Term

Definition
1 Person A makes claim X.
2 Person B makes an attack on person A.
3 Therefore A's claim is false.



Term

Definition
1 Person A makes claim X.
2 Person B asserts that A's actions or past claims are inconsistent with the truth of claim X.
3 Therefore X is false.



Term

Definition
1 Person A is (claimed to be) an authority on subject S.
2 Person A makes claim C about subject S.
3 Therefore, C is true. 


Term

Definition
1 Most people believe that a claim, X, is true.
2 Therefore X is true. 


Term
Appeal to Common Practice 

Definition
1 X is a common action.
2 Therefore X is correct/moral/justified/reasonable, etc. 


Term
Appeal to Consequences of a Belief 

Definition
1 X is true because if people did not accept X as being true then there would be negative consequences.
2 X is false because if people did not accept X as being false, then there would be negative consequences.
3 X is true because accepting that X is true has positive consequences.
4 X is false because accepting that X is false has positive consequences.
5 I wish that X were true, therefore X is true. This is known as Wishful Thinking.
6 I wish that X were false, therefore X is false. This is known as Wishful Thinking. 


Term

Definition
1 Favorable emotions are associated with X.
2 Therefore, X is true. 


Term

Definition
1 Y is presented (a claim that is intended to produce fear).
2 Therefore claim X is true (a claim that is generally, but need not be, related to Y in some manner). 


Term

Definition
1 Person A is flattered by person B.
2 Person B makes claim X.
3 Therefore X is true. 


Term

Definition
1 X is new.
2 Therefore X is correct or better. 


Term

Definition
1 P is presented, with the intent to create pity.
2 Therefore claim C is true. 


Term

Definition
1 Most people approve of X (have favorable emotions towards X).
2 Therefore X is true. 


Term

Definition
1 X, which is some form of ridicule is presented (typically directed at the claim).
2 Therefore claim C is false. 


Term

Definition
1 Claim X is presented with the intent of generating spite.
2 Therefore claim C is false (or true) 


Term

Definition
1 X is old or traditional
2 Therefore X is correct or better. 


Term

Definition
1 Person P is pressured by his/her peers or threatened with rejection.
2 Therefore person P's claim X is false. 


Term

Definition
1 Premises in which the truth of the conclusion is claimed or the truth of the conclusion is assumed (either directly or indirectly).
2 Claim C (the conclusion) is true. 


Term

Definition
1 Sample S, which is biased, is taken from population P.
2 Conclusion C is drawn about Population P based on S.
1 X% of all observed A's are B''s.
2 Therefore X% of all A's are Bs. 


Term

Definition
1 Claim X is presented by side A and the burden of proof actually rests on side B.
2 Side B claims that X is false because there is no proof for X. 


Term
Circumstantial Ad Hominem 

Definition
1. Person A makes claim X.
2. Person B asserts that A makes claim X because it is in A's interest to claim X.
3. Therefore claim X is false.
1. Person A makes claim X.
2. Person B makes an attack on A's circumstances.
3. Therefore X is false. 


Term

Definition
1 Individual F things have characteristics A, B, C, etc.
2 Therefore, the (whole) class of F things has characteristics A, B, C, etc.
1 The parts of the whole X have characteristics A, B, C, etc.
2 Therefore the whole X must have characteristics A, B, C. 


Term
Confusing Cause and Effect 

Definition
1 A and B regularly occur together.
2 Therefore A is the cause of B. 


Term

Definition
1 The whole, X, has properties A, B, C, etc.
2 Therefore the parts of X have properties A, B, C, etc.
1 As a collective, Group or class X has properties A, B, C, etc.
2 Therefore the individual members of group or class X have properties A, B, C, etc. 


Term

Definition
1 Either claim X is true or claim Y is true (when X and Y could both be false).
2 Claim Y is false.
# Therefore claim X is true. 


Term

Definition
1 X has happened.
2 X departs from what is expected to occur on average or over the long term.
3 Therefore, X will come to an end soon. 


Term

Definition
1 The origin of a claim or thing is presented.
2 The claim is true(or false) or the thing is supported (or discredited). 


Term

Definition
1 It is pointed out that people person A does not like accept claim P.
2 Therefore P is false 


Term

Definition
1 Sample S, which is too small, is taken from population P.
2 Conclusion C is drawn about Population P based on S.
1 X% of all observed A's are B''s.
2 Therefore X% of all A's are Bs. 


Term

Definition
1 A and B are regularly connected (but no third, common cause is looked for).
2 Therefore A is the cause of B. 


Term

Definition
1 Position A and B are two extreme positions.
2 C is a position that rests in the middle between A and B.
3 Therefore C is the correct position. 


Term

Definition
1 Dramatic or vivid event X occurs (and is not in accord with the majority of the statistical evidence) .
2 Therefore events of type X are likely to occur. 


Term

Definition
Committed when a person substitutes abusive remarks for evidence when attacking another person's claim or claims. 


Term

Definition
1 Unfavorable information (be it true or false) about person A is presented.
2 Therefore any claims person A makes will be false. 


Term

Definition
1 A occurs before B.
2 Therefore A is the cause of B. 


Term

Definition
1 A and B are associated on a regular basis.
2 Therefore A is the cause of B. 


Term

Definition
1 Topic A is under discussion.
2 Topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A).
3 Topic A is abandoned. 


Term

Definition
1 Claim X is presented.
2 Person A asserts that X may be true for others but is not true for him/her.
3 Therefore A is justified in rejecting X. 


Term

Definition
1 Event X has occurred (or will or might occur).
2 Therefore event Y will inevitably happen. 


Term

Definition
1 Person A accepts standard(s) S and applies them to others in circumtance(s) C.
2 Person A is in circumstance(s) C.
3 Therefore A is exempt from S.
1 Barbara accepts that all murderers should be punished for their crimes.
2 Although she murdered Bill, Barbara claims she is an exception because she really would not like going to prison.
3 Therefore, the standard of punishing murderers should not be applied to her. 


Term

Definition
1 Xs with quality Q receive a great deal of attention or coverage in the media.
2 Therefore all Xs have quality Q. 


Term

Definition
1 Person A has position X.
2 Person B presents position Y (which is a distorted version of X).
3 Person B attacks position Y.
4 Therefore X is false/incorrect/flawed. 


Term

Definition
1 It is claimed that person B would do X to person A.
2 It is acceptable for person A to do X to person B (when A's doing X to B is not necessary to prevent B from doing X to A). 

