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Lean Six Sigma
Lean Six Sigma study
121
Management
Professional
05/28/2016

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Term
Kaoru Ishikawa
Definition
Developed cause and effect diagram (fishbone)
Term
Net present value formula
Definition
=Futurevalue/(1+r)squared
Term
S.W.O.T acronym stand for
Definition
S-Strength
W-Weakness
0-Opportunity
T-Threat
Term
SIPOC acronym stand for
Definition
S-Supply
I-Input
P-Process
O-Output
C-Customer
Term
80-20 rule is known as
Definition
Paretto analysis- 20 percent of cause is 80 percent of effect
Term
Father of Six Sigma
Definition
Bill Smith
Term
Muda
Definition
Japanese term for waste
Term
A type of variation which is natural and inherent to a process. These causes act randomly and independently of each other, are difficult to eliminate, and often require changes to a process or system.
Definition
Common Cause Variation
Term
A form of deductive logic that makes an item-by-item comparison using data and facts.
Definition
Comparative Analysis
Term
Refers to data that is measured on a continuum. It is data that is measured on an infinitely divisible scale (e.g., time, weight, and temperature) such that one half a unit still makes sense; half a minute, half a pound, etc.
Definition
Continuous Data (aka Variable Data)
Term
Broadly describes ongoing, incremental efforts to make products and processes better.
Definition
Continuous Improvement
Term
Time charts designed to display signals or warnings of special cause variation.
Definition
control charts
Term
Quantifies the negative outcomes (costs) due to waste, inefficiencies, and defects in a process.
Definition
Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)
Term
A process map that separates process steps by function, department or individual. This provides a visual that displays not just the steps in a process but also which individuals, group or department performs those steps.
Definition
Cross Functional Flowchart (aka Deployment or Swimlane Map)
Term
A statistical concept expressed as the letter "r" that measures the strength and type of the relationship between two factors ('X' and 'Y').
Definition
Correlation Coefficient (aka Pearson Correlation)
Term
The measurement of the time elapsed from the beginning of a process or a step to its end.
Definition
cycle time
Term
Any aspect of a product or service that is critical to the customer. Useful in calculating DPO and DPMO.
Definition
Defect Opportunity
Term
Term applied to any process, product, or service with one or more defects.
Definition
Defective
Term
Refers to categories or counts that can only be described in whole numbers; i.e. you can't have half a defect or half a customer. This type of data is the opposite of continuous or variable data (temperature, weight, distance, etc.).
Definition
Discrete Data (aka Attribute Data)
Term
A statistical concept that describes the variation between values in a data set.
Definition
dispersion
Term
DMAIC
Definition
A methodology for improving existing processes. Stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.
Term
Metric that indicates the number of defects in a process per one million opportunities. Is calculated by the number of defects divided by (the number of units times the number of opportunities), multiplied by one million.
Definition
Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO)
Term
A metric that indicates the number of defects in a process per opportunity. Calculated by the number of defects divided by the number of units times the number of opportunities.
Definition
Defects per Opportunity (DPO)
Term
Measures the amount of resources used in maximizing the output of a process.
Definition
efficiency
Term
A risk management tool that identifies and quantifies the influence of potential failures in a system.
Definition
Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Term
A structured brainstorming tool designed to assist an improvement team in listing potential causes of a specific effect.
Definition
Fishbone Diagram
Term
A brainstorming method which pits "driving" (positive) and "restraining" (negative) forces that support or oppose an idea.
Definition
Force Field Analysis
Term
A Japanese term that translates to the "real place" or where the work takes place.
Definition
Gemba (aka Workplace)
Term
States the desired results of a process improvement project. It is a fundamental part of any Project Charter.
Definition
Goal Statement
Term
A visual display of the spread of variation in a process which shows the frequency of each value in the data set.
Definition
Histogram
Term
An educated guess about the suspected cause (or causes) of defects in a process.
Definition
Hypothesis Statement
Term
The set of changes to an organization that make any process improvement permanent. These changes not only include procedural ones, but cultural (employee attitude and behavior) changes as well.
Definition
Institutionalization
Term
A system for producing and delivering the right items, at the right time, in the right place, and in the right amounts. This concept is integral to the idea of a Pull system.
Definition
Just-In-Time (aka JIT)
Term
In practice, generally spans from 1 to 5 days and involves key process participants focusing on solving a narrowly scoped process improvement opportunity.
Definition
Kaizen Event (aka Rapid Improvement Event)
Term
Japanese term that translates to "card" or "board" and indicates some form of signal within a process. Part of Just In Time (JIT) processing where either a physical or electronic device indicates that it's time to order inventory, process a unit or move to the next step in a process.
Definition
Kanban (aka signboard)
Term
kano model
Definition
A technique that categorizes customer requirements into three types:

