Shared Flashcard Set


Israeli Politics
Final Exam
Political Studies
Undergraduate 4

Additional Political Studies Flashcards




The Prisoner's Dilemma

D: A situation in which two agents have to decide whether to cooperate in order to achieve a common goal.

Exp: Each player has two strategies (cooperate or defect) and each of the four combination of choices has utility assigned to it

C: Used in study of politics to explain international and domestic conflicts

I: Most commonly used example of game theoretic models in the social sciences (Nash Equilibrium prevails)

EX: Two suspects in a robbery are separately questioned and both blame each other

The Refugees Issue

D: After Palestinian hostilities in late 40s, Palestinians experiences a Diaspora settling in: Lebanon, West Bank/Jordan, and Gaza Strip.

Exp: After Israel's war of Independence and the partition plan, 750,000 Palestinians left their homes and became refugees, but treatment of people varied on location.

C: Jewish refugees were integrated into population in Israel, Palestinian's are in care of UNRWA with no stable long-term solution.

I: Created political trap of the Palestinian refugees in camps with only solution being right of return.

EX: People who fled to West Bank and Gaza joined relatively strong local communities. Rights granted to people in Jordan but limited to Palestinians in Gaza

Proportional Representation Electoral System

D: Allocates seats in parliament proportional t the number of votes that each party receives

Exp: Proportional rule allows a semi-direct democracy with a "multi-winner" electoral system

C: Proportional used in Israel and allows form more parties and coalitions, better representation of population

I: Allows people to recognize how specific institutions change political realities

EX: Arab pop in Israel is 15% same as rep in Knesset

Plurality Rule Electoral System

D: A district type system where the winner of the election is the candidate who wins the most votes

Exp: The winner is  winner but it does represent minorities and women

C: Important for recognizing how specific institutions change political realities

I: Not representative enough and gives a strong incentive for voters to vote for the winner

EX: In US, there is one representative chosen for a district

The Peace Agreement with Egypt (Camp David Accords)

D: An agreement between Egypt and Israel after a twelve day secret negotiation overseen by President Jimmy Carter

Exp: Agreement outlined a plan for peace in the Middle East, especially between Egypt and Israel

C: Israel withdrew from Egypt, but no decisions were made about recognizing Palestine as a state, which Palestinians blamed Egypt for

I: Led to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in 1979

EX: Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula

A Cooperative Game

D: A game is considered cooperative if the players can conclude a prior binding agreement as to what outcome should be chosen

Exp: Cooperative games are not described in strategic form, rather by the set of outcomes that each coalition of players may potentially agree on

C: Countries on good terms with each other are able to talk and form coalitions and agreements

I: Early 1960s, Aumann and Shubik began to apply cooperative game theory extensively throughout economics

EX: Israel and America are allies and come to agreements about what to do in specific situations before problems arise

Direct Elections for the Prime Minister

D: The Prime Minister is elected separately from the Knesset

Exp: A two-ballot election allows the Israeli citizens to vote separately for a Prime Minister and the Knesset

C: Proportional rule creates a multiparty environment, making it difficult to form a coalition

I: Difficulties in forming coalitions led to direct elections in 1992, but was abandoned in 2001 due to no better stability

EX: Directly elected Netanyahu as Prime Minister

The Median Voter Theorem

D: In uni-dimensional political settings, using plurality rule with two candidates, if voters have single peaked preferences, both candidates endorse position of median voter

Exp: Candidates will align their interests towards the median of opinon rather than extreme left or right to get elected in order to receive majority votes

C: Used in considering how party platforms are formed

I: In politics all candidates must understand the voters' positions and base platform on appesing most people

EX: Taxes vs. no taxes in Republican primaries allowed McCain's middle stance from extreme candidates got him elected

Four-Stage Game of Israeli Politics

D: The four stages are party positioning, elections, coalition form, and policy implementation

Exp: Parties begin to form platforms, names a leader for the elction, the leader forms coalitions, and the winning part implements their policies.

C: Whenever a new election is called, steps occur

I: The leader of the party must represent the ideals well and be able to form a coalition/majority to win

EX: Labor party position themselves and chooses their policies, and when they win seats in the Knesset they form coalitions and implement their policies

Oslo II

D: An interim agreement between Israel and the PLO overseen by Clinton

Exp: Agreement concerning West Bank and Gaza Strip that gave Palestinians self-rule of land in both areas

C: A further step towards peace built on foundations of initial Oslo Accords

I: Created the Palestinian Authority and established that neither side shall intiate or take any step that will change the status of the West Ban and Gaza Strip

EX: ??????


D: Political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.

Exp: Goals is to liberate Palestine and form a Palestinian state

C: Formed with the idea of prohibiting Zionism and using terrorist tactics to attack Israel

I: 1988 endorsed a two-state solution, stating Israel and Palestine could exist next to each other, contingent to specific demands that have not been fulfilled

EX: ????????

