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Journ 201 exam 2
USC Journ 121
Undergraduate 1

Additional Journalism Flashcards




Books Influence on Society
the spread of ideas
the standardization of language and spelling
the creation of mass culture

Also helped bring about major social changes.
earliest form of writing, cave paintings
an abstract symbolOne symbol stands for each object or idea.
Languages such as Chinese, Korean, and Japanese still make use of ideographs.
letters representing individual sounds; were developed between 1700 B.C. and 1500 B.C.
Single pages were bound and established the current book format
Most books in Europe were religious texts hand-copied by monks, produced in the, or copying rooms of monasteries.
Early writing
Papyrus and Animal Skins
In the form of scrolls or single pages
Illuminated manuscripts
religious texts embellished with pictures and elaborate calligraphy:
aided in the transmission of the message to nonliterate audiences
before printing
—Rise of literacy in the thirteenth century increased demand for books. Demand for books greatly exceeded production.
Books were still hand-copied one at a time:
Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales
By the fourteenth century books were becoming relatively common.
William Caxton
(1422–1491) helped establish the rules for the English language:
worked to standardize word usage, grammar, punctuation, and spelling
published books in English rather than in Latin
Benjamin Harris
First American newspaper:
Publick Occurrences Stopped after only one issue because British colonial authorities didn’t like what was printed
Noah Webster
A Grammatical Institute of the English Language
Used throughout the 1800s
Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1460)
developed the first practical printing press by modifying a winepress and using moveable type made of lead
Publication of the Gutenberg Bible in 1455 is considered to be the beginning of mechanical printing
rotary press
The steam-powered,
invented in 1814, could print as many as 16,000 sections per day.
Serial novels
published in installments, popular in the 1830s and 1840s:
less expensive than a whole book
steady flow of income for publishers
Dime novels
first paperbacks, heroic action stories that celebrated democratic ideals:
popular in the Civil War era, morale boosters
University and small presses
—publish books that serve a limited geographic or subject area or an academic discipline
Vanity presses
print books with the author paying all the costs of publication and distribution:
very little return for authors
—Mergers and consolidations
Emergence of online booksellers, electronic books, and on-demand publishing
The Textbook Business
Barnes & Noble did more than $2 billion in business in 2011 through its more than 600 campus bookstores.
About 15% of the overall textbook market
Stores give the schools they’re associated with a cut of the sales.
With used textbooks, neither the publisher nor the author get a cut of the sales, only the bookstore.
Students are moving towards book rentals as well as e-books which will impact the income of publishing companies.
—more than 4 million titles available
giant superstores carry 50,000 to 150,000 titles.
Over one million titles available for Kindle
—companies that buy manuscripts from authors and turn them into books:
20 companies publish nearly 80% of all books today
regional publishers are buying up small, independent publishing houses
international conglomerates buying up major national publishing companies
Books and Culture
54.9% of all popular paperback fiction sold in America are categorized as romances.
Classics continue to sell:
Catcher in the Rye sells about 250,000 copies a year
The Lord of the Rings, initially published in England in 1954, has now sold more than 150 million copies
To Kill a Mocking Bird has been on the USA Today weekly 150 top selling books for 794 weeks (ranked #70 for the week of 9/11/12)
A Tale of Two Cities (written in 1859) is the best selling book of all time
Magazines as a Medium
Magazines tend to occupy a middle ground between newspapers and books.
They generally provide more synthesis and analysis than newspapers, focusing on broader trends as opposed to the “news of the day.”
They generally present a more current and less thorough synthesis than books, which explore topics in greater detail.
Magazine Publishing
In the 18th century, magazine publishing grew out of newspaper and pamphlet publishing
The first magazine in the colonies was American Magazine, published by Andrew Bradford in 1741 in Philadelphia
Early magazines printed large sections from books to keep publishing costs down
Early Magazines
1700’s – 1830Early magazines were read by the educated few and contained essays, government reports, book lists, and reviews.
Some magazines that have continued this tradition are The New Republic, The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, Weekly Standard, Salon, and Slate.
Mid 1800s
Inexpensive magazines began to be published in the mid-1800s.
Articles focused on self-improvement and enlightenment.
Later miscellaneous bits of information, novels in serial form and entertainment were added.
The End of Mass Circulation Magazines
From the end of WWII to the mid-60s magazines tried to truly be a mass medium, appealing to everyone.
The advent of TV and tabloid newspapers, and the increasing costs of printing made it became too expensive to mass market most magazines
Life, Look, and Saturday Evening Post went out of business. All three had revivals, but Look never made it back and the other two have limited monthly circulations.
Gutenberg Bible
One of a handful of surviving Bibles printed by Johannes Gutenberg ; considered first mechanically printed works in Europe
Mass-market paperback
Inexpensive soft-covered books sold in bookstores and other public places such as supermarkets and drugstores
Print on Demand (POD)
j. The publication of single books or tiny print runs based on customer demand, using largely automated, non-traditional book printing methods such as the color a fulaser printer
h. Number of copies of a newspaper sold
g. % of people who read a newspaper (may be larger than actual number of papers sold)
Joint Operating Arrangements
l. Legal agreements that permit newspapers to merge their business operations (independent editorial operations)
Newspaper Preservation Act
created in 1970 it is intended to preserve a diversity of editorial opinion in communities where only two competing, or independently owned, daily newspapers exist
Benjamin Day
n. Publisher of the New York Sun; ushered in the era of the penny press when he began offering his paper on the streets for a penny
Forerunner of today’s newspapers
Included advertising from local merchants
Developed huge audience – mostly working class
Carried by newsboys and sold in the street rather than by subscription.
Included “real” news such as the police beat and natural disasters – less opinion pieces than other papers of the time.
Some large cities ended up with 8 or 9 “penny papers”
for a persons pleasure
j. The ways in which media interprets events and issues and ascribes meanings that help individuals understand their roles
Journalism function which provides information about the developments in society
Marshall McLuhan
d. Communication scholar most famous for creating the “global village” metaphor and “the medium is the message.”
Term first used in agriculture
Refers to spreading seeds (words, music, etc.) by casting over a wide area
Now refers to the way a transmitter sends messages across electromagnetic waves
Works the same for TV and Radio
Definition of Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light.
It is a medium for communication.
Radio receiver is an electronic receiver that detects, demodulates and amplifies transmitted signals.
History of radio
Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation.
First emitted by James Clark Maxwell in 1864 and later confirmed by the German Heinrich Hertz in 1880.
In 1885, Hertz showed in public the transmission and reception of radio waves.
