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Journ midterm
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147
Journalism
Undergraduate 2
03/11/2012

Additional Journalism Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
communication-ch.1
Definition
-The transmission of a message from source to a receiver
-creates culture
Term
feedback -ch.1
Definition
response to a question
Term
interpersonal communication-ch.1
Definition
shows no clearly identifiable source or receiver, message is encoded then decoded, has no feedback
Term
encoding-ch.1
Definition
transformed into an understandable sign and symbol system= speaking, writing, printing, and filming a tv show
Term
decoding-ch.1
Definition
-To interpret a message
-signs and symbols are interpreted= listening, reading, or watching a tv show
Term
noise-ch.1
Definition
anything that interferes with successful communication
-biases that lead to incorrect decoding
Term
medium-ch.1
Definition
-means of sending information, media as a technology that carries info to a large number of people
-mass medium/media- basis of a giant industry
Term
Mass communication-ch.1
Definition
process of creating shared meaning b/w mass media and audiences(schramm)
-has many identical messages
Term
inferential feedback-ch.1
Definition
-schramms model- indirect rather than direct feedback
-ex:tv show ratings
-feedback comes to late to enable corrections in comm that fails
Term
Culture-ch.1
Definition
-learned behavior of members of a given social group
-limits our options and provides useful guidelines for our behavior
Term
Bonded Cultures-ch.1
Definition
-Italian communities, fraternity row
-we can predict what music, shops, food, clothes, and cars we see and hear
Term
media literacy -ch.1
Definition
the ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use any form of mediated communication
Term
Socrates -ch.1
Definition
-Created culture, understanding created by conversation
-together we know more than apart
-a lot of meaning is subjective
-said you cant write good ideas b/c he cant explain it
Term
What percent of U.S. population uses the internet on a regular basis-ch.1
Definition
seventy-five percent brah

75%
Term
who created the printing press-ch.1
Definition
Johannes Gutenberg- created movable metal type printing press
-1456=first Gutenberg bible
Term
technological determinism -ch.1
Definition
machines and their development that drive economic and cultural change
Term
ideogrammatic alphabets-ch.1
Definition
picture based alphabets that appeared in Egypt, Sumer, and urban China
Term
syllable alphabet -ch.1
Definition
-an alphabet employing sequences of vowels and consonants=words
-first appearing in 1800 B.C.E.
Term
Third-person effect-ch.1
Definition
-the common attitude that others are influenced by media messages, but we are not
-When someone argues that she is not influenced by the notions of feminine beauty as expressed in advertising
Term
What percentage of his/her waking hours does the average person spend consuming mass media content?-ch.1
Definition
sixty percent
60%
Term
Which media does a typical American adult spend the most time on each day?-ch.1
Definition
televisionnnnnnnnnnnn
Term
multiple point of access-ch.1
Definition
-to approach media content from a variety of directions and derive from it many levels of meaning
-learning to enjoy, understand, and appreciate media content
Term
Media multitasking-Ch.2
Definition
simotaniously consuming many different kinds of media
Term
convergence-Ch.2
Definition
the erosion of traditional distinctions among media
Term
concentration of ownership-Ch.2
Definition
-media mergers have narrowed the range of information and entertainment available to people of all ideologies
-describe the phenomenon of the ownership of media companies becoming increasingly concentrated in fewer and fewer hands
Term
conglomeration-Ch.2
Definition
the increase in the ownership of media outlets by larger, non-media companies
- refers to the increase in the ownership of media outlets by larger, nonmedia companies
Term
economies of scale-Ch.2
Definition
-bigger can be better b/c the relative cost of an operations output declines as the sight of that endeavor grows.