Office Seeking and Policy Seeking

D: Parties have either a commitment to enacting policy or want to fulfill self-interests

Exp: Different parties are formed based upon their incentives, which are either to gain status by being elected to office or to enact policies they genuinely care about

C: When considering coalition formation, consider the incentives of the actors

I: If combine two games then will see other options that dictate the type of trade-off parties are willing to do

EX: Extremist parties are less likely to form coalitions, and therefore are less successful in elections

The Oslo Accords

D: The first direct, face-to-face agreement between Israel and the reps of Palestinians

Exp: Created the framework for future relations between Israel and the proposed Palestinian state

C: This was just a beginning agreement to decide permanent issues at a later time, no final decisions were made

I: This was the first step to peace between Israel and Palestine, but when Hamas was elected in 2006 they renounced the Accords

EX: Created a Palestinian Authority and called for Israeli troops to withdraw from the Gaza Strip and West Bank

UN Resolution 181

D: Decision recommending the western portion of the Mandate of Palestine into two provisional states, one Jewish and one Arab

Exp: Result of WWII, British empire collapses - Suggests to UN to resolve situation in Middle East by forming petition (UN voted in favor)

C: Fighting began almost as soon as the plan was approved

I: Despite no implementation, Israel's Declaration of Independence of May 1948 cites the UN resolution for recognizing the right of the Jewish people to est. a state

EX: The city of Jerusalem was not included in either state

Dominant/Core Part

D: A party system where only one political party can realistically become the government, by itself or in a coalition government

Exp: Parties that are historically dominant in forming a coalition and setting up policies

C: Shows up in multi-party systems, mystery until 90s

I: If you have such a dominant core party then politics is basically straight-forwards

EX: Labor and Likud in Israel

Taba Agreements

D: Talks between Israel and the PA at Taba in the Sinai Peninsula

Exp: Peace talks were aimed at reaching the "final status" neogitations to end the conflict

C: Based on negotiating 4 topics: Jerusalem, security, territory and settlements, and refugeees committee

I: Closest point to reaching an agreement, but statement issued proved impossible to reach understandings on all issues

EX: Ben-Ami, Israel's negotiator, said it was substantial progress and closest point to striking a final deal

First Lebanon War (1982)

D: In reaction to assassination attempt of Shlomo Argov, IDF invaded southern Lebanon in "Operation Peace of the Galilee"

Exp: Goal of the action was that Israel would eliminate the PLO in Southern Lebanon and create a secure area up to 25 miles north of their border

C: A number of factors triggered the invasion in 1982: Several border incidents that heightened tensions at the same time Israel was completing withdrawal from Sinai

I: The Lebanese massacre in Sabra and Shatila deepened dispute in Israel and led to further internal divisions in Lebanon and criticism of Israeli gov't for destruction attempts of PLO

EX: Motives were to destroy the PLO and restore the "legitimate government" in Lebanon


D: If x is preferred to y and t is preferred to z then x is preferred to z

Exp: An agent is assumed to be able to order all options, creating an order of preferences when multiple outcomes exist

C: In political situations, individuals must have well-aligned preferences for choosing their optimal candidates

I: Most fundamental assumption of the rational choice theory because preferences for candidates or agendas can be developed and ranked

EX: If a man prefers chocolate over vanilla and vanilla over strawberry, than the man will choose chocolate over strawberry as well

Yes-No Policy

D: A policy based on Yasir Arafat's tendency to say yes and no to majority of presented proposals

Exp: Arafat attempts to appeal to everyone in order to appease all groups, including Palestinians, so he doesn't make decisions

C: Makes it very difficult to negotiate

I: Had a lot to do with Arafat's efforts to keep Palestinians united (Diverse Opinions)

EX: Couldn't say yes at King David because then he would have to mean yes when he went back home

Uncovered Set

D:  The set of points that are not covered

Exp: The set of possible outcomes where there are no better alternatives, the best possible outcomes

C: If there is a core, the uncovered set collapses into the core. W/O it expands into the uncovered set

I: No one is able to compute the uncovered set for n>3

EX: Set of likely policies one of which will be elected

Game of Chicken

D: In a game situation with two actors, two Nash Equilibium exist - Each one favoring one of the actors

Exp: When conflict exists both sides worry about the other having an advantage and rarely come to a solution where both sides win

C: Most appropriate analysis of the difficulties in international relations

I: Explains the inability of Palestine and Israel to work together to find a two-state solution

EX: Iran having a nuclear bomb - we can live with Iran being another nuclear power, but Iran can also exist without being a nuclear power

Yassir Arafat

D: A Palestinian leader in charge of many organizations, including chairman of PLO and founder of Fatah party

Exp: Spent most of his life fighting against Israel and advocating for Palestinian self-determination

C: When considering Palestinian/Israel relations, we must look at those leaders that influence policies and current relations

I: Palestinians viewed him as their freedom figher, and Israelis considered him a terrorist for his attacks on civilians

EX: Leader that created the Oslo Accords with Israel

Floating/Divided Identity

D: There are conflicting and competing identities of Palestinians making it difficult to unite Palestinians

Exp: There is a split between the 4 competing identities: Jordanian, Palestinian, Arab and Pan-Islam

C: Makes problem difficult to solve with varying opinions

I: Palestinians have vague identity, how do you create  a state where only 1/4 of people identify strongly as "Palestinian"

EX: People are split in fourths between Palestinians, Jordanians, Arabs, and Pan-Islam

Mishal's Conditional Loyalty Thesis

D: Different segments of the Palestinian population are more or less willing to associate with a particular identity under some conditions

Exp: The conditions that lead Palestinian population to identify with dfferent factions of people have to do with the basic conditions of welfare for them

C: Try to marry two observations - pragmatic aspect of Palestinians and the split identity

I: Individual's level of economic welfare matters - poverty breeds violence which is dictated by changing conditions

EX: Jordanian identity had to do with basic conditions of welfare

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