated like sleeves along small branches of the splenic artery. (Saladin, p. 828)

 

Term

 

25.  Why is the spleen called the “erythrocyte graveyard”?  Explain. 

Definition

old, fragile RBCs rupture as the squeeze through the capillary walls into the sinues. (Saladin, p. 828)

 

Term

 

26.  Can a person live without a spleen?  Explain.

Definition

Yes, but the person is somewhat more vulnerable to infection.

 

 

Term

24.  What is the white pulp of the spleen?

Definition

Which consist of lymphocytes and macrophages aggregated like sleeves along small branches of the splenic artery. (Saladin, p. 828)

 

 

Term
7.  Define pathogen.
Definition
Environmental agents capable of producing disease. (Saladin, p. 829)
Term

First line of defense –

Definition

consists of external barriers notably the skin and mucous membranes, which are impenetrable to most of the pathogens that daily assault us.

 

Term

 

            Second line of defense –

Definition

consists of several nonspecific defence mechanisms against pathogens that break through the skin or mucous membrane. They include leukocytes and macrophages, antimicrobial proteins, immunity surveillance, inflammation and fever.

 

Term

 

            Third line of defense –

Definition
is the immune system, which not ony defends a pathogen but leaves the body with a “memory” of it, enabling us to defent it so quickly in future encounters that the pathogen causes no illness.
Term

 

29.  The first two lines of defense above are called resistance because 

Definition
nonspecific    they guard equally against a broad range of pathogens and their effectiveness does not depends on prior exposure. (Saladin, p. 829)
Term
30.  is called a specific defense because 
Definition
immunity    it results from prior exposure to a pathogen and usually provides future protection only against particular ones. (Saladin, p. 829)
Term

Keratin –

Definition

a tough protein that few pathogens can penetrate.

 

         

Term
  Defensins
Definition

are peptides that kill microbes by creating holes in their membrane

 

Term

 

            Sweat – 

Definition

coats the skin with a thin film of lactic acid which inhibits bacterial growth

 

 

 

Term

            Mucus –

Definition

physically ensnares microbes

 

Term

 

            Hyaluronic acid – 

Definition
a thin layer of areolar tissue under the skin and mucous membranes who’s ground substance is hyaluronic acid. It is difficult for microbes to navigate through the sticky tissue.
Term

Neutrophils –

Definition

they spend most of their lives in connective tissue killing bacteria.

 

Term

 

            Eosinophils –

Definition

found in mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites, allergens, and other pathogens.

 

Term

 

            Basophils –

Definition

secrete chemicals that aid the mobility and actions of other leukocytes.

 

Term

 

            Lymphocytes –

Definition

natural killer cells, T cells and B cells.

 

Term

 

            Monocytes (macrophages)–

Definition
are leukocytes that emigrate from the blood into the connective tissues and transform into macrophages.
Term

33.  Describe the function of interferons.  When do cells secrete these proteins?  

Definition

When certain cells are infected with viruses, they secrete proteins , It is the “dying words: to alert neighboring cells and protect them from becoming infected. (Saladin, p. 830)

 

Term

 

34.  When interferons activate NK cells and macrophages, what happens? 

Definition

They destroy infected cells before they can liberate a swarm of newly replicated viruses. Interferons confer resistance not only to viruses but also cancer. (Saladin, p. 830)

 

Term

 

35.  What is the complement system?  Why is it named complement

 

Definition
Is a group of 30 or more globulins that make powerful contributions to both nonspecific and specific immunity. Because it “completes the action of antibody” (Saladin, p. 831)
Term

36.  What organ synthesizes complement proteins?

Definition

Liver (Saladin, p. 831)

 

Term
38.  What 4 methods of pathogen destruction is brought about by activated complement?
Definition
Inflammation, immune clearance, phagocytosis and cytolysis. (Saladin, p. 831)
Term

