# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics Chapter 1.1 Flashcards
145
Physics
06/18/2010

Term
 Deca-
Definition
 10e1; Ten
Term
 Deci-
Definition
 10e-1; One Tenth
Term
 Centi-
Definition
 10e-2; One Hundredth
Term
 Milli-
Definition
 10e-3; One Thousandth
Term
 Micro-
Definition
 10e-6; One Millionth
Term
 Nano-
Definition
 10e-9; One Billionth
Term
 Hecto-
Definition
 10e2; Hundred
Term
 Kilo-
Definition
 10e3; Thousand
Term
 Mega-
Definition
 10d6; Million
Term
 Giga-
Definition
 10e9; Billion
Term
 Where do all sources of energy come from?
Definition
 Fundamental Forces
Term
 Fundamental Interactions
Definition
 Ways in which the simplest particles in the universe interact with each other
Term
 Four Fundamental Interactions are:
Definition
 1. Gravitation2. Weak Interaction3. Electromagnetism 4. Strong Interaction
Term
 What is the weakest (but most pervasive) of all forces?
Definition
 Gravitation
Term
 Which force is generated by all bodies with mass?
Definition
 Gravitation
Term
 Which force is 10e36 times weaker than the electromagnetic force?
Definition
 Gravitation
Term
 Which force has not been integrated with others in a mathematical way, by physics?
Definition
 Gravitation
Term
 What is the weakest of fundamental forces?
Definition
 Gravitation
Term
 Which force is 6 * 10-39 of the strength of the strongest nuclear forces?
Definition
 Gravitational
Term
 What is the Force of Attraction Equation?
Definition
 F=(Gm1Gm2)/re2
Term
 Which fundamental force is the Force of Attraction Equation used in?
Definition
 Gravitation
Term
 Which fundamental force are wind, food, and natural gas examples of?
Definition
 Electromagnetism
Term
 Which fundamental force keeps 2 solid objects from passing through each other?
Definition
 Electromagnetism
Term
 What is the electromagnetic force that is responsible for all chemical reactions and the most recognizable physical properties around us?
Definition
 Electromagnetism
Term
 Which force holds molecules together into cells & helods cells together?
Definition
 Electromagnetism
Term
 What make up all of the electromagnetic radiation from cosmic rays to visible light to extremely low frequency radio waves?
Definition
 Photons
Term
 Name 2 things that are made of photons.
Definition
 Heat and Light
Term
 What do photons do?
Definition
 Change the character of the particles creating atoms & molecules.
Term
 What are two characteristics of photons?
Definition
 1. They have no mass.2. They are able to carry the force & attract protons & electrons together.
Term
 What does Coulomb's Law of Electromagetism describe?
Definition
 magnitude of the electrostatic force between two electric charges
Term
 What does Coulomb's Law state?
Definition
 Like charges repel; unlike charges attract
Term
 Magnetic Law: Electromagnetism
Definition
 (Curl)Force is in direction the thumb twists; (Palm)Palm pushes the way force would be
Term
 What is an electric field generated by?
Definition
 Electric charges
Term
 What do Maxwell's Equations show?
Definition
 Combined to show that light is an electromagnetic wave.
Term
 Which force is responsible for a relatively small range of fundamental interactions?
Definition
 Weak interaction
Term
 What mediates beta decay and happens when a neutron breaks down into a proton and an electron or positron?
Definition
 Weak Interaction
Term
 What is the strong nuclear force that holds the protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus?
Definition
 Strong Interaction
Term
 Which force is 100 times stronger than the electromagnetic force?
Definition
 Strong Interaction
Term
 When nuclear reactions happen what happens to nuclei?
Definition
 Nuclei are smashed and energy from the strong force is released.
Term
 When does the strong force lose all its strength?
Definition
 On distances much wider than the atomic nucleus
Term
 List the Fundamental Forces from Strongest to Weakest
Definition
 1. Strong2. Electromagnetic3. Weak4. Gravity
Term
 List the Fundamental Forces from Weakest to Strongest
Definition
 1. Gravity2. Weak3. Electromagnetic4. Strong
Term
 If Gravitation is "1", what are the relative strengths of Weak, Electromagnetic, and Strong Interactions?
Definition
 1. Weak: 10e252. Electromagnetic: 10e363. Strong: 10e38
Term
 What is Thermodynamics?
Definition
 The study of the effects of work, heat and energy on a system.
Term
 What question should you ask when looking at a source?
Definition
 "Where is the money flowing?" "Who is funding this?"
Term
 List the Hierarchy of Sources of Information
Definition
 1. Peer-reviewed articles2. Professional Journals3. Books4. Magazines5. Govern, Non-profit, and Educations websites (.ov, .org, .edu)3. Commercial websites: .com, .net4. Newspaper Articles
Term
 List the 7 of the common forms of energy.
Definition
 1. Chemical Energy2. Heat Energy3. Mass Energy4. Kinetic Energy5. Potential Energy6. Electric Energy7. Electromagnetic Radiation
Term
 What always happens when energy is transformed?
Definition
 Energy Loss
Term
 Which energy is stored in chemicals or materials and can be released by chemical reactions?