1895: Guglielmo Marconi develops radio transmitter and receiver
Assembled and created and basically made radio possible
1897: obtained patent, established the Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company

Commercial Stations:
1920: KDKA airs the world's first scheduled radio broadcast from Pittsburgh

WWJ, Detroit, begins operation
1921: Aeriola Jr. designs the first affordable home radio
1922: The world's first regular wireless broadcasts for entertainment commenced in 1922 from the Marconi Research Centre at Writtle near Chelmsford, England.
Guglielmo Marconi
1899 Patented telegraph (wireless transmission) that operates on different wavelengths without interference
Opened the first radio factory in Chelmsford England
Dec 1901 Marconi sent and received the first wireless transmission across the Atlantic ocean
Most of our daily activities involve some form of wireless communication, such as listening to the radio or talking on a cell phone
Early Radio Regulations
1912: Radio operators intercept first distress message from the doomed ship Titanic
Special frequencies established for distress calls after early SOS messages go unanswered
World War 1:
Radio development stalled in 1917 when the US entered into the war.
Stations were either taken over by the government or shut down.
It was illegal for private citizens to operate a radio transmitter or receiver with out special permission.
Restrictions were lifted in late 1918
Federal Radio Commission
Radio Act of 1927 created Federal Radio Commission
Radio stations to the east of the Mississippi River start with “W”
Stations west of the Mississippi start with “K”
Some exceptions are those that existed before the rule was put into place
1943 FRC reorganized into the FCC to include telephone and telegraph and television
Earliest broadcasting stations
AM stands for amplitude modulation
It spans 550 - 1550 kilocycles
Detected with simple equipment
If signal is strong enough a power source is not needed
Interference from electrical storms
Signal gets weak at night
Invented by Edwin H. Armstrong in the 1930s to counter AM static
Stations were able to be spaced farther apart
Original FM radio service in the US was the Yankee Network located in New England
Radio History #2
1930-1939: Big stars were Jack Benny, Fred Allen, and George Burns
Sponsored musical was most popular form of broadcast
Broadcasting comic strip characters like Dick Tracy and Little Orphan Annie
1947: John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shokley invent the transistor.
1940-1949: Radio broadcasts were used to instantly broadcast war reports because film could not do this
Broadcast FDR’s addresses to explain what was going on in the world
Fireside chats
Payola in the 1950s
1960s: Radio got rid of its vacuum tubes and became mobile!
People no longer had to sit around listening to radio via rooms or cars
1970s:FM became huge and DJ’s again began to pick what they played.
A common format emerged where the DJ would speak between songs and their banter with the audience was very important
Top 40
Casey Kasem hosted American Top 40 from 1970-1988
1980s:The rise of the shock jock - Howard Stern, Don Imus, and Rush Limbaugh
Clear Channel begins to buy up the country
Top 40 idea still huge
Rap stations began emerging
1947: John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shokley invent the transistor.
A transistor is a small electronic device containing a semiconductor and having at least three electrical contacts, used in a circuit as an amplifier, detector, or switch.
An active component in practically all modern electronics.
Howard Stern
Some consider him one of the most important radio personalities ever
Took radio out of the professional deep-voiced serious talk-show host
Fined by the FCC more than any other broadcaster
Moved to Satellite Radio to “avoid censorship”
Radio Programming
By time of day
Drive time
Late night
Type of music played
Country is the most popular format with almost 2000 stations in the US playing “country” music
News/Talk has the next most number of stations
Improved Technology
Satellite radio (Sirius, XM):
Commercial-free, digital radio via satellite. For a monthly fee, an offering of more than 100 channels of digital audio (music, news, sports, etc.).
Unlike terrestrial radio (AM, FM), the signal stays tuned no matter where you travel within the U.S.
Internet radio (webstreaming):
consists of putting out radio-style audio programming over streaming Internet connections: no radio transmitters need be involved at any point in the process.
a method of publishing audio broadcasts via the Internet, allowing users to subscribe to a feed of new files (usually MP3s
The payola scandal was caused when record companies paid bribes to radio station owners and disc jockeys to get certain songs played on the air
Led to development of “playlists” and taking the song-picking decisions out of the hands of the people on the air.
Casey Kasem
Casey Kasem hosted American Top 40 from 1970-1988
Was an extremely popular radio show at the time
Began the idea of
Thomas Edison
Inventor whose inventions include the electric light, the phonograph, and the Kinetoscope. Edison's lab in Menlo Park NJ had over 60 scientists and produced as many as 400 patents a year
kinetoscope (1891)
peepshow-like device that played movies
“Does for the eyes what the phonograph did for the ears.”
Auguste-Marie and Louis-Jean Lumiere
French filmmakers – brothers who saw filmmaking as an extension of art
creates cinematographe
Cinematographe (1895)
- a portable movie camera that could also be used as a projector
set standards for speed and format of film
Georges MÉliÈs
French stage magician turned-filmmaker, did pioneering work in special effects and science fiction
A Trip to the Moon
film history
By the 1910s, films is an important storytelling vehicle
DW Griffith introduced innovative cinematic techniques
Shots moving from one side to another
Editing to show different angles of the scene
1915 – Birth of a Nation
Overtly racist; adaptation of KKK novel The Clansman
Silent film is THE thing in the industry’s early years, but soon Golden Age of Hollywood gives birth to the “talkies” – film with sounder tracks that mixed location sounds (real or constructed with dialogue and background music.)

Talking Pictures:
The Jazz Singer (1927):
silent film with two talking segments
recorded music playback
Don Juan (1926):
movie sound that synchronized voices with the pictures
Problems with early sound films:
stars had to be able to speak and act at same time
theaters had to upgrade equipment
camera equipment was noisy and microphones picked up set noise
Industry moved from New York and New Jersey to Southern California
cheap real estate
good weather, diverse shooting locations
ocean, mountains, desert
The STAR (or Studio) System
Paramount Pictures (1912), Columbia Pictures (1920), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (1924), Warner Brothers (1923), and 20th Century Fox (1935) all held long-term contracts on star directors and actors and built their success on those stars.
