Shared Flashcard Set


Language, communication,
Exam 3
Undergraduate 2

Additional Anthropology Flashcards




Communicative Competence

The sometimes tacit knowledge of social and cultural roles for understanding and performance of language.


  • Hearer recognition and designation of speaker
  • Speaker designation and recognition of attention of hearer
Warm Springs Socialisation
  1. The relative use of visual and auditory channels (children learn by inmitating and observing, rather than by instruction, taught to demonstrate skill rather than explain verbally)
  2. Encouragement of self sufficiency at early ages
  3. Socialisation for physical competence (Younger are associated with physical control, older with verbal control)
  4. Indirect and collective control (No direct social confrontation or disciplining, very little coercion, focus on control of the self and not other + no self elevation or attracting attention to oneself, conflict is dealt with in gerneral terms and the temporal dimension of conversation difuses attention and emotional element of conflict)
  • More emphasis on visual competence and learning done through doing (visual/physical competence)
  • Social control is the responsibility of the goup, is asserted over the self and not others, and does not put oneself above others
Official Anglo Classroom Organisation

Institutional structure which dictates the relationship between teacher (as regulator of conversation, controller of behaviour, content and appropriate answers) and the student


Spatially: proxemics (dynamic and semi dynamic)

  • Teacher faces students, the students face the teacher (and not each other)
  • Desk arrangement reinforces

This dictates the teachers position as the holder of power


She dictates turns at talk, regulates duration of speech, chooses appropriate content, and is both addressor and addressee.

Anglo Participation stuctures

Whole class Discussion: Chorus answer or single out student

                pros: Easy, needs only one utterance

                Cons: Tendency for attention to wander, difficult to gauge comprehension


Small group discussion: Teacher works with groups individually

                 pros: gives students a chance to speak, better gauge of attention

                 cons: time consuming 


One-on-one teacher/student interaction: teacher still alocates talk but students get to designate themselves as speaker

                  pros: can promote better student comprehension

                  cons: time consuming, attnetion is directed at only one individual 


Desk work: All concentratred on written work

                   pros: time saving

                   cons: contact only made when a student raises their hand

Anglo teachers' evidence of non comprehension and misbehaviour

Non comprehension 

  • Warm Springs respond less often to questions posed by the teacher (do not signal attention to the teacher in the same way as the Anglos)
  • Frequency in which the responses they do make are considered innapropriate by teacher (teacher doesn't respond to Indian answers)
  • Frequency in which WS ask questions in response to directions

Non comprehension is a negotiated  social reality. Labelling ignores that the teacher does not comprehend the teachers answers.



  • Pay more attention to their peers (equals)
  • Not accustomed to single domination of conversation
  • Since they are more visual, the stress of the auditory channel use is incompatible with WS res
  • Poking, prodding and joking around with each other
  • Children challenge the teachers authority after being constantly corrected  (schizmogenesis)
Structure of Conversation

Openings: Anglos are more direct (naming of intented addressee)

Adjacency pairs:

Ratification of topic: Anglos require immediacy, WS = temporal lag 


                  Back Channel Talk: Anglos do more

               Turn taking:

                         - Anglos: loudest/highest status get to speak

                     - WS: Time lag, avoids interuptions, allows speaker to finish on their own terms, successive speakers are not chosen by previous speaker (self designation)


Repair mechanisms:




Closings: Anglos more direct, WS less direct 

Attention Structurre of Conversation
  1. Desigantion of adressed recipient (productive)
  2. Hearer recognition of addressor (receptive)
  3. Designation of Addressor (productive)
  4. Speaker recognition of addressed recipient (receptive)
Anglo and Indian Cultural values as reflected in face to face interaction
  • The hierarchial nature of Anglo language is indicated in the way interaction is strucutred by appointing leaders (ie teacher, priest, public speaker) Anglos value strong leaders, influential peole who draw and hold attention
  • Warm Springs conversation lacks designation of a leader and control of others, this reflects values of not elevating oneself over the group or drawing attention ot oneself.  
Authoritative Knowledge
  1. Anglo organisation is what counts
  2. Constantly re-asserted
  3. Other forms of conversation styles are delagitimized
  4. teachers status is based on her knowledge as a teacher
Three Features of Power
  1. It is jointly produced (but always limited by the teacher)
  2. Students are being produced as non comprehended, not just assumed to be so
  3. Students collude by rejecting authority, thus re-asserting the stigmas (schizmogenesis)

Philphs' Practical of Power

  • Indian teachers: Share the studenst communicative competence, Philips assumes that this competence cannot be changed through extensive training, due to the conservative nature of this behaviour.
  • Culturally relative curriculum content: The three R's (reading, writng, arithmatic) are not dependent of cultural content, eg learning to read is not dependent on American history.
  • Appropriate participation structures: One on one and small group work (no leader) WS can control
  • Institutional support: Prevent the downloading work to the teacher by investing time and money into the above solutions.
Bilingual Education Act

Philips' practical solutions tend to suggest monolingualilsm/monoculturalism through the ultimate assimilation of Indians into Anglo classroom culture.


       What happens when they are integrated into Anglo culture? Where does their identity fit? 


KIngfischer's solutions:

  • Make the content more relevant to natives, but be explicit that Anlgo systems exist as well.
  • Give value to native knowledge
  • Have native techniques/teaching style/relevant curriculum continue to being integrated until later grades, at which time native students can effectivley participate in WS and Anglo contexts.
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