Definition
 Chemical Energy
Term
 List 4 examples of chemical energy.
Definition
 1. Fossil Fuels2. Charged Electric batteries3. Food4. Conventional explosives5. Body fat
Term
 List 4 examples of chemical energy.
Definition
 1. Fossil Fuels2. Charged Electric batteries3. Food4. Conventional explosives5. Body fat
Term
 Which energy is associated with random molecular and electronic motions within any medium?
Definition
 Heat Energy
Term
 What is another time for heat energy?
Definition
 Thermal Energy
Term
 What is heat energy content directly proportional to?
Definition
 Temperature
Term
 What is a form of heat energy?
Definition
Term
 Energy can be converted to what?
Definition
 Mass
Term
 Mass can be converted to what?
Definition
 Energy
Term
 What is an example of mass energy?
Definition
 Nuclear energy
Term
 What is Einstein's formula and which type of energy does it refer to?
Definition
 E=mc(2); energy = mass * speed of lightMass Energy
Term
 Which energy is a form of mechanical energy that has to do with mass in motion?
Definition
 Kinetic Energy
Term
 List 2 examples of kinetic energy.
Definition
 Fly wheel; bullet
Term
 What is the formula for KE?
Definition
 KE = 1/2 mv2 (m=mass; v = velocity)
Term
 Which energy is stored and used later?
Definition
 Potential Energy
Term
 Which energy is associated with position in a force field?
Definition
 Potential Energy
Term
 What is the formula for potential energy?
Definition
 PE = w x h (weight * height)
Term
 Electric Energy is also which type of energy?
Definition
 Potential Energy
Term
 What is a common device for storing electric energy?
Definition
 A battery
Term
 What is the formula for electric energy?
Definition
 PE = q x V (q = electric charge, V = higher electric potential)
Term
 What are 3 examples of Electromagnetic Radiation?
Definition
 1. Light in this room2. Wireless on laptop3. X-rays
Term
 What energy is radiated by the Sun and travels to the earth and elsewhere?
Definition
Term
 What is the part of ht espectrum that is visible to us?
Definition
 Visible Light
Term
 What is electromagnetic radition characterized by?
Definition
 (wavelength and frequency)
Term
 What is the velocity of light formula?
Definition
 c = f x upside down looking yspeed of light = frequency X wavelength
Term
 Who suggested taht light consists of photons? (Electromagnetic Radiation)
Definition
 Max. Planck
Term
 What is the formular for electromagnetic radiation?
Definition
 E = n x h x fEnergy constant of light = number of photons x Plants Constant x frequency of light
Term
 Number for Planck's constant (Electromagnetic Radiation)
Definition
 6.626 x 10e-34
Term
 What are nonrenewable energy sources?
Definition
 Those that coul det exhausted within a relatively short time as a result of exploiting them.
Term
 What are renewable resources?
Definition
 Those can can never be consumed to completion.
Term
 List the 10 Parameters for analyzing every energy source.
Definition
 1. Fundamental Forces of nature2. Total resource base and reserve base available3. Energy returned on energy invested4. Portablility of the source5. fungibility6. continuity of flow7. Convenience8. Infrastructure requirements9. Rate of Flow10. Pollution: Numclear, chemical, biological, audio, and visual
Term
 Hydroelectricity is an example of which type of energy?
Definition
 Potential Energy
Term
 Photovoltaic is an example of which type of energy?
Definition
 Electromagnetic Energy
Term
 What is a resource base?
Definition
 How much there is
Term
 What is a reserve?
Definition
 How much you can tap
Term
 What does a resource base indicate?
Definition
 the total amount of energy resource that exists for a particular source
Term
 What is an energy reserve?
Definition
 The estimated quantity of energy source that is known to exist with a certainty and that can be recovered with present day technology at an economical cost (EROEI) - not money
Term
 How are energy reserves projected?
Definition
 Based on geologic and engineering data and it is drawn depending on proved reserves
Term
 What is the relationship between reserves and resources.
Definition
 Reserves are lower than resources.
Term
 Energy Returned on Energy Invested (EROEI)
Definition
 EROEI = Usable acquired energy/energy expended
Term
 When is EROEI NOT a viable source?
Definition
 When EROEI is equal to or less than 1.
Term
 EROEI refers to the ratio of what?
Definition
 The amount of energy in fuel and the amount of energy spent on getting the fuel
Term
 What was the EROEI of oil before 1950?
Definition
 100 to 1 (get 100 barrels spend 1 barrel)
Term
 What was the EROEI of oil in the 1970s?
Definition
 30 to 1
Term
 What was the EROEI of oil in 2005?
Definition
 10 to 1
Term
 What is TM?
Definition
 Total mass of energy providing materials (oil, coal, as, wind turbine, etc)
Term
 What is portability?
Definition
 The ability of transporting the source
Term
 What is an example of an easily portable item?
Definition
Term
 What is an example of an energy that is not easily portable?
Definition
 Solar energy
Term
 What is fungibility?
Definition
 Indicates whether an energy source can be replaceable
Term
 What is a factor of how funible energy really is?