39.  The ­­­­     pathway of complement requires an antibody molecule to get it started; thus, it is a part of our       immunity. (Saladin, p. 831)

Definition
classical    specific
Term

40.  The cascade in the classical pathway is called           since it results in the

Definition
complement fixation, attachment of a chain of complement proteins to the antibody. (Saladin, p. 831)
Term

41.  The    and     pathways do not required an antibody and thus belong to our      defenses. (Saladin, p. 831)

Definition
alternative and lectin     nonspecific
Term

Inflammation –

Definition

C3a stimulates mast cells ad basophils to secrete histamine and other inflammatory chemicals. It also attachs neutrophils and macrophages, the two key cellular agents of pathogen destruction in inflammation

 

Term

 

            Immune clearance

Definition

C3b binds ag-ab complexes to red blood cells. As these RBCs circulate through the liver and spleen, the macrophages of those organs strip off and destroy the Ah-Ab complexes, leaving RBCs unharmed . This is the principal means of clearing foreign antigens from the bloodstream.

 

Term

 

            Phagocytosis –

Definition

Bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens are phagocytized and digested by neutrophils and macrophages, however these phagocytes cannot easly internalize “naked” microorganisms. Stuff helps them become more appetizing.

 

Term

 

            Opsonization – 

Definition

C3b splits another complement protein, C5, into C5a and C5b. it binds to the enemy cell and attracts complements C6, C7, anc C8, Thus conglomeration of the brotein goes on to bind with 17 molecules of complement C9 which make a righ called membrane attack complect. The complex forms a hole in the target cell up to 10 nm wide. The cell can no longer maintain homeostasis, electrolytes leak out, water flows in rapidly and the cell ruptures.

 

Term

 

            Cytolysis  

Definition
occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to move into the cell. would be expected to occur when bacterial cells are treated with a hypotonic solution with added lysozyme.
Term

 

43.  What is immune surveillance?

Definition
Is a phenomenon in which mantural killer cells continually patrol the body “on the lookout” for pathogens or diseased host cells. They attach and destroy bacteria, cells of transplanted organs and tissues, cells infected with viruses, and cancer cells (Saladin, p. 832)
Term

 

 

44.  Describe the action of Natural Killer (NK) cells.  .

Definition

upon recognition of an enemy cell, the NK cell binds to it and releases proteins which polymerise in a ring and create a hole in its plasma membrane. (Saladin, p. 83)

 

Term

 

45.  Define inflammation.

Definition

Is a local defensive response to tissue injury of any kind. (Saladin, p. 834)

 

Term

 

46.  What are the general purposes of inflammation?

Definition

To limit the spread of pathogens and ultimately destroy them, to remove the debris of damaged tissue and to initiate tissue repair. (Saladin, p. 834)

 

Term

47.  What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation?

Definition

Redness, swelling, heat, and pain (Saladin, p. 834)

 

Term

 

48. What is the suffix that means “inflammation of”?

Definition

denotes inflammation fo specific organs and tissues. (Saladin, p. 834)

 

Term

 

 

50.  Inflammation involves three major processes.  What are these? 

Definition

Mobilization of the body’s defenses, containment, and destruction of pathogens, and tissue cleanup and repair. (Saladin, p. 836)

 

Term

 

51.  Define hyperemia.  What is its purpose? 

Definition

increasing blood flow beyond its normal rate. To get leukocytes to the site quickly (Saladin, p. 836)

 

Term

 

52.  What is the role of histamine, kinins, and leukotrienes in hyperemia?  What cells secrete these vasoactive chemicals?

Definition

To secrete vasoactive chemicals that dilate blood vessels. (Saladin, p. 836)

 

Term

 

53.  What do the above vasoactive chemicals do to cell membrane permeability?  What is the purpose? 

Definition
increase capillary permeability It allows easier movement of fluid, leukocytes, and plasma proteins from the bloodstream into the surrounding tissue. (Saladin, p. 836)
Term

Selectins – 

Definition

cell adhesion molecule which makes membranes sticky and snag leukocytes arriving in the blood stream

 

Term

 

            Margination

Definition

adhesion the the vessel wall

 

Term

 

            Diapedesis –

Definition

leukocytes cral through the caps between endothelial cells and thus enter tissue fluid among the cells of the damaged tissue.