Factory-like way of producing movies, all talent worked directly for the studios
Movie distribution schemes
block booking—bundles of movies that theater owners were forced to purchase, without preview
studios purchased theaters (vertical integration)
The End of the StAR System:
1938—U.S. Department of Justice looking into the studios’ monopoly
investigated Paramount Pictures first (United States v. Paramount Pictures):
results of investigation:
Theater owners allowed to preview movies
Block booking limited to 5 movies
breakup complete in 1948:
Supreme Court forced studios to sell theaters
In the old days, Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart drew the fans; today, we flock to theaters to see Cate Blanchett and Brad Pitt or Leonardo Dicaprio and Halle Berry
Unlike the past, though, today’s celebrity actors retain their own managers, agents and publicity firms and are far less controlled by studios and production companies
Often leading actors may be co-owners of their films or own their own film companies
The Blockbuster Era
Jaws (1975):
first movie to gross more than $200 million
good direction and music score
based on a popular novel
giant television advertising campaign
summer release—coincided with beach and swimming season
Home Video
1994—over 85% of all U.S. homes had a VCR
2006—81% had a DVD player, 79% had VCR
2010 – 17% have Blue-ray (most with PS3)
The Incredibles—$261 million in theater, $368 million in DVD sales
opened up a world of older movies to today’s audiences
digital film
Star Wars:
George Lucas used a computer-controlled camera to shoot the space battle scenes
Star Wars Episode II—first big-budget feature to be shot entirely using high definition video
technology allows for cheaper production
Movies and censorship
Theater owners formed the National Board of Censorship (1909):
establish a national standard for movies
prostitution, childbirth, drug use all on banned list
stars’ off-screen behavior seen as equally offensive
Hollywood viewed as a mass of “wild orgies,” “dope parties, “kept men,” and “kept women.”
Production Code
set of morality guidelines passed in 1927
The Code controlled movie content from the 1930s until 1968:
evil not be made to look alluring
villains and law breakers not go unpunished
no profanity or blasphemy
passion needed to be handled carefully
Scrapped Production Code in 1968
Current Ratings System (films)
Ratings assigned by a panel of twelve parents
Screen and discuss three movies a day
G: General audiences. All ages admitted
PG: Parental guidance suggested
PG-13: Parents strongly cautioned
R: Restricted. Under 17 must be accompanied by adult
NC-17: No one under age 17 will be admitted
Certain content prompts particular ratings:
drug use requires at least a PG-13
sexually oriented nudity results in an R
rough and persistent violence requires an R
one use of the “F-word” requires a PG-13
If used more than once or in a sexual sense, movies is rated R
The X Problem…
Ratings did not include X rating.
Porn industry began labeling its unrated films XXX:
if X was adult, XXX would be really adult
Midnight Cowboy:
first and only X-rated movie to win an Oscar for Best Picture
rating eventually changed to R, after award
Saving Private Ryan rating debate
graphic depiction of Normandy landing troublesome to some
The Future of Movies
2010 – Ticket sales flat in US
International ticket sales up 8% over 2009
Latin America +25%; Asia Pacific + 21%
Average person sees 6 movies per year
3-D movies accounted for 21% of ticket sales
One in three people who went to the movies saw 3-D
ancillary or secondary markets—movie revenue sources other than the domestic box office
home video, toys, clothes, television rights, product placement, etc
International Cinema
A significant shaper of the American film industry
Nordisk films, the oldest studio in operation, was founded in a suburb in 1906 by Danish film pioneer Ole Olsen
German expressionist cinema focused on the darker side of human experience and revolved around themes of madness, insanity and betrayal
French film noir distinguished itself from other European styles with menacing overtones
Asian & Latin American:
Asian cinema’s history dates to the 1890s when Japanese and Indian filmmakers produced short films. Japan’s is one of world’s most successful and one of the largest.
India’s Bollywood, based in Mumbai, is the largest, producing more than 1,000 films annually.
Latin American cultural traditions, social and political history, indigenous stories and narrative styles infuse this vast region’s cinema production
Music consumes much of our lives.
In the beginning of the music era, there were only two ways to hear music.
Now the music industry has expanded into a worldwide phenomena.
Never before have listeners had such complete control over what they hear
Early Recordings
The phonautograph is the earliest known device for directly transcribing sound.
Invented by Frenchman Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, it was patented on March 25, 1857.
One of the earliest known recordings was released in 2009.
It is known as the “Petite Abeille” or Little Bee.
It is believed to have been recorded in 1860 and be part of a Masse´ opera.
Phonograph Thomas Edison’s
dominated the music world from 1877 to the 1950s.
"talking machine" uses a tinfoil cylinder to record voices from telephone conversations
The primary market was for businessmen, lawyers, and court reporters who used the phonograph to capture important thoughts and compose letters.
Alexander Bell and Charles Tainter
Used beeswax, rather than tinfoil, cylinders
Emile Berliner
invented the Gramophone in 1888 that used flat discs and had more lifelike sound
In the next twenty years, the recording industry experienced phenomenal growth.
By 1900, three million records were sold in the US alone.
Recordings history
Introduced in the late 1920s, electrical recording was an improved form of the record.
This type of recording used microphones and electronic amplifiers to make records in the studio.
During this time, a combination radio-phonograph was introduced.
Soundtracks were developed for talking motion pictures.
This period saw a widespread increase in the use of jukeboxes which required a changing assortment of a large quantity of records.
During and After the War Years – 1941-1955: Music technology adapted to the needs of the military who used music for entertainment purposes.
Music recordings for the military switched from a 10 inch disc to 16 inch discs.
These flexible vinyl plastic discs held fifteen minutes of music.
The US army experimented magnetic recording on wire for journalists.
These music devices did not have a tremendous impact but were an indication of the music technology to come.
The introduction of studio tape recorders in 1945 from Germany revolutionized the production of records and movie soundtracks
War Years.....The sales of high fidelity electronic equipment, developed during the 1930s, increased after WWII.
The 45-rpm disc and the Long Playing record for albums was introduced in 1948-1949.
Long-playing record (LP) developed by Columbia Records in 1948
labeled unbreakable; provided 23 mins of music per side
45-rpm disc RCA’s format
provided 4 mins of music per side, affordable and popular with teens
The portable record player seen after 1945 were small and had a handle but it needed to be plugged into a electrical outlet.
Rock and Roll Era 1950-1960
The LP or long playing record album was a surprise hit in the 1950s.
LP sales were helped by the hi-fi or High Fidelity movement which was extremely popular in the 1950s.
High fidelity equipment attempted to reproduce the exact sound of a studio recording in the home.
Portable Music
Small portable radios were common after 1940
True portability began with transistor radios that came on the market in 1955.
Battery operated portable tape recorders were the highest selling tape recorders at the end of the 1960s.
In 1965, the 8 track system was introduced by Ford Motor Company to be used in cars.
The 8 track tape’s success was a surprise and in the late 1960s and early 1970s it’s sales were a third of all recorded music sales.
The 8-track would eventually fail but lead to the birth of cassettes.
