# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Logic Reasoning Flashcards - DO OR DIE
LSAT Logic Reasoning Flashcards
35
Law
10/16/2011

Term
 Logical Reasoning Method
Definition
 1. ID question type 2. Untangle stimulus 3. Predict 4. Evaluate answer choice
Term
Definition
 1. Extreme - statement that goes too far needed for conclusion 2. 180 - opposite of what the author believes or is assuming 3. Distortion - half right, half wrong 4. FUD - faulty use of detail - uses details from stimulus not relevant to assumption 5. Irrelevant comparison - makes a comparison that doesn't effect the argument 6. Out of Scope - most common wrong answer choice, goes beyond the stimulus
Term
 CONCLUSION
Definition
 What does the author want to know? What does he want to convince me of?
Term
 EVIDENCE
Definition
 Why does he feel the way he does?
Term
 LR - LOGICAL FLAWS AND ASSUMPTION
Definition
 Be on the lookout for disconnects between evidence and conclusion - every flawed argument makes an unwarranted assumption.
Term
 LOGICAL REASONING -  ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS
Definition
 1. Conclusion, because evidence 2. Correct answers are missing evidence that MBT 3. Think of assumption as a bridge b/w two cliffs, linking the evidence and conclusion in a logical way.
Term
 EVIDENCE + ASSUMPTION = CONCLUSION
Definition
 If evidence -> conclusion   ASSUMPTION = missing evidence   Look for mismatched terms
Term
 ASSUMPTION -  ONE SENTENCE TEST
Definition
 STRAGEDY   If you had to pick one sentence to bring what the AU wanted to convince you of - find the one sentence.
Term
Definition
 Always try to predict the correct answer and scan for it among the answer choices. However, when you have trouble predicting it, you can scan the choices and characterize and eliminate wrong answers.
Term
 LR ASSUMPTION - DIFFICULT AND AMBIGUOUS STIMULI
Definition
 Paraphrase lengthy and dense stimuli.  Stay focused on the gap between the conlusion and the premises - or evidence.
Term
 ASSUMPTION - THE DENIAL TEST
Definition
 Some assumptions are difficult to predict.  Scan the choices looking for the right general idea and then use the Denial Test on the one you choose to see what effect it has on the logic of the argument.
Term
 LR -  WEAKEN THE ARGUMENT
Definition
 Sum up the argument, identifying evidence and conclusion. Look for assumptions and for alternatives that make the conclusion less likely.
Term
 LR - WEAKENING CAUSAL ARGUMENTS
Definition
 When the argument makes a claim of causation, look for one of the three classic alternatives to an "X caused Y" argument:   1. The causality is reversed (Y actually caused X.) That's rare on the LSAT. 2. An alternative cause exists for the effect (Z caused Y). That's very common. 3. The connection between X and Y is coincidental.
Term
 LR - STRENGTHEN EXCEPT
Definition
 Characterize the answer choices - the four wrong answers will be strengtheners.
Term
 LR - STRENGTHEN THE ARGUMENT
Definition
 What would make it more believable that the evidence really does lead to the conclusion?
Term
 LR - SCOPE SHIFTS
Definition
 What concept appears in the conclusion that's not in the evidence?
Term
 LR - CLASSIC PATTERNS
Definition
 Consider the classic alternatives to a claim of causation.
Term
 LG - INFERENCE QUESTIONS - THE BASICS
Definition
 1. Identify the question type. "most strongly supported by the statements above." "properly inferred" "if the statements above are true"   2. Untangle the Stimulus. An inference stimulus will almost always be a set of facts, not an argument.   Accept each sentence as true, note any connections between sentencees, and translate any formal logic statements. 3. Make Prediction. 4.Evaluate the answer choice.
Term
 LR - INFERENCE QUESTIONS
Definition
 Understand each sentence individually, note connections beteen sentences, and evaluate each choice.  Remember: An inference is something that must be true based on the information in the stimulus.
Term
 EXCEPT
Definition
 Except means that you must carefully define the nature of the one right and four wrong answer choices.
Term
 LR - INFERENCE AND FORMAL LOGIC
Definition
 When you are dealing with formal logic in an inference question, you must translate each statement into simple terms.  Then look to combine statements, beginning with the most concrete.
Term
 LR - METHOD OF ARGUMENT
Definition
 This question is about structure, not content.  Paraphrase the argument in the simplest terms possible and test each choice rigorously against the stimulus.
Term
 TYPES OF KEYS WORDS
Definition
 1. Logic - evidence and conclusion 2. Illustration 3. Contrast - but, however, yet 4. Chronological order 5. Author speaking
Term
 FORMAL LOGIC - SUFFICIENT CONDITION
Definition
 SUFFICIENT CONDITION If All Every Any When/Whenever Always
Term
 LR - ASSUMPTION - IDENTIFY
Definition
 assumed assumption presuppose if added to the premises
Term
Definition
 Bridge the gap between the evidence and the conclusion.
Term
 LR - STRENGTHEN/WEAKEN - IDENTIFY
Definition
 strengthen most strongly supports the author   vs.   most weakens calls into questions undermines
Term
Definition
 Find the answer that makes the conclusion more/less likely to follow from the evidence.
Term
 LR - FLAW - IDENTIFY
Definition
 vulunerable to criticism questionable error of reasoning describes a flaw
Term
Definition
 Find disconnects between the evidence and the conclusion, and identify classic flaws.
Term
 LR - INFERENCE - IDENTIFY
Definition
 must be true logically completes the passage can be inferred which of the following is most strongly supported
Term
Definition
 Determine what must be true. Look for connections.
Term
 LR - PARALLEL REASONING - IDENTIFY
Definition
 parallel to similar to
Term
 LR - PARALLEL REASONING - TASK
Definition
 Compare part, of all, of the stimulus to the choices.
Term
 IDENTIFY KEYWORDS - NECESSARY CONDITION
Definition
 Only Only if Unless Must Need Required
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