Definition
 The ability to substitute with alternative sources of energy.
Term
 When is an energy source said to be fungible?
Definition
 When is can be replaced by another source. (Can replace something or can be replaced) ex. not all sources are equal - you can't run your laptop off a piece of coal
Term
 What is continuity of flow?
Definition
 Continuity determines whether an energy source can be used for continuous periods of time or intermittently
Term
 What is an energy source that can be used continuously?
Definition
 oil
Term
 What is an example of an item that does not have continuity of flow (it is intermittent)?
Definition
 Photovoltaic cells
Term
 What does convenience refer to?
Definition
 whether an energy source is avilable everywhere and if it is present and abundant
Term
 What is an energy source that is abundant but not convenient?
Definition
 Solar - it's only available in the day
Term
 Prove that Solar energy is abundant.
Definition
 solar energy provides 86,000 terawatts of energy compared to the total world energy sumption which is around 20 terawatts
Term
 Which is more convenient, filling gas tank or charging electric car?
Definition
 Filling gas tank.
Term
 What are some safety changes since 3 mile island?
Definition
 1. Upgrading and strengthening of plant design and equipment.2. identifying human performance as a critical part of plant safety3. improved instruction4. enhancement of emergency preparedness5. regular analysis of plant performance6. explansion of NRC's resident insprector program7. establishment of the Institue of Nuclear Power operations (INPO)8. Installation of equipment to mitigate accident conditions
Term
 List to examples of Nuclear accidents.
Definition
 1. Chernobyl2. Three mile Island
Term
 What was the most serious commercial nuclear accident in history?
Definition
 Three Mile Island; 1979; Pa
Term
 What accident in 1986 was due to a flawed reactor design which was operated with inadequately trained personnel?
Definition
 Chernobyl accident
Term
 How much radioactive reactor core was released into atmosphere
Definition
 at least 5% of radioactive reactor core
Term
 What safety measures are taken with a dam?
Definition
 the infrastucture should be maintained or else a break could lead to floods
Term
 what safety measures should be taken with electric energy?
Definition
 avoiding overloads and possible electric shocks
Term
 What does the graph look like for Carbon Dioxide (from 1751-2004)?
Definition
 Looks like a hockey stick
Term
 What happens with carbon emissions left in the air in the case of coal and oil fed power plants?
Definition
 destroy the earth's atmosphere which adversely affects the environment.
Term
 What are the top 3 oil producers today?
Definition
 1. Saudi Arabia2. Russia3. U.S.
Term
 What was the top oil producer in 1965?
Definition
 United States
Term
 Why is US no longer the number 1 oil producer?
Definition
 We got hit by the peak
Term
 What is Hubbert curve?
Definition
 peak curve for all minable resources
Term
 What eventually happens with minable resources?
Definition
 Reach peak; can't keep up this production; production starts decling; start having trouble when you have exhausted half the resource
Term
 What is the rate of flow?
Definition
 Indicates the rate at which an energy source cab be utilized
Term
 What does the rate of flow for minable resources look like?
Definition
 bell shaped curve of production vs. time
Term
 Discuss rate of flow in wind and solar energy.
Definition
 Wind: one time gust of wind will not work - need continuous wind flowSolar panel in 20 years, a panel of size will deliver 1kW over all 20 years in the best case
Term
 Describe the rate of flow in a car's fuel tank.
Definition
 You can keep going at a constant level at then it stops abruptly at zero. (out of gas)
Term
 Describe the rate of flow in an oil well.
Definition
 Not at all like a car fuel tank. It's more like a curve.
Term
 Which type of energy is worst infrastructure wise?
Definition
 Nuclear
Term
 List the infrastructure requirements for electrical works.
Definition
 1. Equipment at the point of connection.2. Underground cable networks.3. Electrical switchgear for protection.4. Earth electrical systems.
Term
 List some examples of infrastructure.
Definition
 Pumps, valves, control systems, simulators, switchgear and motor control centers, emergency diesel generators, piping and metals
Term
 Example of Electromagnetism
Definition
 Turning light on in room
Term
 Example of Weak Interaction
Definition
 Beta Decay
Term
 What is an example of a weak interaction?
Definition
 Beta Decay
Term
 What is an example of a strong interaction?
Definition
 Nuclear
Term
 Mediator of Strong
Definition
 gluon
Term
 Electromagnetic Mediator
Definition
 photons
Term
 Weak Mediators
Definition
 bosons
Term
 Gravitation Mediator
Definition
 Gravitons
Term
 Zeroth Law
Definition
 Equilibrium
Term
 Second law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Heat travels from hot to cold; Entropy
Term
 Fourth Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Can maximize efficency or maximize power but can't do both
Term
 Third Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Objects are in entropy until they are so cold they are at absolute zero
Term
 What type of energy is photosynthesis?
Definition
 chemical
Term
 What is the total world energy consumption?
Definition
 20 tera watts
Term
 Zeroth Law
Definition
 Equilibrium and Temperature; When two objects are separately in theormodynamic equilibrium with a third object, they are in equilibrium with each other
Term
 First Law of Themodynamics
Definition
 Conservation of Energy
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