Term
Oligopoly-Ch.2
Definition
a concentration of media industries into an even smaller number of companies
Term
Globalization -Ch.2
Definition
-lack of diversity of expression
-large, multinational conglomerates using their power to shape news and entertainment to suit their own needs
Term
Radios and magazines targeting smaller audiences that were alike in some important characteristic and more attractive to *specific advertisers*-Ch.2
Definition
=narrowcasting, niche marketing, or targeting
Term
addressable technologies-Ch.2
Definition
technologies permitting the transmission of very specific content to equally specific audience members
Term
taste publics-Ch.2
Definition
-groups of people little more than an interest in a given form of media content
Term
hypercommercialism -Ch.2
Definition
-recouping the costs involved in acquiring numerous numbers or large media outlets through selling of more advertising on existing and new media and identifying additional ways to combine content and commercials
-product placement, brand ent., payola
Term
Payola-Ch.2
Definition
-radio stations now accept patments from record promoters to play their songs
Term
synergy-Ch.2
Definition
-using as many channels of delivery as possible to get the greatest use of a companies content
Term
platform agnostic-Ch.2
Definition
having no preference for where we access our media content
Term
Audience Fragmentation-Ch.2
Definition
-the audience of mass media is becoming less of a mass audience, its segments more narrowly defined
Term
Product Placement-Ch.2
Definition
-The integration, for a fee, of specific branded products into media content
Term
When audience members weigh the level of reward they expect from a given medium against how much effort they must make to secure that reward, it is known as ____?-Ch.2
Definition
Fraction of selection
Term
Appointment consumption-Ch.2
Definition
-audiences consume content at a time predetermined by the producer and distributor
Term
Who was the godfather of cyberspace?-ch.10
Definition
William Gibson- says we relate to our consumer status-increasingly interchangable
Term
Marshall McLuhan -ch.10
Definition
-"The Global Village"-good place for people enjoying increased contact and increased involvement with on another aided by electronic technology
Term
Englishman Charles Babbage-ch.10
Definition
-Created the computer
-Father of the computer
Term
Colossus -ch.10
Definition
-developed by British
-first electronic digital computer using binary code
Term
ENIAC-ch.10
Definition
first "full service" electronic computer
-18 feet tall, weighed 60,000 pounds
-sold it to remington brand corporation in 1950
Term
UNIVAC-ch.10
Definition
-developed by remington
-bought by census bureau in 1951
-became first successful commercial computer
Term
ARPA-ch.10
Definition
-commissioned Pauul Baran of Rand corp to produce a plan that would enable us military to maintain command of its missiles and planes if a nuclear attack knocked out communication
Term
Hosts-ch.10
Definition
-computers linking individual personal computer users to the internet
-world wide web released in 1992= 1 million hosts
Term
Personal or microcomputers-ch.10
Definition
-when the semiconductor replaced vacuum tubes, its tiny size, absence of heat, and affordability, made it possible for consumer sale
Term
Current best estimates indicate that there are at least how many Internet users across the globe?-ch.10
Definition
1.3 billion
Term
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)-ch.10
Definition
Telephone calls transferred in digital packets over the Internet rather than on circuit-switched telephone wires
Term
According to the data in the text, what percentage of adult Internet users purchased a product or service online in the last 30 days?-ch.10
Definition
34.2%
Term
According to the 1986 Electronic Communication Privacy Act, is it acceptable for an employer to access an employee's e-mail?-ch.10
Definition
Y_E_S
Term
According to the Federal Trade Commission, the single most frequent consumer complaint relating to the Internet in 2003 was-ch.10
Definition
identity theft
Term
kool internet facts-ch.10
Definition
-at least 1.7 bilion users worldwide
-74% of US homes have internet access
-1996,62% of U.S. internet users were men
Term
feedback in mass communication is traditionally described as inferential and delayed but online feedback can be immediate and direct-ch.10
Definition
Term
Digital millennium copyright act-ch.10
Definition
-1998, primary goal was to bring US copyright law into compliance with that of the World Intellectual property organization.
