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Definition
Art and science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data 


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Facts and figures collected, analyzed, summarized for interpretation and presentation 


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Entities on which data are collected 


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Characteristic of interest for the elements 


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When the data for a variable consists of labels or names used to identify an attribute of the element 


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Scale of measurement for a variable
Example: excellent, poor, good on a survey 


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Scale of measurement used if the data have all the properties of ordinal data and the interval between values is expressed in terms of a fixed unit of measure. Always numeric.
Example: College Admission SAT scores 


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Scale used if the data have all the properties of interval data and the ratio of two values is meaningful
Example: distance, height, time 


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Data grouped into specific catergories 


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Data that uses numeric values 


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Variable that uses categorical data 


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Variable that uses quantitative data 


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Data collected at the same or approximately the same point in time 


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Data collected over several time periods 


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Summaries of data, which may be tabular, graphical, or numerical 


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The larger group of elements in a particular study 


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Smaller group of the population; selected randomly 


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Process of conducting a survey to collect data for the entire population 


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Statistical process that uses data from a sample to make estimates and test hypotheses about the characteristics of a population 


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Deals with methods for developing useful decisionmaking information from large data bases 


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A tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of items in each of several nonoverlapping classes 


Term
Relative Frequency Distribution 

Definition
Tabular summary showing relative frequency
Relative Frequency=F/n 


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Percent Frequency Distribution 

Definition
Summarizes the percent frequency of the data for each class.
Relative Frequency times 100=Percent frequency 


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Definition
Graphical device depicting categorical (qualitative) data 


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Definition
Another graphical device presenting relative frequency and percent frequency for categorical data 


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Definition
Value halfway between the lower and upper class limits 


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Definition
One of the simplest graphical summaries. Horizontal axis shows range for data. Each value is represented by dot above. 


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Definition
Similar to a Bar chart but represents quantitative data rather than qualitative 


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Cumulative Frequency Distribution 

Definition
Shows the number of data items with values less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class 


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Cumulative Relative Frequency Distribution 

Definition
Shows the proportion of data items 


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Cumulative Percent Frequency Distribution 

Definition
Shows the percentage of data items with values less than or equal to the upper limit of each class 


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Definition
A graph of cumulative distribution. Data values on horizontal axis. Frequencies of frequency percentages on vertical axis. 


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Explanatory Data Analysis 

Definition
Consists of simple arithmetic and easytodraw graphs that can be used to summarize data quickly 


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Definition
Can be used to show both the rank order and shape of a data set simultaneously 


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Definition
Tabular summary of data for two variables 


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The reversal of conclusions bases on aggregate and unaggregated data 


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Graphical presentation of the relationship between two quantitative variables 


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Line that provides approximation of the relationship between quatitative variables 


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Definition
Measures that are computed for data from a sample 


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Definition
Measures are computed for data from a population 


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A sample statistic is referred to as the point estimator of the corresponding population parameter 


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Measure of central location. Value in the middle 


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Definition
Provides info about how the data are spread over the interval from the smallest to largest value 


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Division points after dividing data distribution into four parts 


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Definition
Largest value minus smallest value 


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Interquartile range (IQR) 

Definition
Difference between the third quartile (Q3) and the first quartile (Q1) 


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Definition
Measure of variability that utilizes all the data. Based on the difference between the value of each observation and the mean 


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Definition
The positive square root of the variance 


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Definition
Standard deviation divided by the mean multiplied by 100. 


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Definition


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Important numerical measure of the shape of a distribution 


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At least (11/z^2) of the data values must be within z standard deviations of the mean, where z is any value greater than 1 


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For data having a bellshaped distribution:
Approx. 68% of values will be within one standard deviation of the mean
Approx. 95% will be within two standard deviations
Almost all values will be within three standard deviations of the mean 


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Definition


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Definition
Following five numbers are uesd to summarize the data:
1. Smallest value
2. First Quartile (Q1)
3. Median (Q2)
4. Third quartile (Q3)
5. Largest value



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Definition
Graphical summary of data that is based on fivenumber summary 


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Definition
Descriptive measure of the linear association between two variables 


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Definition
Measure of the relationship between two variables that is not affected by the units of measurement for x and y 


Term

Definition
xi=value of observation
wi=weight of observation
x=(wi)(xi)/wi 