 

      

Term
     Chemotaxis – 
Definition

movement towards the source inflammatory tissues

 

Term

Heat –

Definition

a result of hyperemia

 

Term

 

            Redness –

Definition

due to hyperemia

 

Term

 

            Swelling (edema) –

Definition

increased fluid filtration from the capillaries

 

Term

 

            Pain –

Definition
direct injury to nerves, pressure on the nerves from the edema, and the stimulation pain receptors by prostaglandins, some bacterial toxins, and a kinin
Term

56.  The major agents of tissue cleanup and repair are

Definition

monocytes. (Saladin, p. 837)

 

Term

 

57.  How does edema contribute to tissue cleanup? 

Definition

The swelling compresses veins and reduces venous drainage while it forces open the valves of lympatic capillaries and promotes lymphatic drainage. (Saladin, p. 837)

 

Term

 

 

58.  Define fever

Definition

. Is an abnormal elevation of body temperature. (Saladin, p. 833)

 

Term

 

59.  In what 3 ways is fever beneficial? 

Definition
Promotes interferon activity, elevates metabolic rate and accelerates tissue repair and inhibits reproduction of bacterial and viruses. (Saladin, p. 833)
Term

60.  What is pyrogen?  What is another name given for this agent? 

Definition

Chemicals stimulate neurons in the anterior hypothalamus to secrete prostaglandin, raises the hypothalamic set point for body temperature. (Saladin, p. 833)

 

Term

 

61.  What does the elevated temperature of a fever stimulate in the liver and spleen, and what is the result?

Definition
It is a vasodilator that makes them secrete chemicals that effect bacteria.
Term

 

 

62.  What is the immune system composed of?

Definition

A large population of a large population of widely distributed cells that recognize foreign substances and act to neutralize of destroy them. (Saladin, p. 837)

 

Term

Specificity –

Definition

Immunity is directed against a particular pathogens. Immunity to one pathogen usually does not confer immunity to others. (Saladin, p. 838)

 

 

Term

 

            Memory –

Definition
When reexposed to the same pathogen, the body reacts so quickly that there is no noticeable illness. The reaction time for inflammation and other nonspecific defenses, by contrast, is just as long for later exposures as for initial one.
Term

64.  What are the two types of recognized immunity?

Definition

Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity and humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity. (Saladin, p. 838)

 

Term

 

65.  Describe cellular (cell-mediated) immunity.

Definition

Employs lymphocytes that directly attack and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells. (Saladin, p. 838)

 

Term

 

66.  Describe humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity

Definition

. Is mediated by antibodies, which do not directly destroy a pathogen, but tag them for destruction by mechanisms.

 

Term

 

67.  Give an example of humoral and cellular immunity attacking the same microorganism at different points in its life cycle.

Definition
Different immunities work in extracelluar stages and intercellular stages (Saladin p, 838)
Term

68.  Make a comparison between active immunity and passive immunity

Definition
Active immunity is a production of ones own immunity while passive immunity is receiving immunity from an external source. (Saladin, p. 838)
Term

Natural active immunity –

Definition

this is the production of one;s own antibodies or T cells as a result of natural exposure to an antigen

 

Term

 

            Artificial active immunity – 

Definition

This is the production of one’s own antibodies of T cells as a result of vaccination against diseases such as smallpox.

 

Term

 

            Natural passive immunity –

Definition

This is a temporary immunity that results from acquiring antibodies produced by another person.

