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J5400 Exam 1

Additional Journalism Flashcards




6 Benefits of Research
1-Can Save Money-avoiding incorrect decisions, helping to find correct strategies, shortening time required to introduce new initiatives, indicating opportunities for new products.
2-Lets you gain on competitors-by tracking what the competition is doing or discovering new opportunities.
3-Lets you adapt to change, whether in society, in the economy, in your generic business, or in your specific firm or organization.
4-Can help with internal operations-may lead to synergy between departments.
5-May help retain business or grow your business and reap profitable rewards from your business
6-Can lead to discovery of new opportunities for new products or services
List, define, and discuss the three key variables in determining if it is necessary to conduct research as discussed in the Jugenheimer text.
A) Ambiguity
o Refers to the confidence level of research
o Business decisions are made at a 60% level of confidence
o Pay for reducing level of ambiguity through time and money

B) Cost (Budget Constraints)
o More cost means spending more time usually
o The more confident you are in a research result, the more money it costs
o Primary research costs money
o Research company can recruit respondents, pay for an incentive, and then the actual research and analysis

C) Time
o Pay for lowering the level of ambiguity
o If you need an outcome today, then it is unlikely you can conduct a primary research study with a large sample size
o Dictates the number of people you talk to is “good enough” or is enough to feel confident
o Can dictate whether research can be considered out
Explain and discuss the issues of bias and credibility as discussed on pages 287-289
• the key reason to select an outside research firm to conduct a research study is to maintain objectivity and have results that are credible--- eliminates bias
• eliminates the possibility that you are too close to the situation to be objective
• more credible for a third party to say that your creative is liked by consumers rather than the agency saying it
Discuss the difference between marketing research situations and advertising/public relations situations discussed on page 295-298
o Marketing research looks at a brand from all angles
• The 4Ps
• Looks for a quantitative study that will be acceptable to senior management
• Look to understand the behavior of the target market
 Wants to know who is buying the brand, why they buy it, and how often
o Advertising is looking for emotional aspects of a situation, which require qualitative methods that may be more intuitive than definitive
• Will want to know how a brand fits within his life
• Is there a form of emotional attachment that the consumer has

• Advertising/Public Relations Research Situations
o Emotional business but research is a rational business
o A big challenge in the advertising business is to understand the emotional connection that a message and or creative expression might have on consumers
• Two areas that gain the most research attention in the PR field are creative and media
 Ex: trying to change a brand’s message to consumers
 Ex: spent 40 million on advertising and less than 2 percent recall the message→ creative problem
• Power of advertising is all about delivering a compelling message in an equally compelling manner

Ex: advertising reaching our target market?--> media problem
Media can be paid or unpaid
What are the three advantages to using secondary research?
1. The majority cost associated with research is the time you spend researching, analyzing, and reporting the information
• ***the cost is minimal
2. US Census is a huge and trusted source
• client won’t spend the money that the US Census Bureau does
3. Resulting time you have to analyze a study
• you are not concerned with developing the study, only with analyzing and interpreting the results
 THUS, you have the luxury of time, which may not be possible with a primary study
What are the three disadvantages to using secondary research?
1. A specific study probably wasn’t done just for your client without your client funding it
• **difficult to get specific data on your topic
2. May have limited knowledge of the research methodology and collection of data
• you don’t know how the study asks specific questions; may lead to conflicting viewpoints
3. Lack of depth on a topic
• you do not have access to all the data collected for the study, so it is impossible for you to go beyond what is reported
Define syndicated research found on page 35.
• syndicated research: used in advertising and public relations
o offers big benefits
• not single-sponsored
• **have a number of parties fund the research so that each individual company gets a lot of information for a relatively small amount of money
o syndicated research is the backbone of the media marketplace
• each medium has one or more syndicated studies that provide audience measurement in terms of ratings
o Television and Cable: Nielsen
o Radio: Arbitron
o Magazines: MRI
o Newspaper: Scarborough
o Interactive: Nielsen
List and discuss the five qualitative research methods on page 63-68
1. Personal Interviews
o taken place directly between individuals
• can be conduced by telephone, internet, face to face
o best approach to use when trying to gather personal reflections such as beliefs, values, and opinions
o useful when it is necessary to probe with follow-up questions and with unscripted question and answer interviews
o tend to be more flexible than other techniques
o format may vary depending on the purpose of the research
• demographic information, especially income, may be best to be asked at the end of the interview after a mutual trust has been built
 ***ask for categories rather than an exact number
2. Dyadic Interviews
o occur between only two persons
o allow the two people to get to know and trust each other
o interviewer may have a list of topics to be covered, rather than specific questions3. Focus Groups
o very specialized interview
o small number of people are gathered with an interviewer in the same room
• moderator asks a variety of questions, often loosely structured to permit the respondents to interject their own views
o the moderator tries to include everyone, and if someone is holding back, asking direct questions to that person may be necessary
o the group pressure helps get everyone to contribute
o used to uncover opinions and experiences with a product or service
o may last a couple of hours, but the responses are immediate
• 4. Projective Techniques
o purpose is to get the respondents to project themselves into a situation or scenario
• can be a time-consuming technique because one respondent can be questioned at a time
o a: Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)
• use a picture for which the respondent makes up a story
b: Cartoon tests
• cartoon characters talking about a situation and then showing a blank cartoon “balloon” into which the respondent is to interject his responses
o c: Story completion
• begins with a short tale read by the interviewed, who then asks the respondent to complete the story
o d: Word association
• provides only a single word at a time, with the respondent saying the first thing that comes to mind
 believed to bring “top of mind recognition”
5. Ethnographies
o extensive fieldwork is required to gain
o researchers must maintain their impartiality and not influence the behaviors or relationships in any way
o require a good deal of time to complete, which is a problem for those who work under a deadline
o story about the product and brand
• observational research—you get immersed in a culture
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