Shared Flashcard Set


Lesson 4 - The Atomosphe
5th Grade

Additional Science Flashcards




What are weather and climate?
  • layers of gases that surround the earth is called the atmosphere
  • Consist of nitrogen and oxygen
  • Contain  water vapor, carbon dioxide, and traces of other gases
  • atmosphere forms five layers
  • closest to Earth surface -- troposhere
  • above troposhere 
  • 1. stratosphere
  • 2. mesosphere
  • 3. thermosphere
  • 4. exosphere




  • Weather is the condition of the troposhere at a particular time and place.
  • Almost ALL weather occur in the troposphere
  • Weather can be:
  • 1. hot or cold
  • 2. wet or dry
  • 3. calm or stormy
  • 4. sunny or cloudy



  •  Climate is the average weather of a place
  • Average temperature and average precipitation are important variables in determining climate.
  • Latitude --- distance north or south of the equator,has the strongest effect on climate.


  • Particles of gas press on Earth's surface and everything they surround
  • The Force placed in any given area by the weight of th air above it is called air pressure or atmospheric pressure.
  • Do not feel weight because atmospheric pressure pushes in all direction.


How do Oceans Affect temperature?
  • Bodies of water and areas of land affect the temperature of the air above them.
  • Air that is in contact with a body of water is warmed in the winter adn cooled in the summer.
  • Temperature of the land increases faster than temperature of the water.



  • The air above land also warms faster than air above the sea.
  • warm air above land becomes less dense,atmospheric pressure decreases and warm air rises
  • Air above the ocean has higher pressure than air above land
  • Cooler higher pressure air above the ocean moves toward warmer lower pressue air above land.
  • Movement of air from the water to the land is called SEA Breeze



  • At night the land and water both begin to cool.
  • Land cools faster than water, so air above the water stays warmer and has a lower pressure than air above the land
  •  Warm air rises and cooler higher pressure air above land moves toward the water.
  • The movement of air from the land to water is called land breeze
  • In fall and winter ocean slowly loses heat it gain in the summer
  • In winter air above the water usually stays warmer than air above land
How do mountains and ocean currents affect Climate?
  • Constant movement of Ocean water is called current
  • Gulf Stream - runs along the east coast of US and across the Atlantic Ocean- carries water near equator toward the poles
  • Other currents carry cold water from the POLES to the equator
  • Temperature of CURRENT affects Climate of land nearby
  • Areas with cool currents like California have cool temperature
  • Lands areas near warm currents like the GULF Stream have warm temperture
  • Ocean Currents move heat around the world in the oceans.
  • they move heat around the work in the ATMOSPHERE through water vapors
  • Global winds carry water vapor to cooler regions from the equator -- then water vapor condenses releasing heat into the atmosphere.
  • Transfer of heat through atmosphere and through the water keeps temperature on Earth with a narrow range




  • Altitude is a measure of how high a place is above sea level.
  • Higher the altitude the cooler the climate
  • Rain patterns affect mountain ranges
  • Warm moist air moves up a mountain it gets colder water vapor codenses precipitation falls on one side of the mountain --- this side is called windward side
  • Air that moves down the other side of the mountain is leeward side-- which is dry and hot which is called rain shadow.
What is EL NINO?
  • Every 2 to 7 years cold  current sinks and stops pushing cold water to the surface which causes a change in weather conditions called EL Nino
  • El nino warmer temperature at the surface of the water near Peru causes the air pressure there to decrease
  • Change in air pressure may cause the winds to reverse direction
Supporting users have an ad free experience!