1. Delighters
2. Satisfiers
3. Dissatisfiers.
Term
lead time
Definition
The measure of the cycle time from the moment a customer places an order to the moment they receive the desired goods or services.
Term
Lean
Definition
Systematic method for the elimination of waste from a process with the goal of providing what is of value to the customer. Much of what constitutes this method stems from tools developed at Toyota while creating the Toyota Production System.
Term
Management By Fact
Definition
Uses data and measurements in decision-making.
Term
Mistake Proofing (aka Poka Yoke)
Definition
To consciously and diligently try to eliminate defects by preventing human errors before they occur or create alarms to warn of potential defects.
Term
Non-Value Adding Activities
Definition
Refer to process steps that fail to meet one or more of the following criteria:

-The step transforms the item toward completion (something changes)
-The step is done right the first time (not a rework step)
-The customer cares (or would pay) for the step to be done
Term
Null Hypothesis
Definition
Known as H₀, is the hypothesis statement that maintains there is no difference between two or more data samples.
Term
pareto chart
Definition
A quality chart of discrete data that helps identify the most significant types of defect occurrences.
Term
PDCA (aka Plan Do Check Adjust)
Definition
It's a method developed by Dr. Deming that favors trial and error over extensive planning and trying for perfection up front with the assumption the each test allows for essential fine tuning.
Term
Problem Statement
Definition
A clear, concise statement about the symptoms of issues being encountered in a process.
Term
Process Capability
Definition
A measurement of how well a Process' Outputs meet Customer Requirements.
Term
Process Capability Indicators
Definition
Metrics that indicate how closely process outputs align within customer specifications when using continuous data (time, weight, volume, etc).
Term
Pull
Definition
Type of system that refers to the goal of having units moved through the process at the rate of customer demand.
Term
Push
Definition
Type of system that refers to processes that rely on forecasting or the practice of creating excess goods and services to maintain a buffer.
Term
Quality
Definition
Describes how well a process consistently meets customer requirements.
Term
RACI
Definition
Matrix that outlines different levels of accountability and responsibility as related to an action item list.
Term
Rapid Improvement Event (aka Kaizen Event)
Definition
In practice, generally spans from 1 to 5 days and involves key process participants focusing on solving a narrowly scoped process improvement opportunity.
Term
Rolled Throughout Yield
Definition
A type of yield that measures how many units "roll through" a process, first pass, without defects.
Term
sampling
Definition
A measurement technique where smaller amounts of representative data can be used to understand the larger population.
Term
Sampling Bias
Definition
The result of sampling based on some preconceived judgement or convenience.
Term
Scatter Plot
Definition
Chart that shows the relationship between two variables (if any). Also known as an XY Plot since the variables are plotted on the X and Y axis.
Term
Seiketsu (aka Standardize)
Definition
Japanese word for "Standardize" which is the fourth step in the 5S method.
Term
Seiri (aka Sort)
Definition
Japanese word for "Sort" which is the first step in the 5S method.
Term
Seiso (aka Shine)
Definition
Japanese word for "Shine" which is the third step in the 5S method.
Term
Seiton (aka Set in Order)
Definition
Japanese word for "Set In Order" which is the second step in the 5S method.
Term
Single-Piece-Flow
Definition
The concept that products should flow from operation to operation in the smallest increment, with one piece being the ideal.
Term
SMED (aka Single Minute Exchange of Die)
Definition
The practice of dramatically reducing or eliminating the time to change from one method or unit to another where the goal is to reduce the changeover time to single digits or under 10 minutes.
Term
Spaghetti Chart
Definition
Graphical tool used to track the movement of people and distances travelled in a work process. This tool tracks movement in office spaces as well as manufacturing shop floors.
Term
Special Cause Variation
Definition
Refers to variation in a process which is sporadic and non-random.
Term
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
Definition
A quality control concept that uses statistical methods to monitor processes and uses Control Charts to gather and analyze data, and helps to determine if processes are "out of control."
Term
Standard Deviation
Definition
A statistical measure that shows the average amount that values vary (aka "Dispersion") from the mean.
Term
Standard Work
Definition
Refers to the goal of eliminating the variation in how a process or process step is completed.
Term
Stratification
Definition
Data analysis technique where values are grouped into different layers (i.e., "strata") in order to better understand data.
Term
supermarket
Definition
Refers to a visual stocking system used in tandem with Kanban or reorder signals in a Pull system.
Term
Takt Time
Definition
It is the average unit production time needed to meet customer demand. This is calculated by dividing the time available (minutes of work/day) by the customer demand (units required/day).
Term
Threats & Opportunities Matrix
Definition
A simple 2 x 2 grid that captures the downsides of not implementing a proposed solution and, conversely, the potential upsides if the solution is accepted.
Term
value added activities
Definition
Any activities that add value to the customer and meet the three criteria:

1. The step transforms the item toward completion
2. The step is done right the first time (not a rework step)
3. The customer cares (or would pay) for the step to be done
Term
Value Analysis
Definition
Involves assessing each process step through the eyes of the customer and determining whether the step is a Value Adding Activity (VA), a Non-Value Adding Activity (NVA) or a Value Enabling Activity (VE).
Term
Value Stream Map
Definition
A method of mapping that includes data as well as process steps with the goal of identifying waste in the system.
Term
variation
Definition
Describes how consistent a process' output is.
Term
Visual Management
Definition
The practice of making it easy to see how a process flows and what to do at each step.
Term
VOC Translation Matrix
Definition
Tool that helps teams take customer comments, determine the underlying issues represented by those comments and use this information to develop measurable customer requirements.
Term
Voice of the Customer (VOC)
Definition
Data that represents the needs and wants of your customers.
Term
Weighted Criteria Matrix
Definition
A decision-making tool that evaluates potential options against a list of weighted factors.
Term
Anderson-Darling Test for Normality (aka Normality Test)
Definition
A statistical test that determines whether or not a data set is normally distributed. A normal distribution is often referred to as a "Bell Curve." Whether a distribution is normal or not determines which tests or functions can be used with a particular data set.
Term
Measurement Systems Analysis (aka MSA, aka Gage R&R)
Definition
An experiment designed to assess various elements of data collection including the procedures of data collection, the measuring device or "gage" being used, the understanding of the operators and any factors that might cause variation. The goal is to reduce defects and variation within the data collection process itself.
Term
Sampling Calculations (aka Sample Size Calculation)
Definition
Sampling calculations are the formulas involved in Sampling that take into account a number of considerations including, the standard deviation of continuous data, the proportion defective of discrete data, the desired precision of the sample and the confidence level appropriate for the data being sampled. The goal of the sampling calculation is to determine the least amount of units that need to be sampled while still reflecting the entire population.
Term
One Proportion Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that can be used to determine whether a process is performing at the level of an established standard. It provides a way to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the standard and a particular data set or whether the difference is due to random chance.

An example would be testing if a vendor that has guaranteed 48 hour delivery is performing as promised.
Term
Two Proportions Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that can be used to determine whether the proportion defective of one strata of a process is statistically different from the proportion defective (or yield) of another strata of a process. It is useful for determining whether a particular strata or group could provide insight into the root cause of process issues.

An example would be testing if the product defect rates are truly different for two separate production lines or whether the difference is due to random chance.
Term
F-Test (aka Test for Two Variances)
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between the variance of two independent sets of normally distributed continuous data. It is useful for determining if a particular strata or group could provide insight into the root cause of process issues.

An example would be if Assembly Line A has product weights with a variance of 1 pound whereas Assembly Line B has product weights with a variance of 2 pounds and you want to determine if Line A truly has less variation or the difference is just due to random chance.
Term
Bartlett's Test
Definition
Bartlett's Test is a hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between the variances of two or more independent sets of normally distributed continuous data. It is useful for determining if a particular strata or group could provide insight into the root cause of process issues.

An example would be if Assembly Line A product weights have a variance of 1 gram, Assembly Line B product weights have a variance of 2 grams and Assembly Line C product weights have variance of 2.5 grams and you want to determine if any of the 3 lines truly has less/more variation than the others or if the difference is just due to random chance.
Term
One-Sample T-Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between the average of a normally distributed continuous data set and a standard. It provides a way to determine if there is truly a difference between the standard and a particular data set mean or whether the difference is due to random chance.

An example would be testing whether a supplier, that has guaranteed an average 12-ounce fill rate on their beverages, is performing as promised.
Term
Two-Sample T-Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between the averages of two independent sets of normally distributed continuous data. It is useful for determining if a particular strata or group could provide insight into the root cause of process issues.