History of music
1700s: waltz called “savage” 1800s: tango seen as primitive, sexual 1920s: the Charleston was maligned1950s & 60s: rock and roll decried as too sexual

Rock and Roll Era 1950-1960:
The LP or long playing record album was a surprise hit in the 1950s.
LP sales were helped by the hi-fi or High Fidelity movement which was extremely popular in the 1950s.
High fidelity equipment attempted to reproduce the exact sound of a studio recording in the home.

The 70s and 80: Cassette technology improved with innovations such as Dolby B noise reduction and metal tape.
The Walkman tape player was introduced in 1978 and combined high fidelity with portability.
MTV emerged in the 1980s and music videos were created for television.
In 1982, CDs came on to the market.
Klaas Compaan began work on CD in 1969
Philips Electronics physicist
Philips joined with Sony to create a standard format:
Wanted to avoid another format war (LP versus 45)
The CD launched in Europe in 1982; in the United States in 1983

1990 – the present:
By 1990, the boom box emerged as the main form of home music technology.
The digital audio player was introduced in 1998.
Digital recording—a method of recording sound that involves storing it as a series of numbers
no degradation in reproductions
In 1999, digital audio players song storage was increased by using a lap top hard drive versus a low capacity flash memory.
The market greatly expanded with the arrival of the iPod in 2001 followed by the iTunes store in 2003 which created the legal download music business.
Motown was founded by record producer Berry Gordy, Jr. in 1959
Gordy was responsible for the success of artists like Diana Ross, Stevie Wonder, Ray Charles, and Marvin Gaye
The British Invasion
British artists developed skiffle, which was influenced by American rock‘n’roll
After the Beatles appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show in 1964, a cultural phenomenon was born and other British bands to gain popularity in the United States

Skiffle has become synonymous with music made with homemade or improvised instruments.
Folk Music
Folk music was produced by untrained musicians who used the oral tradition
The genre became the voice of democracy and social change
Bob Dylan, Pete Seeger, and Joan Baez were popular artists in this genre
The Psychedelic Sound
The Beatles experimented with the psychedelic sound and recorded Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band
Other artists included Pink Floyd, Jimi Hendrix, the Doors, the Grateful Dead, and Jefferson Airplane
The Woodstock Music Festival defined the era with it’s celebration of peace, love and music (or sex, drugs and rock and roll).
Punk rock gained popularity in the 1970s and challenged mainstream music
GB was the home of U.S. punk
Punk banks included the Sex Pistols, the Ramones, the Clash, the Dead Kennedys and the Buzzcocks
MTV launched on August 1, 1981
The first video played on MTV was “Video Killed the Radio Star” by the Buggles
MTV changed the way artists expressed their creativity and the way music is marketed
The Music Industry Today
Major labels
Formed through mergers and acquisitions
Control Much of the industry
Independent labels
Account for 66% of all albums produced
Amounts to only 20% of all music sales
major labels
The four biggest recording-arts companies that control much of the music industry partly through their powerful distribution channels and ability to market music to mass audiences. They are Universal Music Group, Sony Music, EMI, and the Warner Music Company
Independent labels
Any small record-production and distribution companies that are not part of the four major label companies. They include companies producing only one or two albums a year, as well as larger independents such as Disney. The independent labels produce 66% of albums each year but only 20% of sales.
Recording Industry Business Model
sign artist and financially back them up in creation on recording of music..therefore recieve large amount of financial rewards (10% of gross sales)
crucial to success. artists perform concerts, radio plays FB, MySpace, Twitter etc.)
Send albums, tapes, or CDs to local retail stores who sell them to consumers. Online stores allow record companies to sell CDs that are far less popular, long tail. Digital world allows consumers to buy mp3s easy distribution and cheaper for record co. and allows to create flawless copies.
1970s LPs 6$
1980s CD $19
today list prices start at $15, manufacturing cost is $1 per CD artist and producer royalties $2 per album and distributer charges $1.50 per CD Label typically gross profits $5 per CD
Long Tail
the notion that selling a few of many types of items can be as profitable or even more so than selling many copies of a few items. The concept works especially well for online sellers such as Amazon or Netflix.
Digital Rights Management
Various technologies or security codes used to protect copyrighted works from being illegally copied.
Illegal File Sharing
sharing music without paying for it.ISPs (Internet Service Providers) stop allowing this in fear of lawsuits. Recording industry has gotten more aggressive on shutting it down.
Freemium model
Subscriptions in which subscribers can recieve some content for free if the want to take advantage of all the site has to offer they must pay a monthly subscription
amplitude modulation
how the audio signal is encoded on the carrier frequency
Global Positioning System
a system of satellites that provide location anywhere in the world
frequency modulation
refers to the modulation of the length of the wave
Edwin Howard Armstrong
inventor of FM radio transmission Columbia University engineering professor
David Sarnoff
Head of RCA helped push the development of TV as a mass medium yet blocked development of FM radio for years b/c its adoption would hurt AM listener-ship and reduce demand for AM radio receivers which RCA produced and sold.
Radio Act of 1927
Act of congress that created the Federal Radio Commission
a segment of time used by radio and television program planners to decide who the primary audience is during that time of day or night.
product placement
a form of advertising in which brand name goods or services are placed prominently withing movie content that is otherwise devoid of advertising, demonstrating the convergence of programming with advertising content
History of the Movie Industry
1. Thomas Edison
a. Invented the kinetiscope_, a peep-show precursor to movies, which allowed one person to view a movie by looking in a box.
2. Louis and Auguste Lumière
a. Patented a device very similar to Edison’s invention in 1895 called the cinematographe, they could shoot, develop, and show a short film to a group in a day.
b. The Lumière brothers took documentary_ footage of everyday scenes and thought the novelty would soon pass.
3. Other film pioneers, such as Georges Méliès and Thomas Edison, saw the potential and created many innovative forms of storytelling.
Film Silent Era: New Medium, New Technologies, New Storytelling
1. Georges Méliès and D. W. Griffith: French filmmaker Méliès (1861–1938) pioneered the use ofspecial effects. Griffith is best known for his birth of a nation/full length film that glorifies the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
Sound and Color Come to Movies
1. Sound and color came to movies in the 1920s, although color was not widespread until films of the 1950s.
2. Technicolor Motion Picture was founded in 1922, and became the standard for color motion pictures for three decades.
3. The first sound film short was shown before a paying audience in Berlin in 1896.
talkies had an immediate and drastic effect on the film industry, as some silent film stars with poor voices or heavy accents could no longer work, cameras became largely stationary, and films concentrated on joke-telling and clever dialogue.
