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jazz exam 2
2nd Grade

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What did the saxophone replace and why?
It replaced the clarinet as the primary wood instrument because it blended with the brass and more volume.
Fletcher Henderson (1897-1952):
Who was he?
What era of music did he define?
What technique is he known for, describe it?
He was a pianist and a band leader, but he was mostly known as an arranger. Ex: he arragned most of Benny Goodman's libarary.

Helped define big band music of the "swing era"

Forged an efficent arranging technique known as: section vs. section. This pitted brass against saxes/woodwinds.When one section plays the melody the other plays a supporting role.
Benny Goodman
Who was he?
What did his band do?
He was a clarinetist and Bandleader. "The king of Swing". Led the most popular band of the big band era. One of the most popular jazz musicians in history. And he helped break down racial barriers by emplying pianist Teddy Wilson, vibraphonist Lionel Hampton and guitarsist Charlie Christian.

His band fused the "Hot" solos of Jazz with commerical pop music. He brought jazz to Carnegie Hall in 1938.
Coleman Hawkins (1904-1969)
Who was he? What was his sound known for? How would be base his solos?
Considered to be the first important tenor saxophone soloist. Played with a husky, dark sound. Employed growl and other expressive techniques.

Based solos on arpeggiating the chords.
Artie Shaw
Who was he?
He lived a double life?
He quit music?
Clarinet and bandleader. He was considered to be a better clarinet player than Goodman.

Double Life:
1. As a succesful Band Leader
2. AS a lover of improv and innovation

He quit music several times only to see his stardom increase
Duke Ellington:
Who is he?
What type of style did he develop?
His band?
One skill he was good at?
His writing style?
Born in DC, and has composed over 2000 works and is the most recorded band leader in history. He was a pianist.

He developed a programic style where he would evoke images or scenes. This considered jungle style was also called by critics as "Ko Ko". Early in his career he was a stride style, but then developed his own style through his use of unusual harmonies and voicing.

His band was the "Washingtonians"

He had the skill of voicing across sections of the band. "Mood Indigo is an example. Instead of using the section vs section technique he mixed instruments to create different timbers and tone colors.

His wrote songs by himself, he knew the memembrs of his band so well that he was even able to write complete solos for them, and was effectively able to arrange music around their styles.
Art Tatum
What was his greatest influence?
What is he known for?
He created the techniuqe known as chord substitutions where he would subsitute the regular chords ofa song with those of his own.

Considered the transitional artist from swing to bop. Considered to be the most technically advanced pianist in jazz history.

Unpredictable style that used florid
embellishments in melody, harmony and
William "Count" basie
Who is he?
What was known for?
His style?
Most important part of his band?
Composer, pianist.

He was influenced greatly by stride pianist in NY, and the Boogie-woogie pianists of Kansas City.

Basie's band created unwritten arrangements known as "head" arrangements. One O'clock Jump.

His style was "less is more". The emphasis was not on intricate compositions and arrangements but on the groove and solos. He took the emphasis on the individual soloist.

The most important was the rhythm section.
How to make head arragnment
• 1. rhythm section begins a blues.
• 2. someone in the saxes makes up a short
melodic “riff” and the entire section joins in.
• 3. trumpets and trombones make up a different
riff that acts as a response or counter melody to
the saxes.
• 4. Some players would harmonize the “riff”
creating a dense chord texture
How do you characterize Bebop?
rapid tempos, complicated chord changes and
harmonies and a new, unpredictable rhythm.
Kenny "Klook" Clarke
What did he do?
Shifted the swing rhythm to the ride cymbal.
Creating a “shimmering” lighter foundation
for modern jazz. Freed up the snare drum and bass drum to fill in rhythmic holes.

Hits in jazz are known as "dropping bombs"
Bebop Piano:
Modern players discarded the
stride style of accompanying. No
more “Oom-pah” in the left hand.

Adopted the “Comping”
technique. A rhythmically
improvised way of playing the
chord progression.
Charlie "Bird" Parker
His sound?
Personal Problems?
His sound was very agile and rhythmic.

He was addicted to morphine after a car accident
John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie
What was he known for?
Performance style?
He was the intellect or teacher behind the Bebop movement.

His performances brought humor and
charisma to an abstract art form.
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