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Journ 5400 2
Journ 2

Additional Journalism Flashcards




Identify and describe four research considerations that help to determine the best survey method for a study
1. Literacy
- Can people understand/read the questions you are asking
2. Language Issues
- Where are you distributing the survey? Is English the predominant language? If there is a large population of people using another language, you should think about creating multiple versions of the survey.
3. Personal Information
- Some people may be uncomfortable sharing certain types of sensitive personal information such as financial data, mental health, drinking habits, drug use, etc. Respondents may answer the questions untruthfully, which affects the integrity of the survey.
4. Sampling
- Can you identify the target population? The size and number of your sample depends on certain parameters like financial resources available and budget allocated.
What is the difference between probability and nonprobability sampling?
1. Probability Sampling
- The researcher strives to have randomization in the selection process. Therefore, every person has an equal chance of being selected for the survey.
2. Nonprobability sampling
- Choosing people at random. Not everyone has a known chance of being selected.
Describe how an open-ended and close-ended survey question is written. Name one benefit and one limitation for each type of question.
1. Open Ended
- Ideal for getting a variety of responses
- More flexible
o Benefit: Allows the respondent to provide his opinion about issues and gives opportunities to provide difficult comments
o Limitation: difficulty in coding or grouping responses into meaningful categories
Ex: What is the most important problem you are facing today?

2. Closed Ended
- Question constrains respondents to a certain set of answer parameters
Benefit: Easy coding of answers into data since it relies on a fixed number of answers in a list
Limitation: Doesn't allow respondents to answer in their own way and could limit responses and cause frustration from respondents.
Ex: “Which of the following economic problems are of most concern to you”—followed by a list of problems
Describe a double-barreled question and why it is important to avoid them in surveys?
A double-barreled question occurs when the person asking the questions joins two separate questions into one and asks the respondent to somehow answer both.
Ex: Do you think the US military should have invaded Iraq and should continue its military presence there?
- Important to avoid them because it's asking two questions and an answer like "Yes" or "No" could be applied to each question within the double-barrled question thereby throwing results off.
Identify three types of biases that can occur in an interview?
- The interviewer is the key person in ensuring that no bias can occur.
3 types of bias:
- Respondent does not provide correct information
- Sample does not represent the target population
- Design of the questionnaire is faulty and inherently displays bias
- Interviewer bias: Actions by the person doing the interviews impacts the answers by a respondent.
Describe two threats against accurate responses in research.
1. Nonresponse bias
- This can have two meanings. One is that simply not enough people responded to the survey to make it statistically significant. More often it means that the people who have opted not to respond have created a bias in the data. This is because it often occurs that people who don't respond share a common demographic category, meaning the survey is skewed without representation from that sample.

2. Artificially Improving Response Rates
- This can happen when tangible rewards are offered to completing the survey/questionnaire/etc.
- Whatever the reward is can influence who participates in the research and therefore skew it.
- a 60% response rate is not necessarily better than a 50% rate.
Describe Concept Testing and how it is used in developing a campaign.
- Concepts thought to be workable ideas are presented to customers and then assessed on the degree of purchase intent, percentage of respondents who indicate a likelihood of trial, and the strength of the responses and of opinions on the tested concepts.
- Can be used to generate ideas for campaign benefits or themes or to test possible ideas to alter customers’ opinions or products, services, or ideas
- Often utilizes qualitative research to explore the nuances of a respondents’ opinions, but quantitative research makes it faster to evaluate findings
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