An example would be if Location A has average sales of $3,567 per month whereas Location B has average sales of $3,843 per month and you want to determine if Location B truly has greater averages sales or the difference is just due to random chance
Term
One-Way ANOVA
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference (aka variance) exists between the averages of two or more independent sets of normally distributed continuous data. It is useful for determining if a particular strata or group could provide insight into the root cause of process issues.

An example would be if Assembly Line A products weigh an average of 10.4 pounds, Assembly Line B products weigh an average of 9.2 pounds and Assembly Line C products weigh an average of 11 pounds and you want to determine if any of the 3 lines truly has a different average from the others or if the difference is just due to random chance.
Term
Levene's Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between the variance of two or more independent sets of non-normally distributed continuous data. It is useful for determining if a particular strata or group could provide insight into the root cause of process issues.

An example would be if Assembly Line A has cycle times with a variance of 2 minutes where as Assembly Line B has cycle times with a variance of 3 minutes and you want to determine if Line A truly has less variation or if the difference is just due to random chance.
Term
One-Sample Sign Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between the median of a non-normally distributed continuous data set and a standard. It provides a way to determine if there is truly a difference between the standard and a particular data set median or whether the difference is due to random chance.

An example would be testing whether a call center, that has guaranteed a median hold-time of 1 minute, is performing as promised.
Term
Mann-Whitney Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between the medians of two independent sets of non-normally distributed continuous data. It is useful for determining if a particular strata or group could provide insight into the root cause of process issues.

An example would be if Pizza Delivery Person A has median delivery time of 15 minutes whereas Pizza Delivery Person B has median delivery time of 17 minutes and you want to determine if Person B is truly slower or if the difference is just due to random chance.
Term
Mood's Median Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between the medians of two or more independent sets of non-normally distributed continuous data. It is useful for determining if a particular strata or group could provide insight into the root cause of process issues.

An example would be if Assembly Line A products have a median production cycle time of 10.3 minutes, Assembly Line B products have a median production cycle time of 9 minutes and Assembly Line C have a median production cycle time of 11.5 minutes and you want to determine if any of the 3 lines truly have different median cycle times from the others or if the difference is just due to random chance.
Term
Regression Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether there is a correlation between two paired sets of continuous data. It is useful for determining if changes in Y can be attributable to a particular X. It produces a "prediction equation" that estimates the value of Y that can be expected for any given value of X within the range of the data set.

An example would be to test if rainfall and crop yield were correlated and then to calculate approximately how much water is required to achieve the desired yield.
Term
Multiple Regression Test
Definition
A hypothesis test that determines whether there is a correlation between two or more values of X and the output, Y, of continuous data. It is useful for determining the level to which changes in Y can be attributable to one or more Xs. It produces a "prediction equation" that estimates the value of Y that can be expected for given values of one or more X values within the range of the data set.

An example would be to test if crop yield were correlated to both rainfall and fertilizer amount, and then to calculate approximately how much water and fertilizer are required to achieve the desired yield.
Term
DOE - One Factor At A Time (aka OFAT)
Definition
The simplest form of a Design of Experiments that enables operators to observe the changes occurring in the output (Y Response,) of a process while changing one input (X Factor).

An example would be to test the cycle time (Y) to cook a pizza in one oven as a result of altering the temperature (X) in that oven.
Term
DOE - Full Factorial
Definition
A form of Design of Experiments that enables operators to observe the changes occurring in the output (Y Response,) of a process while changing more than one input (X Factors). This test highlights shifts in the average response or output associated with multiple factors. It also evaluates how factors in a process might interact.

An example would be to test the cycle time (Y) to cook a pizza in different ovens (X1) at different temperatures (X2).
Term
DOE - Fractional Factorial
Definition
A form of Design of Experiments that enables operators to observe the changes occurring in the output (Y Response,) of a process while changing more than one input (X Factors) without running every single potential treatment combination. This test highlights shifts in the average response or output associated with multiple factors with less time and effort than required for a full factorial experiment. It has a diminished ability to evaluate how factors in a process might interact.

An example would be to test the cycle time (Y) to cook a pizza in different ovens (X1), at different temperatures (X2), and with different toppings (X3) without running every single combination of the three factors.
Term
I & MR Chart (aka X & MR or Chart)
Definition
Control Charts designed for tracking single points of continuous data. They consist of two separate charts; "I" stands for the "Individual" Chart which tracks the individual data points (or pre-summarized data) and "MR" stands for "Moving Range" Chart which tracks the absolute value of the distance between each pair of consecutive data points. These are considered the most flexible of the Control Charts and are often used to track business performance data.