Term
Encryption-ch.10
Definition
-the electronic coding or masking of information that can be deciphered only by a recipient with the decrypting key
Term
The technology gap-ch.10
Definition
the widening disparity b/w the communication haves and have-nots
Term
The information gap-ch.10
Definition
-those without the requisite technology will have diminished access to the information it makes available
Term
Cambridge Press-ch.3
Definition
-first printing press company in America,1638
-limited to religious and government documents
Term
First book published in colonies?-ch.3
Definition
The book of psalms/Bay Psalm book
Term
Benjamin Franklin-ch.3
Definition
-Published the first true novel-"PAMELA" BY SAMUEL RICHARDSON
-first to publish secular printing
Term
Stamp Act-ch.3
Definition
-March 1765,England wanted to get money back it lost in Indian & french wars
-mandated that all printing be done on paper stamped with govs seal to control and limit expression
Term
Linotype-ch.3
Definition
-German imigrant Ottmar Mergenthaler, 1884
-enabled printers to set type mechanically rather than by hand
-offset lithography=printing from photographic plates
Term
dime novels-ch.3
Definition
-brothers Irwin & Erastus Beadle
-1860, inexpensive book concentrated on adventure and frontier stories
-called pulp novels, produced 4 million volumes
-beadles democratized books and turned them into a mass medium
Term
Robert de Graff-ch.3
Definition
-brought paperbacks to USA,
-inexpensive pocketbooks for 25 cents
-15,ooo copies a day
60% of books are paperback
Term
Common Sense¿-ch.3
Definition
Thomas Paine-sold 120,000 copies also wrote "the American crisis"
Term
censorship-ch.3
Definition
publishers in a democracy have an obligation to make a stronger arguement that free speech be protected&encouraged
-McCarthy ordered 100+ books be removed from libraries b/c the had a pro-communist slant
Term
Aliteracy-ch.3
Definition
wherein people possess the ability to read but are unwilling to do so,amounts to doing the censors work for them
Term
Ko0L fax-ch.3
Definition
-30% of 13 y.o. read every day
-Americans b/w 18&24 never read for pleasure
-2008 Americans bought 3.1 billion new books, and the industry has 40.32 billion
Term
acquisitions editor -ch.3
Definition
-determines which book a publisher will publish
-base their judgements on the value and profitability of an idea
Term
Platform agnostic publishing -ch.3
Definition
digital and hard copy books available for any and all reading devices
Term
Digital epistolary novel -ch.3
Definition
readers not only read the story but also interact with its characters and visit its locations
-very popular in Japan
Term
cottage industry-ch.3
Definition
publishing houses were small operations closely identified with their personnel
-devotion to tradition
Term
A positive result of conglomeration within the book publishing industry is:-ch.3
Definition
-companies can attract big southors
Term
The staggering increase in the number of new titles released each year can be attributed in large part to what forms of books?-ch.3
Definition
D-books& POD's
Term
Stories that unfold serially through e-mails, instant messaging, and Web sites are called-ch.3
Definition
Dens
Term
The Acta Diurna-CH.4
Definition
-actions of the day
-ceasars time in Rome, posted on wall after each meeting of the senate
-written on stone
Term
Corantos-CH.4
Definition
-what our papers were born from
-17th century Europe
-single sheets about specific events
Term
Diurnals-CH.4
Definition
-Englishmen Nathaniel butter, Thomas archer, Nicholas Bourne
-news sheets, true forerunners of our daily newspaper
Term
Broadsides(broadsheets)-CH.4
Definition
single sheet announcements or accounts imported from england
Term
John Campbell-CH.4
Definition
-"The Boston News-Letter"=established newspapers in the colonies
-featured foreign news,shipping news,gov announcements,reprints from england
Term
James Franklin-CH.4
Definition
"New England Courant"-1721
-publishing without authority
-was jailed for printing "scandalous libels"
Term
Alien and sedition acts-CH.4
Definition
-made illegal writing, publishing, or printing any false or scandolous and malicious writing about the pres, congress or fed gov
Term
Penny Press-CH.4
Definition
-in response to growing literacy
-Benjamin Day's "New York Sun"
-attract a large readership that he can sell to advertisers
-all about crime,police reports, entertainment news,and human interest stories
Term
Frederick Douglass
-CH.4
Definition
-"North Star"-1847
-most influential African American newspaper after Civil War
Term
"Chicago Defender"-CH.4
Definition
-First black paper to be a commercial success-1905
-goal was to encourage southern black people to move north
Term
Domestic wire services -CH.4
Definition
-1856=news gathering/distribution organization=New York associated press
-pooled together news stories to expand the coverage a paper offers its readers
Term
Yellow Journalism-CH.4
Definition
-from yellow kid cartoon
-sensational sex,crime,and disaster news -heaviness of illustrations and colors
Term
fun facts***************-Ch.4
Definition
-50 million newspapers sold daily in U.S.
