# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Key Concepts 9
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21
Psychology
12/12/2011

Term
 Random assignment
Definition
 Random assignment refers to the use of the chance procedures in psychology experiments to give each participant the same opportunity to be put into any given group. They can be put into either the treatment group or the experimental group. Random assignment can be done through any arbitrary procedure than gives each participant the same opportunity to be in each group.
Term
 Range restriction
Definition
 Range restriction refers to when only a particular part of a group or distribution is used in a predictor considering its relationship a criterion. For example, a range restriction can occur when only applicants who have survived an initial screening are considered or when measures are used for selection prior to validation. This procedure is known as direct range restriction. Indirect range restriction refers to when such procedures are used, but are not used in the decision making process.
Term
 Reliability
Definition
 The reliability of a measurement refers to it freedom from unsystematic errors of measurement in the process of assessing someone. Consistency of measurement
Term
 Representative sample
Definition
 A representative sample is a type of sample from which a researcher tries to select individuals that are representative of large population. A sample that is truly representative of the population covers all aspects of it and allows for a researcher to make accurate inferences. Can be costly and time consuming to obtain.
Term
 Scatterplot
Definition
 A scatterplot is a useful way of displaying the liner relationship between two continuous variables in a visual form. Used prior to correlation or regression to get an idea of the linear relationship of a model. Position is determined by the relative position of scores on each of the two variables.
Term
 Signs vs. samples
Definition
 A sample refers to a content related measure of assessing validity. A sign refers to a construct measure of assessing validity. Typically samples are used because they are the best measures of work related behavior.
Term
 Statistical power
Definition
 Statistical power refers to the probability of a statistical test that it will lead to the correct rejection of the null hypothesis; or the given probability of the alternative hypothesis being accepted.
Term
 Subject matter expert
Definition
 A SME is someone who is particularly knowledgeable about the content domain of a job. A SME panel is a procedure used in job analysis for a couple of things: 1) to develop information on duties or KSAOS to be used in constructing job-analysis assessment and 2) and for tests to develop in terms of establishing the links between tasks and KSAOS, KSAOs and test items, and tasks and test items. A SME panel typically needs to be diverse in order to get good input across the board.
Term
 Synthetic validity
Definition
 Synthetic validity refers to the process of inferring validity in a very specific situation from a systematic complete analysis of jobs into their basic elements, a determination of the validity of a test of measurement to assess these particular areas, and a combination or complete synthesis of the elemental validities into a whole.
Term
 Bias
Definition
 Also known as judgmental bias, bias refers to some systematic error on the part of a rater or a experimenter in a particular study. They are easier to deal with than random error, but sometimes can lead to opposite conclusions. The types of bias include: leniency, severity, central tendency, and halo effects.
Term
 Cleary model
Definition
 The Cleary model aka "the regression model" is a way of determining whether or not a test is unbiased. THe model itself places bias into the context of interpretation of test scores where they should be. The cleary model says that if different groups share the same regression line, then the test is not biased. If two different groups have different regression lines, then the test is biased and is measuring different constructs for each group.
Term
 Differential validity
Definition
 An evaluation of whether or not a predictor has equivalent relations with a predictor variable, different validity exists when the magnitude of the predictor-criterion varies as a function of the subgroup an individual belongs to.
Term
 Regression model
Definition
 Essentially the exact same thing as the Cleary model, the regression model defines fairness as equal regression lines throughout different groups. Equality among errors of estimate, slopes, intercepts is needed in the model. If the assessment is outside of this criterion, it is unfair.
Term
 Single group validity
Definition
 Single group validity exists when a predictor demonstrates validity that is statistically different from zero for one group, but not for another. Also, there is no statistically significant difference for the validities of two groups. Different from differential validity.
Term
 Base rate
Definition
 The base rate refers to the proportion of persons deemed successful in applying for a job based on current selection procedures.
Term
 Cost/benefit ratio
Definition
 The cost/benefit ratio is a comparison between the present value of an investment decision or project with its initial cost. A ratio greater than one indicates that the project is viable
Term
 False positive
Definition
 Also known as a type I error, a false postive occurs when a null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the research hypothesis. However, in reality, the null hypothesis is correct. Equivalent to the experimental alpha level.
Term
 False negative
Definition
 Also known as type II error, a false negative occurs when we fail to reject the null hypothesis, but in reality the alternative hypothesis is true. The chance of this occurring is equivalent to beta or opposite the power of a statistical test.
Term
 SD of y
Definition
 In terms of utility analysis, SD of y is the standard deviation of the dollar-valued performance of the applicant. AKA the standard deviation of job performance in regards to monetary terms.
Term
 Selection ratio
Definition
 The selection ratio is the ratio of available job openings to the total number of applicants.
Term
 Incremental validity
Definition
 Incremental validity refers to whether or not an assessment measure adds to the prediction of a criterion above what can be predicted by other assessment tools available right now. An improvement in the predictive power of an assessment.
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