# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Kaplan Book: Chapters 5 & 6
Review for chapters 5 and 6 of the Kaplan book
62
Environmental Studies
12th Grade
04/06/2011

## Cards Return to Set Details

Term
 Uniform Distribution
Definition
 Individuals in a population are equally spaced apart. EX: Crops
Term
 Clustered Distibution
Definition
 Individuals in a population gather in uneqally spaced groups. EX: Penguins
Term
 Random Distribution
Definition
 Indiviuals in a population are spaced with no pattern. EX: Windblown seeds
Term
 Direct Count Method
Definition
 Counting all the individuals in a population
Term
 Quadrat Method
Definition
 Constructing a grip of simple squares and counting indiviuals in a population within these squares.
Term
 Capture-Recapture Method
Definition
 Over a period of time, periodically capture and count individuals in a population and than release them, marking the ones you capture first.
Term
 Population Growth
Definition
 The rate at which a population grows. It follows a logistic growth because limiting factors prevent it from growing without end.
Term
 Density Dependent Factors
Definition
 Limiting factors that become worse as the population grows.
Term
 Density Independent Factors
Definition
 Limiting factors that are unaffeced by the population's size.
Term
 K
Definition
 An estimate of the carrying capacity of a population.
Term
 r-strategists
Definition
 Species who have high birth rates, several offspring and short life spans.
Term
 K-strategists
Definition
 Species who have low birth rates, few offsprings and long life spans.
Term
 Type I survivors
Definition
 Species with long life spans, with the majority of the deaths occuring in the elderly. EX: Tigers
Term
 Type II survivors
Definition
 Species that have a constant death rate across all ages. EX: Hawks
Term
 Type III survivors
Definition
 Species that have high death rates among the young. EX: Butterflies
Term
 ARPC
Definition
 The rate at which a population changes. Calculated by the equation: [birth rate - death rate]/10
Term
 Zero Population Growth
Definition
 When the birth and death rates are equal, the population doesn't grow at all.
Term
 Negative Population Growth
Definition
 When the ARPC is negative,due to the death rate being higher than the birth rate, the population begins to decrease.
Term
 Rule of 70
Definition
 The formula to determine doubling time. Calculated by the function: 70/ARPC
Term
 Emigration
Definition
 Leaving a country. Lowers that countries population size.
Term
 Immigration
Definition
 Moving to a country. Increases that countries population size.
Term
 Industrialized countries
Definition
 Known as First World countries. EX: USA, Canada, Germany, Japan
Term
 More Developep Countries (MDC)
Definition
 Known as the Second World countries. EX: China, Russia
Term
 Less Developed Countries (LDC)
Definition
 Known as the Third World countries. EX: India, African countries
Term
 Replacement-level Fertility
Definition
 The number of children a woman must bear to replace a set of parents. This can show how large a population is and how it is growing as a country with a higher rate would have a higher population size.
Term
 Factors that affect birth and fertility rates
Definition
 Infant mortality, marriage age, education, affluence, child labor, opportunities for women, availabilityof birth control and religious/cultural beliefs
Term
 Declining Death Rate Factors
Definition
 Nutrition, sanitation, water, hygeine, medicine and public health
Term
 Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
Definition
 The number of babies out of every 1000 born each year. Tends to be higher in LDC's than in a MDC or industrialized country.
Term
 Pre-Industrial
Definition
 The first stage of the demographic transition model. Typically includes high birth and death rates and a low growth rate.
Term
 Transitional
Definition
 The second stage of the demographic transition model. Typically includes high birth and growth rates and a low death rate.
Term
 Industrial
Definition
 The third stage of the demographic transition model. The birth and growth rate begins to drop down.
Term
 Post-Industrial
Definition
 The final stage of the demographic transition model. Birth rate continues to decline until it is below the death rate, leading to a decrease in the growth rate.
Term
 Pronatalist policies
Definition
 Policies that encourage birth and large family sizes. EX: Romania
Term
 Antinatalist Policies
Definition
 A policy that discourages births and encourages small families. EX: China
Term
 Malnutrition
Definition
 Too little consumption of specific nutrients.
Term
 Undernutrition
Definition
 Chronic consumption of too few calories per day
Term
 Causes of Hunger
Definition
 Poverty, feeding domestic animals and the growing of cash crops.
Term
 Sustainable agriculture
Definition
 Agriculture that attempts to reduce land disruption through not clearing the field entirely, making sure the land is not compltely bare and planting diverse crops.
Term
 Green Revolution
Definition
 A attempt to increase food productivity and relieve hunger. One result was the devlopment of new varieties of wheat that were more resistant to pests and disease.
Term
 Advantages of biogenetic engineering
Definition
 Increase resistance to insects, alter oil content and control the pollon levels in crops.
Term
 Disadvantages of biogenetic engineering
Definition
 Seeds from the crops may disrupt the ecological balance and pests could develop immunity to the crops resistance.
Term
 Deforestation
Definition
 The clearing of forests. Leads to more carbon dioxide in the air, disrupts the water cycle and decreases biodiversity.
Term
 Pesticides
Definition
 Chemicals used to kill insects and other pests. Can lead to resistance in insects.
Term
 Tree farms
Definition
 An area where only one type of tree is planted and cared for, reducing the need to cut down forests. However, it also reduces biodiversity since there is only one type of tree.
Term
 Jack pine
Definition
 A tree which requires fire to germinate it's seeds. As a result, it is a practice to purposely set fire to it.
Term
 Limits on Timber Companies
Definition
 Ban timber cutting in national forests, eliminate new roads through national forests and not supplementing government budgets with timber sales.
Term
 Rangeland
Definition
 An unmanaged area of land that supplies vegetaton for animals to eat. Contains mostly grass and shrubs, unlike a forest, which contains mainly trees.
Term
 Continuous grazing
Definition
 Year long grazing in a particular area. It requires little fencing, but the grasses become used up faster.
Term
 Deferred grazing
Definition
 Moving livestock between two grazing areas. It allows gras to recover from grazing, but is more costly than continuous grazing.
Term
 Advantages of Surface Mining
Definition
 Cheaper, faster and safer than deep mining
Term
 Disadvantages of Surface Mining
Definition
 Destroys natural habitats and the landscape
Term
 Advantages of Deep Mining
Definition
 Doesn't destroy the landscape as much as surface mining and allows minerals to be taken out from deeper underground
Term
 Disadvantages of Deep Mining
Definition
 Dangerous to miners and is much more costly than surface mining
Term
 Overburden
Definition
 The vegetation, soil and rocks lying over a mineral deposit.
Term
 Tailings
Definition
 Piles of discarded rocks.
Term
 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977
Definition
 Requires mining companies to replant vegetation on land that was strip-mined.
Term
 Advantages of Aquaculture
Definition
 Allows for sustainable harvesting of fish and shellfish can also be raised to clean local waters.
Term
 Disadvantages of Aquaculture
Definition
 The farm fish may invade native habitats and the fish may become crowded in the fish farm, leading to disease and waste.
Term
 Wise use philosophy
Definition
 Resources on public land should be used for economic purposes.
Term
 Strict conservationist philosophy
Definition
 Public land shoule be protected from commercial ventures.
Term
 Endangered Species Act
Definition
 Athorizes government agencies to identify and list endangered and threatened species. By law, tese species cannot be killed, hunted or injured in the United States
Term
 Urban Sprawl
Definition
 A spread-out type of development (low population density) where cars are required to travel practically everywhere. It can be increased by cheap gasoline prices, abundent land or good highway systems.
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