The Birth of Hollywood
The movie industry started on East Coast, but migrated in the early 1900s to Hollywood CA. Filmmakers produce films year-round while the industry developed into a multibillion dollar giant that provides global entertainment and shapes Global Culture, Commerce, and imagination.
Hollywood Star System
a. Hollywood grew from a culture that did not put the names of actors and actresses in movie credits to one where studios controlled actors’ and actresses’ contracts.
b. From the 1930s until 1949, these five production companies built their success on long-term contracts with star directors and actors.
3)Metro Goldwyn Myer
4)Warner Bros.
5)20th Century Fox
c. The U.S. Supreme Court forced the studios to divest themselves from the large theater chains the studios owned to show the films because of monopolistic practices.
3. Independent films became financially viable. Produced outside the major studios, independent films could now be shown in large numbers of theaters.
The Movie Industry Today
The industry has evolved from vertically integrated entertainment companies to ones in which artists, directors, and high-paid actors and actresses have much more power.
1. Marketing and Distribution for Movies (WASN’T TALKED ABOUT IN CLASS BUT STILL IMPORTANT)
a. The main channel for marketing movies is advertising. Network and cable television advertising taking almost 60 percent of spending on marketing.
b. To help increase revenues, movies have regular patterns of exhibition windows, or places where they are shown.
c. The movie industry first boycotted television & even blacklisted actors who appeared on the medium. Now TV is a vehicle for movies that had run through their theatrical release cycle and need new revenue streams.
d. The usual exhibition windows for movies start with domestic theatrical release, then international release, video, on demand, pay cable channels (HBO), network or cable TV, and then syndicated TV. Each of the windows has a specified time for its showing, and windows generally do not overlap.
History of Television
Two British inventors developed cathode ray tubes in 1873 and 1881 that contributed to the development of modern television.
1. Seeing the Light: The First Television Systems
a. In the 1923, Russian immigrant Dr. Vladimir Zworykin invented a more advanced cathode-ray tube that most televisions still use.
b. Farnsworth transmitted the first wireless electronic transmission of an image in 1927.
2. Modern Television Takes Shape
a. David Sarnoff demonstrated 441-line TV technology at the New York World’s Fair in 1939. Television was on its way to becoming a popular mass medium for broadcasting images.
b. The National Broadcasting Company CBS started regularly scheduled broadcasts to 400 sets in the New York area in 1939 until the start of WWII.
c. After the war, four commercial television networks took shape:
1) NBC
2) CBS
3) ABC
4) DuMont
a) This company failed in 1955.
d. Color television broadcasting debuted in 1951 in the United States but did not get its official start until 1953.
Digital Television
Preparing the Way for Convergence (GENERAL INFORMATION)
A. The electronic television began with a video display terminal in the 1950s that was relatively small, black and white, and with monophonic, low-fidelity sound. Color television and stereophonic sound were developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Analog high definition television was introduced in 1981 while an all-digital television system was proposed in 1990. Since June 2009, all television broadcast signals in the United States have been switched to digital.
1. The Rise of Flat-Panel Displays. Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays are the two main types of flat-panel displays for television.
2. Key benefits include saving space and energy, and providing picture and color clarity.
B. Television Distribution: Three primary means of distributing television programming are broadcast, cable, satellite.
C. The Internet has rapidly become more important as more people watch clips of shows or entire programs online.
Broadcast TV
Terrestrial wireless is the traditional means of over-the-air distribution of television programming and is used by network-owned and affiliated stations to broadcast their programming. Today, just 15 percent of U.S. households receive terrestrial TV signals on their primary sets; most primary TV sets are connected to cable or satellite
Cable TV
sends TV signals through cables directly to homes. The first systems were built noncommercially in 1948 to bring TV signals into communities in hilly terrain. It was called community antenna television, or CATV.
Satellite TV
Satellite television beams the signal from satellites directly to homes with satellite dishes. Direct Broadcast Satellite is one of a variety of technical alternatives for satellite delivery of TV signals but the principal service. DirecTV was launched in 1994 as a viable national DBS commercial TV service in the United States.
The Television Industry Today
The industry is now dominated by consolidated companies that took advantage of the telecommunications Act of 1996, which relaxed ownership limits to allow groups to own stations that nationwide reach up to 35 percent of television households, and to own two stations in major markets. Consolidation in the cable industry has resulted in only about 600 multiple system operators (MSOs), controlling cable television for more than 90 percent of American subscribers.
Cable System Structure
Most cable systems are transforming from analog to digital technology, with upgrades costing millions or billions of dollars to improve and expand channel capacity and to add interactive features. In 2001, 68 percent of American households subscribed to cable TV
Satellite versus Cable
DBS offers more than 300 digital programming channels, compared to nearly 200 for cable. DBS offers a cheaper subscription than cable. However, DBS systems cannot carry a full array of local programming.
Television Industry Business Model
Traditionally, the terrestrial broadcasting networks relied primarily on selling ads that were shown during programs. The profits subsidized the development of new shows, creating a risk-averse culture. But the use of Nielsen ratings to measure how many people in various markets are watching a particular show is now used to judge the success of a show.
Cable and Satellite Services and Programming
Overcoming Audience Fragmentation: Audience fragmentation has grown as the number of cable channels available on typical cable systems has grown. Cable services are typically offered in tiers: basic service, cable programming service, and per-channel or per-program (or pay-per-view) service.
What Is News?
A. News usually is about an event that affects the public in some way, or that at least has some element of public interest to it. It is something that occurs that is out of the ordinary or the result of covering recent events.
B. Conventional wisdom suggests that news means reporting the unexpected. But news is, in many ways, manufactured and influenced by a wide variety of people, organizations, and forces.
1. Historian and Pulitzer Prize–winning author Daniel Boorstin describes what he calls “pseudo events,” such as press conferences or other staged events like marches and rallies, as an example of how groups can influence news coverage.
2. Soft news is human-interest stories or features.
3. Agenda-setting means journalists can influence by their coverage what is deemed important by their audience and what is therefore more likely to be discussed.
4. In terms of the amount of space devoted to each type of content, most newspapers and magazines are actually more advertising than news.
The Historical Development of Journalism
The penny press drastically changed journalism as publishers tried to seek mass audiences and became more dependent on advertising for revenue than subscriptions. James Gordon Bennett founded the New York Herald in 1835 and helped transform newspapers with creation of a financial page, editorial commentary, and public affairs reporting.
Objectivity and the Associated Press
News in the nineteenth century was shaped by its relationship to the democratization of politics, the expansion of the market economy, and the growing impact of an entrepreneurial middle class.