-115 million read it on Sunday
-104 million read it everyday
-9,800 newspapers in U.S.
-19% of the overall revenue spent on advertising in the United States goes to newspapers
-19% of 18-34 year-olds read a newspaper?
Term
pass-along readership-Ch.4
Definition
readers who did not originally purchase the paper brings 104million in touch with a daily and 200 million a week in a weekly
Term
Wall Street Journal -Ch.4
Definition
-oldest and most respected National daily newspaper
-created by Charles Dow and Edward Jones
Term
zoned editions-Ch.4
Definition
suburban or regional wersions of the paper
-used to attract readers and to combat competition for advertising dollars from the suburban papers
Term
joint operating agreements-Ch.4
Definition
permits a failing paper to merge most aspects of its business with a successful local competitor as long as their editorial and reporting operations remain separate
Term
Which newspaper is considered the "nation's newspaper of record"?-Ch.4
Definition
-The New York Times
Term
Some 35 Spanish-language daily newspapers are published in the United States. These are examples of-Ch.4
Definition
-The ethnic press
Term
Andrew Bradford-CH.5
Definition
-published the colonies first magazine, "American Magazine, or a monthly view of the political state of the British colonies -aimed at small number of literate colonists
Term
*********facts*********-CH.5
Definition
-1865, 700 magazine publishing,1885=3,300
-crucial to women's right to vote
Term
The Crisis, first published in 1910 as the voice of the ______________, was founded and edited by W.E.B. DuBois.-CH.5
Definition
-National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Term
Split runs-CH.5
Definition
-special versions of a given issue in which editorial content and ads vary according to some demographic or regional grouping
Term
The power of magazines is related to a reader's personal experience with the publication—including its advertising. This is referred to as-CH.5
Definition
-Engagement
Term
The magazine industry took in more than $24 billion in revenue in 2006. What percentage of that was generated by advertising revenue?-CH.5
Definition
-55%
Term
Circulation-CH.5
Definition
-The total number of issues of a magazine that are sold
Term
When magazines publish special versions of an issue that contain editorial content and advertising geared to a specific demographic or regional grouping, this is known as-CH.5
Definition
-Split Runs
Term
Lumiere brothers-CH.6
Definition
-created first movie-train in paris
-cimemotographie
-simple stories no editing
-contemporary medium-audience relationship
Term
Eadweard Muybridge -CH.6
Definition
-invented zoopraxiscope=projecting images
-helped leland stanford bet with friend that a horse has all legs of ground
Term
Persistence of vision-CH.6
Definition
-seeing pictures in motion
-images retained in brain for 1/24 of a second
Term
William Dickenson-CH.6
Definition
-invente first video camera=the kinetograph
Term
Joeseph Nicephore Neipce-CH.6
Definition
-invented the photograph
-daguerrotype-
Term
William Talbot-CH.6
Definition
-Calotype,-paper film process=the negative
Term
George Melies-CH.6
Definition
-"A trip to the moon"
-created narrative movies
Term
Edwin S. Porter-CH.6
Definition
-"The great train Robbery"- first western
-first movie to use editing
Term
Nickelodeons -CH.6
Definition
-theaters in converted stores, banks, and halls in US
Term
Thomas Edison-CH.6
Definition
-founded the Motion Picture Patents Company
-called the TRUST
-Black Mayia- Kinetiscope
Term
FUN FAX-CH.6
Definition
-first sound film-"Don Juan"
-produced by warner bros
-hollywood=1933-controlled 8 largest studios
-mid 1920's=350,000 people making living in movie industry&20,000 theaters