A classic example is to track daily total sales.
Term
X-Bar & R Chart
Definition
Control Charts designed for tracking the average of sub-grouped continuous data. They consist of two separate charts; "X-Bar" stands for the "Average" Chart which tracks the mean of sub-groups of up to 6 data points and "R" stands for "Range" Chart which tracks the difference between the maximum and minimum values in the subgroup. These charts are not as sensitive to non-normal data as the I & MR Charts.

A classic example is to track the average cycle time to deliver packages by sampling 5 packages per day.
Term
X-Bar & S Charts
Definition
Control Charts designed for tracking the average of large sub-groups of continuous data. They consist of two separate charts; "X-Bar" stands for the "Average" Chart which tracks the mean of sub-groups of 6 or more data points and "S" stands for the "Standard Deviation" Chart which calculates the standard deviation within each subgroup. These charts are useful for detecting shifts in the "center" or average with large subgroups.

A classic example is to track the food order cycle time to deliver packages by sampling 10 orders per day.
Term
P Chart
Definition
Control Charts designed for tracking the proportion defective for discrete data.These charts require both the total population as well as the count of defective units in order to plot the proportion.

A classic example is to track the proportion of defective products returned each month.
Term
nP Chart
Definition
nP Charts are Control Charts designed for tracking the number of defective items for discrete data in consistently sized sub-groups.

A classic example an nP Chart is to track the number of defective products per lot shipped where the lot size was constant.
Term
C Chart
Definition
C Charts are Control Charts designed for tracking the count of defects for discrete data in consistently sized sub-groups.

A classic example of a C Chart is to track the number of defects per application, which are all 10 pages each.
Term
U Chart
Definition
Control Charts designed for tracking the number of defects per unit for discrete data.

A classic example is to track the number of scratches on new smart phone cases at a manufacturing facility.
Term
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Definition
A list of basic process improvement tools and techniques. The list is generally attributed to Kaoru Ishikawa, a follower of Dr. Edwards Deming, who is also famous for popularizing the Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram. In an effort to reduce the complexity of Statistical Process Control, and make it more accessible for the average worker, he compiled a shortlist of simple but powerful Lean Six Sigma tools.

The list includes:
- Cause & Effect Diagram (aka Fishbone Diagram)
- Checksheet
- Control Chart
- Histogram
- Pareto Chart
- Scatter Diagram (aka Scatter Plot)
- Stratification (often replaced with Flow Chart)
Term
Flow Chart (aka Process Map)
Definition
A step-by-step diagram that shows the activities needed to complete a process. Creating this is one of the first steps in a Lean Six Sigma process improvement project.
Term
Root Cause Analysis
Definition
It is the method of finding the source of process problems by uncovering their origin or "root." This is in contrast to focusing on fixing the symptoms or effects of process issues. If a "root cause" is removed or neutralized then the undesirable effects will no longer impact the process in question.
Term
Taguchi Methods
Definition
They are a 3-pronged quality approach developed by the Japanese statistician Genichi Taguchi. By focusing on 1) better design ideas 2) rigorous testing of the design, and 3) reducing the impact of anything that would cause variation. His goal was to create a more robust product prior to full scale production. They are aimed to deliver exactly what the customer wanted by reducing variation and lowering costs in the process.
Term
Taguchi Loss Function
Definition
This is an equation that measures the "loss" experienced by customers as a function of how much a product varied from what the customer found useful. His idea rocked the quality world because the common wisdom held that when products met internal measures they were "good" and if they fell outside the limits they were "defects." Taguchi looked at variation from the eyes of the customer and decided to grade on a curve.
Term
Jidoka (aka Autonomation)
Definition
This technique was invented by Sakichi Toyoda back in the 1896 so that his power loom invention would stop and and allow workers to intervene and fix the issues. The 4 steps in Jidoka are:

1. Detect the abnormality
2. Stop the machine
3. Fix what is wrong
4. Find and solve the root cause

It is considered one of the pillars of the Toyota Production System.
Term
TOC (aka Theory of Constraints)
Definition
This boils down to the idea that a process is only as good as its weakest link - and the weak links are bottlenecks. This idea was developed by Eliyahu Goldratt and made famous in his book, "The Goal", a novel based on a production plant. Once the major bottleneck is discovered, the idea is to reduce or eliminate it knowing that another, lesser bottleneck will emerge in its place. This systematic approach to rapid improvement states that only by systematically addressing each successively smaller bottleneck will the company reach its financial goal.
Term
Hidden Plant
Definition
This is a term coined by Quality guru Armand Feigenbaum to point out the often un-tracked waste of rework. He discovered that up to 40% of the capacity at a typical manufacturing plant was spent on fixing what was not done right the first time.
Term
TQC (aka Total Quality Control)
Definition
This was a concept created by quality guru Armand Feigenbaum in the 1950s. He maintained that Quality was not just the job of engineers or confined to production. TQC holds that every part of the company has to work in a coordinated way to serve the user or customer.
Term
Design of Experiments (aka DOE)
Definition
This is an active method of manipulating a process as opposed to passively observing a process and enables operators to evaluate the changes occurring in the output (Y Response,) of a process while changing one or more inputs (X Factors).
Term
Zero Defects
Definition
MOTION

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Term
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Definition

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This is a method, popularized by the quality guru Shigeo Shingo, that proposes removing the need for inspection by eliminating the possibility of human error. Mr. Shingo was a proponent of Poka Yoke or Mistake Proofing processes which is a key component to removing the need for inspection. The idea is that by removing the root causes of errors, it is possible to achieve zero defects.
Zero Quality Control
This is a goal coined by quality guru Philip Crosby which challenged management to commit time and effort to doing things right the first time. This type of goal worked against the conventional wisdom that human error was inevitable.
Term
The Four Absolutes of Quality
Definition
These were developed by quality guru Philip Crosby as a way to promote the idea increased quality did not mean increased cost. Quality and cost were not in competition which he expanded on in his best-seller, "Quality Is Free."

The Four Absolutes:

1. Quality is defined as conformance to requirements
2. The system for causing quality is prevention, not appraisal
3. The performance standard must be Zero Defects
4. The measurement of quality is the Price of Nonconformance
Term
Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement
Definition
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These were developed by quality guru Philip Crosby as a way to promote the idea increased quality did not mean increased cost. Quality and cost were not in competition which he expanded on in his best-seller, "Quality Is Free."

The Four Absolutes:

1. Quality is defined as conformance to requirements
2. The system for causing quality is prevention, not appraisal
3. The performance standard must be Zero Defects
4. The measurement of quality is the Price of Nonconformance
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The Four Absolutes of Quality
These are quality guru Philip Crosby's recipe for long-term process improvement. His opinion was that these steps were the responsibility of management but involved the people who did the work. These steps provided guidelines as well as a method for communicating his Four Absolutes.

The 14 Steps to Quality Improvement:

Step 1: Management Commitment
Step 2: Quality Improvement Team
Step 3: Quality Measurement
Step 4: Cost of Quality Evaluation
Step 5: Quality Awareness
Step 6: Corrective Action
Step 7: Establish an Ad Hoc
Committee for the Zero Defects
Program
Step 8: Supervisor Training
Step 9: Zero Defects Day
Step 10: Goal Setting
Step 11: Error Cause Removal
Step 12: Recognition
Step 13: Quality Councils
Step 14: Do It Over Again
See full text (press T)
Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement
They are entities, agencies or departments that work together to provide a product or service to a customer. They can be organizations that are upstream or downstream from the process in question. They are in the process collaborating with others to deliver the end product or service to the customer. They provide information, do the work and produce documents or materials that eventually reach the customers. They might think they are the customer of another unit or agency.
Process Partners
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Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement
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These are quality guru Philip Crosby's recipe for long-term process improvement. His opinion was that these steps were the responsibility of management but involved the people who did the work. These steps provided guidelines as well as a method for communicating his Four Absolutes.

The 14 Steps to Quality Improvement:

Step 1: Management Commitment
Step 2: Quality Improvement Team
Step 3: Quality Measurement
Step 4: Cost of Quality Evaluation
Step 5: Quality Awareness
Step 6: Corrective Action
Step 7: Establish an Ad Hoc
Committee for the Zero Defects
Program
Step 8: Supervisor Training
Step 9: Zero Defects Day
Step 10: Goal Setting
Step 11: Error Cause Removal
Step 12: Recognition
Step 13: Quality Councils
Step 14: Do It Over Again
Term
variable sample formula
Definition
n=((Z*S)/h)squared
Term
chi square test formula
Definition
chi= ((n-1)s(squared))/S2
Term
f test
Definition
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