1. Objectivity is a journalistic principle that says journalists should be impartial and free of bias in their reporting. Fairness and balance are today’s goals.
2. The Associated Press, a wire service of collective news organizations created in 1848, helped establish the goal of objective reporting because highly partisan reviews would not be accepted by the different papers that made up the AP.
Pulitzer and Hearst
The Circulation Wars, Sensationalism, and Standards
1. Sensational journalism dominated throughout the latter half of the 19th century and was characterized by exaggerated news or lurid details and depictions in newspaper stories.
2. Joseph Pulitzer publisher of the New York World, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and other papers, battled Hearst fiercely for readers with sensationalist coverage of news and what came to be known as yellow journalism
D. William Randolph Hearst was publisher of the San Francisco Examiner at the age of 23 and of the New York Journal, publications known for their colorful, banner headlines and splashy photography.
The Muckrakers
A number of primarily magazine journalists wrote investigative stories that examined corruption and societal ills in the later 19th and early 20th centuries. They were known as muckrakers, and President Theodore Roosevelt likened their activities to raking up mud, or muck found in stables.
The Rise of Electronic Journalism
This era began when radio became a medium of mass communication in the 1920s and the “golden age of newspapers” started its decline. Television further contributed to the decline of newspapers’ influence and readership.
1. Murrow and News in TV’s Golden Age. Edward R. Murrow first achieved fame by broadcasting dramatic radio news reports from London during World War II but he is known best for quality TV journalism in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
2. Changes in Television News.
a. Electronic News Gathering equipment changed how news was gathered, how fast it was delivered, and how it was presented. The tools include video cameras and satellite dishes.
b. The rise of 24-hour news channels means that there is much more of a news hold to fill, which encourages stations to be less discriminating about what they consider newsworthy.
Foundations of Journalism
Digital technology and the Internet will continue to transform journalism, although some facets of professional, mainstream journalism will not change, like the way that reporters interview people and how editors select and edit good stories.
The Hutchins Commission and a Free and Responsible Press
A 133-page report of the Commission on Freedom of the Press, written by Robert Maynard Hutchins in 1947, argued that the public has a right to information that affects it and that the press has a responsibility to present that information. Key recommendations were:
1. The government should give all media the same constitutional guarantees traditionally enjoyed only by print media.
2. The agencies of mass communication assume the responsibility of financing new, experimental activities in their fields.
3. The public should create academic-professional centers of advanced study, research, and publication in the field of communications.
Separation of Editorial and Business Operations
This is necessary to ensure that news coverage is not influenced by business decisions or advertisers. This is a basic tenet of modern journalism.
Fairness and Balance in News Coverage
These goals have replaced the long-held but unattainable goal of objectivity in journalism.
1. Fairness involves covering all relevant sides of an issue.
2. Balance is presenting sides equally or reporting on a broad range of news events.
3. Factors such as the relative importance within the context of the story and validity or authority of the news source must be considered.
Framing the News
this means putting the facts of a story into a frame so stories can either be ignored or made to seem unimportant
Expert Sources
These individuals are used to give news more credibility Studies show, however, that they tend to be white and male.
From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created
A. Gathering the News: News is gathered by reporters who are usually on beats, or cover specific groups or topics, although some media critics charge that news is largely manufactured by news organizations and public relations firms.
B. Producing the News: News stories undergo a well-defined process from the time they are written through editing, rewriting, fact-checking, and layout. Because time is so critical in television news, news segments are edited and rehearsed down to the second to fit into their selected time slots.
C. Distributing the News: News organizations try to distribute their product as widely as possible, as the larger their audience the higher their advertising rates. Television news shows use teasers of upcoming stories to attract viewers, and print news uses colorful images and covers to attract readers.
Types of Journalism
III. : Dissatisfaction with the way traditional journalism covered important social issues in the 1960s and 1970s led to interpretive reporting, which tried to explain the story by placing the facts into broader context. Other journalistic styles soon followed, including New, literary, and advocacy journalism.
A. Alternative, or radical, journalism: This form takes an oppositional or alternative to the status quo of government or business.
1. Its roots go back to some of the radical and socialist newspapers published in the 19th century in the United Kingdom for workers.
2. Magazines such as Mother Jones, The Progressive, and The Nation can be seen as examples that straddle the gap between radical journalism and mainstream standards of professional quality.
3. Alternative weeklies available in most urban areas, such as the Boston Phoenix and the Houston Press, have the edgy, contrarian coverage of topics that is often geared toward a younger audience.
4. The growth of the Internet helped fuel the independent media movement, called Indymedia for short, in 1999.
Public journalism
Also known as civic journalism, this form began in the early 1990s out of dissatisfaction among some editors and journalists over how poorly mainstream journalism seemed to cover important social and political issues.
1. It expands on the watchdog role of journalism but tries to engage readers with creating and discussing the news.
2. Some newspapers report success with the new approach, including a higher level of trust toward the press
Citizen Journalism
This form is usually not created with an explicitly political or radical agenda and its driving force has come from citizens
1. The Internet and especially social media tools have allowed for its rapid growth.
2. It is still being defined but broadly encompasses everything from blogging and Slashdot to more formal ventures.
3. Mainstream journalism works with citizen journalists, with some news organizations publishing their work and others teaching them interviewing, reporting, and writing skills.
An International Perspective
Whereas U.S. news typically is written in the inverted pyramid style with emphasis on fairness and balance, other countries, especially European countries, have different approaches that might allow reporters to insert their own opinions, or restrict any interpretation of news outside the government
Entertainment Media
Entertainment media are comprised of television, movies, DVDs and videotapes, video games, music, books, and magazines, as mass communication or digital media.
Entertainment media are comprised of television, movies, DVDs and videotapes, video games, music, books, and magazines, as mass communication or digital media.
Television has become the most common mode by which we receive our news, entertainment, and advertising. By the time today’s teens are 75 years old, they will have spent over 12 full years watching television.
Early Days TV
Programming and Genre Influences: Programs in the late 1940s and 1950s were performed and broadcast live, largely because film processing was expensive and slow. Magnetic tape recording was developed in the late 1950s.
1. TV became a medium of mass communication in the 1950s and borrowed freely from radio and Broadway for its programming and actors. Some complain that television induces passivity in viewers and portrays events too realistically.
2. The first decade of television programming is often referred to as the golden age of television and produced classics.
3. The Ed Sullivan Show, which debuted June 1948, established the format for a variety series. I Love Lucy was the first half-hour filmed TV sitcom in the 1950s; Howdy Doody was a popular children’s show; and Gunsmoke was a classic Western.