-US box office=750 million$$$$$$$
-Avatar was most money film
-38,000 movie screens in US
Term
Vertical integration-CH.6
Definition
-big studios controlled movie from shooting,screening,=guaranteeing distribution and an audience
-1948=supreme court issued paramount decision,destroying studios hold over moviemaking
-studios were abusing the system
Term
greenlight process-CH.6
Definition
-decision to make a film in the first place
Term
Fredrick Jackson Turner-CH.6
Definition
-Frontier thesis=argued that the American frontier experience slightly influenced American cultural values
Term
What device sparked the birth of the American movie business?-CH.6
Definition
Edisons vitascope
Term
What is considered the most influential silent film of all time?-CH.6
Definition
the birth of a nation
Term
Guglielmo Marconi-ch.7
Definition
-"Father of Radio"
-transmitted across the English channel with the help of the British
Term
Liquid Barretter -ch.7
Definition
-Reginald Fessenden
-the first audio device permitting reception of wireless voices
-1906 Christmas eve broadcast from Brant Rock, was first broadcast of voices and music
Term
Audion Tube-ch.7
Definition
-American LEE DEFOREST
-a vacuum tube that improved and amplified wireless signals
-saw radio as a means of broadcasting
Term
Wireless ship act-ch.7
Definition
-required that all ships using US ports and carrying more than 50 passengers have a working wireless and operator
Term
Radio act of 1912-ch.7
Definition
-strengthened rules regarding shipboard wireless, and required operators be licensed by the Secretary of commerce and labor
-established spheres of authority for federal and state governments
Term
Format Radio-ch.7
Definition
-highly specialized specific audience of particular interest to certain advertisers could be attracted with specific types of music
Term
duopoly-ch.7
Definition
-one person or company owning and managing multiple radio stations
Term
The first commercial radio broadcast was-ch.7
Definition
-announcing that Warren G. Harding had been elected president
Term
The first radio advertising commercial aired in 1922 on-ch.7
Definition
-NBC
Term
What percentage of Americans listen to the radio in an average week?-ch.7
Definition
94%
Term
How does one calculate a radio's rating?-ch.7
Definition
-Calculate the number of people tuned into a particular station and the total population of a market reached.
Term
The first radio advertising commercial aired in 1922 on-ch.7
Definition
-WEAF
Term
Trustee model
& scarcity spectrum ch.7
Definition
how the federal radio commission regulates based on convienence, number of listeners based on spectrum capacity
Term
O&O
Definition
Owned and operated
Term
LPFM
Definition
low power fm- 10-100 watt community non profit radio stations reach not far
Term
format
Definition
radio style
Term
billings
Definition
income earned by the sale of airtime
Term
deregulation
Definition
no national owner limits- you could own more than one station
Term
personal people meter
Definition
cell phone size clip on and registers all electronic media consumption
Term
catalog albums
Definition
albums that have been out for more than 3 years
Term
syndication
Definition
ale of radio or tv content to stations on a market to market basis
Term
digital audio radio service
Definition
satellite radio
Term
P 2 P
Definition
cd downloaded illegially person to person
Term
radio act of 1927
Definition
made radio a national resource so people could use them but no one can own them
Term
ARBITRON
Definition
does the ratings for radio
Term
who discovered micheal jackson
Definition
sam philips, created sun records
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