 

Term

 

            Artificial passive immunity

Definition
This is a temporary immunity that results from the injecton of an immune serum obtained from another person or animal that produced antibodies against a certain pathogen.
Term

70.  What is vaccine?

Definition

Consists of either dead or attenuated pathogens that can stimulate an immune response but normally cause little or no discomfort or disease. (Saladin, p. 838)

 

Term

 

71.  Approximately how long does passive immunity last?

Definition

2-3 weeks. (Saladin, p. 838)

 

Term

 

72.  What is an antigen (Ag)?  When does the immune system “learn” to distinguish self-antigens from nonself-antigens? 

 

Definition

Is any molecule that triggers an immune response. The uniqueness allows them to learn prior to “birth”

 

Term

 

73.  What are epitopes (antigenic determinants)?

Definition

Stimulate immune responces. One antigen molecule typically has several different epitopes, however can stimulate the production of different antibodies. (Saladin, p. 838)

 

Term

 

74.  What is a hapten?  Give examples of haptens that people may be allergic. 

Definition
Are too small to be antigenic in themselves but they can stimulate an immune response by binding to a host macromolecule and creating a unique comples that the body recognizes as foregin. Cosmetics, detergents, industrial chemicals, poison ivy and animal dander. (Saladin, p. 838)
Term

75.  The two major cells of the immune system are

Definition

t lymphocytes and b lymphocytes. (Saladin, p. 839)

 

Term

 

76.  What are the 3 classes of lymphocytes? 

Definition

Natural killers, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. (Saladin, p. 839)

 

Term

 

77.  What are the 3 stages in the life history of a T cell and where do these occur? 

Definition

Birth (red bone marrow), training (thymus), and deployment (medulla of the thymus). (Saladin, p. 839)

 

Term

 

78.  What does it mean for a T cell to become immunocompetent

Definition

They know what the enemy is but have yet to encounter it, (Saladin, p. 839)

 

Term

 

79.  Only ­­­2% of the T cells pass their graduation test.  Then, where do they go and what do they do? 

Definition
They move to the medulla of the thymus and undergo positive selection, the multiply and form clones of identical t cells programed to repond to a particular antigen. (Saladin, p. 839)
Term

80.  What do naïve T cells  do?

Definition

Leave the thymus and colonize lymphatic tissues and organs everywhere in the body. (Saladin, p. 839)

 

Term

 

81.  Where do B cells differentiate?

Definition

Bone marrow (Saladin, p. 839)

 

Term

 

82.  What is the role of self-tolerant B cells and where do they hang out? 

Definition

Go to produce surface receotors for antigens, divide, and produce imunocompetent B cell clones, same organs as T cells. (Saladin, p. 840)

 

Term

 

83.  What is the role of antigen-presenting cells (APCs)?  

Definition
T cells cannot recognize antigens on their own, they need help of APCs (Saladin, p. 840)
Term

 

 

84.  What cells function as APCs? 

Definition
B cells (Saladin, p. 840)
Term

85.  What is a major histocompatability complex (MHC)?  What do they act as? 

Definition

Proteins on the surface that are shaped like little hotdog buns with an elongated grove holding the hotdog (antigen) of the of the foreign antigen. Act as identification tages that able every cell in your body as belonging to you. (Saladin, p. 840)

 

Term

 

86.  Describe the action of an antigen-presenting cell when it encounters an antigen. 

 

Definition

The T cell initiates an immune response. APCs thus aler the immune system to the presence of a foregin antigen. (Saladin, p. 840)

 

Term

 

87.  The      lert the immune system to the presence of        antigens. (Saladin, p. 841)

 

Definition
APCs     foreign
Term

 

88.  Describe the role of interleukins (cytokines). 

Definition
Chemical signals from one leukocyte to another. (Saladin, p. 841)
Term

 

            Cytotoxic T (TC) cells – 

Definition

 are the “effectors” of cellular immunity that carry out the attack on enemy cells. They are also called killer T cells, but they are not the same as natural killers.