Pushing The Programming Envelope
1. Programs of various formats introduced more complex, realistic characters into formerly one-dimensional program genres in the 1970s.
2. Monday Night Football, started in 1970, experimented in sports programming during prime time and became a cultural mainstay until it ended in 2005.
3. The controversial situation comedy All in the Family was the highest-rated program of the decade because it addressed many issues discussed in society.
The MTV Generation and Rise of Cable
1. The growing availability of cable and satellite television in the 1980s threatened the three network channels and public television. One exception was a new genre of gritty police drama, including a show called Hill Street Blues.
2. MTV and other specialized cable channels changed viewing from a generic, one-size-fits-all approach to a more specialized audience.
3. The Reliance Capital Group reflected the growing Latin American population in the United States in the 1980s with the launch of the Spanish-language television network Telemundo Group. Cable subscribers pay an additional monthly fee for channels in Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Hindi, Tagalog, and Arabic.
Cable Comes of Age
1. Television networks were slow to respond to the threatening presence of cable and satellite television, enabling HBO to attract more viewers for some original programming. Hit mob series The Sopranos was the most watched show in the history of cable channel during the fourth-season premiere on September 15, 2002.
2. The cutting-edge programming of the FX Channel has generated its own audience, with 5 million viewers for the premiere episode of its police drama The Shield.
3. Some reasons for defections of viewers to cable channels are corporations’ unwillingness to take risks with innovative programming and cable TV’s edgy programming that has fewer FCC regulations.
Public Service Broadcasting
Public Service in a Commercial World
1. The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 authorized PBS, which began in 1969 and in November of that year, launched Sesame Street, one of the most influential programs for children on TV then and today.
2. PBS operates as a not-for-profit, private corporation owned by its member stations. It is based in some ways on the British Broadcasting Corporation, which started in the United Kingdom in 1936.
Types of TV Programming
Enduring television programming types include hosted children’s shows, variety shows, situation comedies, dramatic anthologies, Western series, sports, and news talk shows. These various program types laid the foundation for what are now formal divisions within the commercial television networks: entertainment, sports, and news.
1. Changes in Media, Changes in Programming: The rise of the multichannel universe of cable, satellite, and other new media threaten the survival of once popular decades-old programs, including soap operas.
2. Filling the Days: Game shows or quiz shows were once popular for daytime programming but are now being replaced with talk shows that bring controversial or sensitive issues to the public arena.
3. Filling the Nights: A resurgence of interest in the prime-time quiz and game shows is attributed to the higher stakes.
4. Sports have always been a popular type of programming, attracting some of the largest audiences in the United States. The medium and the events have become so intertwined that sports playing rules often are altered to accommodate TV.
a. Sports have been an ongoing venue for technical experimentation such as with instant replay and miniature cameras to pick up intricate details of an activity.
b. Extreme sports and types of fighting besides boxing are growing in popularity.
Reality Shows: This genre has its roots in the 1950s and 1960s with television game shows such as Truth or Consequences or Alan Funt’s Candid Camera. Reality shows became much more popular in 2000. In addition to being versatile, reality television is profitable for television networks because the cost of producing them is much less than that of scripted programs using actors and sets.
Movies continue to play a large role in entertainment, despite predictions in the 1950s that people would stay home and watch television. People 40 and older continue to be the largest group of moviegoers.
A. Hollywood’s Legendary Movie Moguls: Hollywood, the motion picture capital of the world, is an invention of the Jewish media moguls of the early 20th century.
1. The Warner Brother: All four were born in Poland. They founded their movie studio in 1923, 19 years after Harry Warner hocked his family’s delivery horse in Youngstown, Ohio, to buy a used Edison Kinetoscope projector.
a. The studio released The Jazz Singer and launched the new era of motion pictures with sound in 1927.
b. Warner Brothers was the first studio to feature a canine star, the first to hire a future president as an actor, and the first to sell part of its film library to television. Warner Brothers  company of firsts
2. Walt Disney: Walter Elias Disney, born in Chicago in 1901, is the creator of animated cartoon characters such as Mickey Mouse, Goofy, and Donald Duck and classic animated films such as Bambi, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, and Fantasia.
a. Disney opened Disneyland in 1955 in Los Angeles, and in 1971, opened Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida.
b. Disney introduced Technicolor in 1932 animation and was among the first to offer color television programming
3. Samuel Goldwyn: Born Shmuel Gelbfisz in Poland in the late 1800s, he was a motion picture producer and industry pioneer whose company (as well as his name) evolved into several household names. He eventually operated an independent company that produced such films as Wuthering Heights (1939) and Porgy and Bess (1959).
4. Marcus Loew: known as the Mogul of the East Loew was a New York City financier and theater chain owner who merged his studio with Louis B. Mayer Productions and the Samuel Goldwyn Company to form Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, or MGM. Goldwyn was ousted from the team.
5. Louis B. Mayer: Born in 1885, he profited greatly showing D. W. Griffith’s Birth of a Nation and entered the movie production business in 1917. He funded his own production company, Louis B. Mayer Pictures.
a. Marcus Loew named Mayer vice president of MGM in the 1920s.
b. He teamed with Douglas Fairbanks Sr. in 1927 to form the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, the foundation of movie industry artists.
F. DVDs and Netflix
DVDs and Netflix
. The movie industry strongly resisted the introduction of consumer videocassette recorder models and waged an unsuccessful court battle against Sony. Today videotapes generate the greatest revenues for movies.
2. The videotape market has been radically altered by the creation of the DVD, which provides more portability, better video and audio quality, and extra features that videotapes simply cannot match. Also, people now rent movies online.
3. Netflix, created in 1997, introduced the renting DVDs model, which fits well with the trend of an on-demand viewing experience and increased ordering online.
Video Games
A. Video games outpaced U.S. box office sales for the first time in 2001. In 2011, global sales of video games were $65 billion, up from $62.7 billion in 2010. The most popular games are usually fast-paced action or sports games in which multiple players can play against each other.
B. Ninetendo’s Wii, in which the game remote controls emulate actual player movement, has been very popular since its release in late 2006. By the end of 2008, it outsold the popular Playstation and Xbox.
C. Computer users favor massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) or massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) that allow players to create characters of various races and classes and go online to engage in quests or missions. Players purchase the game on a CD and then pay monthly fees to keep playing.
D. Game-related Web sites offer discussion groups to help with questions, trade tips and complaints, and to create cheat codes and even create mods, or modifications, to games. One drawback is the possibility of encouraging addictive behavior to games.
