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Lifespan questions
Comps questions for lifespan

Additional Education Flashcards




Name 4 Developmental Theories
1: Psychoanalytic (Freud & Erikson)
2: Learning Theories (Skinner & Bandura)
3: Cognitive Development (Piaget0
4: Contextual Systems approach (Vygotsky)
Psychoanalytic Theory (psychosexual)
-Freud's developmental theory
Three Major emphases
-(1): Unconscious motivation for behavior
-(2): Personality Structure(Id,Ego,Superego)
-Id:impulsive, irrational to satisfy instincts
-Ego:rational; realistically satisfies Id
-Superego: Moral side
-(3): Psychosexual stages of development:
-Oral(birth-1yr):Libido (id) is focused on mouse for pleasure
-Anal(1-3yrs): Libido focuses on anus; bio-urges vs society's demands
-Phallic(3-6yrs): Libido is genitals; identifies same sex parent and develops superego
-Genital(12-up): Puberty and sexual instincts to est mature relationships
Psychosocial theory
-Erikson revised Freud's work (neofreudian)
Created Psychosocial stages of Human development:
-Trust vs. Mistrust(b-1yr): trust caregivers for needs(critical)
-Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt(1-3yr): learn autonomy to assert own will/or they will doubt abilities.
-Initiative vs. Guild(3-6) devise plans and learn not to infringe on other's rights.
-industry vs. inferiority(6-12): master social/academic skills to keep up with peers or they will feel inferior
-identity vs. role confusion(12-20): est. social and vocational identities for adulthood
-intimacy vs. isolation(20-40): seek to share identity but may fear intimacy and experience loneliness.
-Generativity vs. Isolation(40-65) produce something as parents or workers; will become stagnant
-Integrity vs. Despair(65+) view life as meaningful to face death w/o regrets.
Learning Perspective (operant)
-Skinner and Bandura
-Classical conditioning:(Pavlov) reactions are learned through classical conditioning. Stimuli create a response that is learned
-Operant Conditioning: (Skinner)Reinforcement and Punishment happens as a consequence of a behavior. Reinforcement strengthens and Punishment weakens behavior.
-Social Learning Theory:(Bandura) Observational behavior that is learned by a model that is rewarded. Behavior is repeated in order to receive the same reward. (Reciprocal determinism=reciprocal interaction between behavior and environment)
Cognitive Developmental Theory
-Constructivism:children construct intelligence from exp in environment(not born with it;explorers)

-4 stages of cognitive development:
(1)Sensorimotor(b-2)deal with world through senses
(2)Preoperational(2-7)use words to communicate problem and can imagine doing something before doing it
(3)Concrete Operations(7-11)Can problem solve using concrete objects for trial and error. No abstract thinking
(4) Formal operations(11+)Can think in the abstract/hypothetical sense. define terms and predict
Systems Theory
Vygotsky: social beings who develop minds through interactions
-mutual influence between nature and nurture
-Change in the person is brought on by environment but environment changes based on the person

Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model
-development grows out of interacting with a system of influences
Stages of Moral Development
-6 developmental stages for responding to moral dilemmas
-expanded on Piaget's work

Pre-Conventional stage:child focuses on consequses of action
1:obedience and punishment driven (what will happen)
2.Self-Interest/best interest(what is in it for me)

Conventional: Adolescents and adults
3:conformity driven: "Good boy/girl"
4:Authority/social order: important to obey laws

Post-conventional: Principled level: basic rights of life liberty and justice
5:Social contract driven-promote welfare and greater good for the most

6:Ethical principle-Laws are valid as long as they are grounded in justice

Human nature is that we are communicative and able to reason
Sociocultural Perspective
Vygotsky's theory
-Culture and social experiences affect how we think
-children get cognitions from interacting with parents and adopting their language/knowledge
-kids learn from parents
-Zone of proximal development: learning comes from working a more knowledgeable partner
-Development comes from moving toward a higher range

-level of cognition development based on the knowledge of the people around
Life-Span Development
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