 

Term

 

            Helper T (TH) cells –

Definition

promote the actions of T(c) cells as well as playing key roles in hormonal immunity and nonspecific resistance. All other T cells are involved in cellular immunity only.

 

Term

 

            Memory T (TM) cells –

Definition
inhibit multiplication and cytokine secretion by other T cells and thus limit immune responses. They are still not well understood, but seem especially important to preventing autoimmune disorders
Term

2.  What are other names given to TC?  Why?

Definition

T8, CD8 and CD8+ cells because they have glycoproteins called CD8 (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

 

3.  What are other names given to TH?  Why?

Definition

T4, CD4, and CD4+ because they have glycoproteins called CD4 (Saladin, p. 842)

 

 

Term

4.  Both cellular and humoral immunity occur in three stages.  List these stages. 

Definition

Recognition, attack, and memory. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

5.  What are the two aspects of the recognition phase of cellular immunity?

Definition

Antigen presentation and T cell activation. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

 

6.  What does the antigen-presenting cell (APC) typically do after it has encountered and processed an antigen?

Definition

Migrates to the nearest lymph node and displays it to T cells. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

 

7.  Where do many cytotoxic and helper T cells hang out?  What do they do when they encounter an APC displaying an antigen on an MHC protein?

Definition
Lymph nodes, initiate immune response (Saladin, p. 842)
Term

            MHC-I proteins –

Definition

occur on every nucleated cell of the body. These proteins are constantly produced by the cell and transported to the plasma membrane. Along they way, they pick up small peptides in they cytoplasm and display these once they are installed in the membrane. It leaves a tag that says “I’m diseased, kill me”

 

   

Term
        MHC-II proteins –
Definition
occur only APCs and display only foreign antigens.
Term

9.  Explain why cytotoxic T cells are activated by a broader range of host cells than are helper T cells.

Definition

Because helper cells only respond to antigen presenting cells while T(c)’s respond to any nucleated cell. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

 

10.  What begins T cell activation? 

Definition

When T(c) or T(h) binds to MHCP displaying an epitope that the T cell is programmed to recognize. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

 

11.  What must the T cell do in response?

Definition

Bind to another APC protein, relating to interleukins. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

Bind to another APC protein, relating to interleukins. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

12.  Explain the costimulation signaling process.  What does this trigger?  Explain. helps to ensure that the immune system does not launch an attack in the absence of an enemy, which could turn against one’s own body with injurious consequences. (Saladin, p. 842)

Definition
Term

 

12.  Explain the costimulation signaling process.  What does this trigger?  Explain. 

Definition
helps to ensure that the immune system does not launch an attack in the absence of an enemy, which could turn against one’s own body with injurious consequences. (Saladin, p. 842)
Term

13.  What are two avenues (directions) to which the cloned T cells may follow? 

 

Definition
Some become effector cells that carry out an immune attack and some become memory T cells. (Saladin, p. 842)
Term

 

14.  What is the role of the helper T cells in the attack phase? 

Definition

Are necessary for most immune response. They play a central role coordinating role in both humoral and cellular immunity. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

 

15.  What are the three effects of the interleukins that the T cell secretes when it recognizes the Ag-MHCP complex? 

Definition

They attract neutrophils and natural killer cells, they attract macrophages, stimulate their phagocytic activity and inhibit them from leaving the area and they stimulate the T and B cell mitosis and maturation. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

 

16.  What is the role of the cytotoxic T cells in the attack phase?

Definition
Are they only T lymphocytes that directly attack and kill other cells. (Saladin, p. 842)
Term

 

 

17.  What does it mean for the cytotoxic T cells to deliver a lethal hit

Definition

Of cytotoxic chemicals that will destroy it. (Saladin, p. 842)

 

Term

18.  What are the chemicals that are used in the lethal hit and what do they each do? 

Definition
Perforin and granzymes which kill the target cell, interferons, which inhibit viral replication and recruit and activate macrophages, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which aids in macrophages activation and kills cancer cells. (Saladin, p. 842)
Term