E. Rise of Social Games: Online social games such as Farmville and Mafia Wars were created by social game leader Zynga. Part of the rapid popularity of social games is that they coexist easily on a popular site like Facebook and encourage players to tap into their network of friends to find new participants.
Conclusion: Looking Back and Moving Forward
A. Entertainment may be the primary reason people engage with media, but there should be a general awareness of entertainment’s ability to transmit cultural values and norms that might include negative stereotypes.
B. Journalism must uphold its role of informing the public even when news coverage adopts entertainment values or focuses too much on covering stories about entertainment.
C. As digital media make it easier to get the kind of entertainment people want, people must continue to interact with each other or discuss important social topics and not settle into a passive mode of media consumption.
Complete review
Vocab List
• Penny press –newspapers that cost just one penny; they catered to a growing literate audience more interested in entertainment and knowledge than in politics or ideology.
• Subscribers – individuals who commit to paying for a printed product (magazines) for a specified period of time at a specified cost
• Novel – long-form fiction. In their early incarnations, novels were often broken down into episodes for publication over several issues.
• Cliffhanger – a suspenseful chapter ending in a serially published novel that encourages readers to purchase the next issue.
• Dime novel – mass-produced novel that cost 10 cents and was intended to accommodate customers of the rapidly expanding railroad system
• Vertical Integration – a business structure in which one company operates and controls all of the means of production, distribution and exhibition for a large segment of the news publishing or movie industry
• Syndicated comic strips – comic strips that appear in multiple newspapers that represented the cultural and social challenges of American life during the Industrial Revolution
• Sound recording – the recreation of sound waves including voice, music and sound effects
• Phonograph – sound recorder that dominated the music world from 1877 to
• Covers – songs and tunes performed by artists other than the original
• Gramophone – the predecessor to the record player; the first technology to offer consumers interchangeable recording media in the form of a hard plastic discs, as opposed to the cylinders of Edison’s and Bell’s inventions
• Phonautograph – Thomas Edison’s earliest known device for directly transcribing sound
• Federal Radio Commission (FRC) – a federal agency that was the predecessor to today’s Federal Communications Commission
• Regenerative radio circuit – interconnecting electronic components that greatly increased radio signal clarity
• Amplitude Modulation (AM) – the primary broadcast technology used before FM; it offers limited sound range and muddled, static-riddled signals especially during bad weather.
• Frequency Modulation (FM) – the standard for quality radio broadcasting that replaced AM and would remain unchallenged until the advent of digital radio
• Payola – the practice of paying bribes to radio disc jockey’s (DJs) and station owners to control which records would receive airplay over the radio
• Telecommunications Act of 1996 – U.S. federal legislation that deregulated the broadcast industry and removed the long-running restrictions on multistation ownership
• “The Majors” – the four dominant recording labels that emerged after the restructuring of the music industry in the early 21st century
• Big Five – the five major film studios that dominated Hollywood during its Golden Age
• Golden Age – a period in which Hollywood filmmaking was dominated by the Big Five movie studies and that gave birth to talkies
• Talkies – films with sound tracks that mixed location sounds (real or constructed) with dialogue and background music
• Sound-on film technology – developed by Lee De Forest, a technology that imprinted sound into light waves that could be recorded as visual images onto the same continuous filmstrip
• Star system – promotion of the image, rather than the acting, of notable film stars
• Block-booking system – a film distribution system that typically bundled five films together: a single high-quality A-film along with four lower-quality A- and B- films
• Blockbusters – spectacular, huge-budget film productions
• Bollywood – Indian film industry based in Mumbai, which produces more than 1,000 films each year. The Indian equivalent of the Hollywood movie industry
Books allowed:
- Spread of ideas
- Major social changes
- Standardization of language and spelling
- The creation of mass culture
*Standardized Language slide in Books and Magazines*
• Caxton,
• Harris, and
• Webster
Typesetting Slide and Information on Magazines from slides (1730s – 1800s, after WWII, etc.)
Important Figures
William Randolph Hearst – sensationalist yellow journalist; used his yellow journalism-based empire to push the U.S. Congress and the administration of President William McKinley to promote American expansionism and to escalate conflicts between the United States and Spain into what became the Spanish-American War (1898)
Joseph Pulitzer – (1847-1911) made his fortune and built his publishing empire while competing with Hearst. Used yellow journalism to accomplish empire-building visions and to push political agenda for America. HOWEVER, went from being a scion of yellow journalism to being model of best journalistic practices and ethics. Best known for “Pulitzer Prize”
Thomas Alva Edison – completed first working phonograph; interested in finding a way to record messages transmitted through telegraph and telephone lines; launched the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company; brain behind MPPC
Guglielmo Marconi – the first to deliver radio broadcasting to the world; intended to develop technology that would allow telegraph messages to be sent over long distances (especially water) w/o the need of costly networks of cables.
David Sarnoff – (1891-1971) worked his way up the ladder at Marconi Wireless, promoting himself and his vision of a future dominated by radio technology; was asked to stay on as Radio Corporation of America (RCA) general manager; acquired rights to superheterodyne circuit and used it as the foundation of RCA’s home line of radio receivers after the war; refused to back Armstrong’s FM radio technology; launched color television and paved the way for satellite television; founded RKO Pictures in 1928
George Melies - (1861-1938) French stage magician-turned-filmmaker; inspired by a demonstration of the Lumiere brothers’ technology  established rooftop studio where he began working on special effects and sci-fi films; one of the principal inventors of cinema and founders of movie special effects
Syndicated comic strips
In the late 19th century, comic strips became regular features in newspapers and pulp magazines
represented the social and cultural challenges of American life during the Industrial Revolution
Will Eisner was the pioneer of comic book publishing
gossip columns
became popular in the 1920s and 1930s
type of papers
Tabloid newspapers:
feature 11x14 inch format
usually have a cover rather than a front page
Broadsheet newspapers:
feature standard 17 by 22 format
Examples of Tabloids:
The New York Daily News:
big photos, huge headlines, sensationalistic stories
January 13, 1928 cover featuring Ruth Snyder’s execution
The Denver Rocky Mountain News:
covered Columbine school shooting extensively
Community press
weekly and daily newspapers serving local geographic communities
Small Towns, Individual Suburbs or Communities
Serve as legal record of public communication
Police reports, births, deaths, marriages, legal announcements
1,100 daily, 1,200 nondaily community papers in United States
Covering a “local footprint” catering to loyal readers
Mostly stories not being covered nationally, but still serves by reporting organizations like the AP and Reuters.
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