Shared Flashcard Set


Learning Theories
Adult learning theories

Additional Education Flashcards




Adult Learning Theory
(K.P. Cross)
ask, acquire, appraise, apply and assess.
Adults learn better in a problem based and collaborative environment, with more equality in between the teacher and the learner.
(Malcolm Knowles)
The theories of adult learning vs how children learn
active involvement of self-directed learners in a constructivist environment.
Experiential learning theory
(Carl Rogers)
practice, reflection, connecting coursework and practical experience and implementing creative ideas in practice.
Information processing theory
(G. Miller)
short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of information (seven plus or minus two) where a chunk is any meaningful unit.
The concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short-term memory became a basic element of all subsequent theories of memory.
2. Short term memory (or attention span) is limited to seven chunks of information.
3. Planning (in the form of TOTE units) is a fundamental cognitive process.
4. Behavior is hierarchically organized (e.g., chunks, TOTE units).
Multiple intelligences
(Howard Gardner)
There are a number of distinct forms of intelligence that each individual possesses in varying degrees:

seven primary forms: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic,
intrapersonal (e.g., insight,
and interpersonal (e.g., social skills).
Script theory
(R. Schank)
1. Conceptualization is defined as an act or doing something to an object in a direction.
2. All conceptualizations can be analyzed in terms of a small number of primative acts.
3. All memory is episodic and organized in terms of scripts.
4. Scripts allow individuals to make inferences and hence understand verbal/written discourse.
5. Higher level expectations are created by goals and plans.
Situated learning
(J. Lave)
(Brown, Collins & Duguid)
learning is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated).
1. Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context, i.e., settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge.
2. Learning requires social interaction and collaboration.
Social Learning
(Albert Bandura)
observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.
1. The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.
2. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value.
3. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
Attribution theory
Assumes that people try to determine why people do what they do, i.e., attribute causes to behavior.
1. Attribution is a three stage process: (1) behavior is observed, (2) behavior is determined to be deliberate, and (3) behavior is attributed to internal or external causes.
2. Achievement can be attributed to (1) effort, (2) ability, (3) level of task difficulty, or (4) luck.
3. Causal dimensions of behavior are (1) locus of control, (2) stability, and (3) controllability.
Cognitive dissonance theory
(Leon Festinger)
When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance.
Two factors affect the strength of the dissonance:
1. the number of dissonant beliefs, and
2. the importance attached to each belief.
There are three ways to eliminate dissonance:
(1) reduce the importance of the dissonant beliefs,
(2) add more consonant beliefs that outweigh the dissonant beliefs, or
(3) change the dissonant beliefs so that they are no longer inconsistent.
Constructivist theory
(Jerome Bruner)
Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.
The instructor and student should engage in an active dialog (i.e., Socratic learning).
1. Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness).
2. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization).
3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given)
Transformational Theory
(Jack Mezirow)
The theory has two basic kinds of learning: instrumental and communicative learning. Instrumental learning focuses on learning through task-oriented problem solving and determination of cause and effect relationships. Communicative learning involves how individuals communicate their feelings, needs and desires.
1. Adult exhibit two kinds of learning: instrumental (e.g., cause/effect) and communicative (e.g., feelings)
2. Learning involves change to meaning structures (perspectives and schemes).
3. Change to meaning structures occurs through reflection about content, process or premises.
4. Learning can involve: refining/elaborating meaning schemes, learning new schemes, transforming schemes, or transforming perspectives.
Critical Pedagogy
Teaching Children=pedagogy
students are encouraged to question dominant or common notions of meaning and form their own understanding of what they learn
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