# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Intro to Petroleum test 3
N/A
30
Engineering
04/24/2014

Term
 True or False? In completion drive systems, oil recovery rates are very low, as low as 5 to 30%
Definition
 True
Term
 True or false? Dissolved gas and gas-cap drive maintains pressure higher and longer that water drive, allowing for high recovery rates
Definition
 false
Term
 at 5478 feet, the initial reservoir pressure is ~3200 psi. is the reservoir overpressured, underpressured, or normally pressured? ( assume a leniency in data of about 3%)
Definition
 overpressured
Term
 draw an anticlinal trap that is gas cap driven. Label the following: gas cap, oil, water ogc, owc, synclinal spill point and bottom water
Definition
 see drawing
Term
 describe the differences between absolute permeability and relative permeability.
Definition
 absolute permeability is the permeability with reference to a single fluid, while relative permeability is the permeability with respect to multi-phase flow. (i.e. because permeability is an area, two fluids cannot occupy the same flow space)
Term
 true or false: unconventional reservoirs account for <30% of total us production.
Definition
 false (46%)
Term
 what are decline curves?
Definition
 Plot of producing rate vs time. They are used to extrapolate future production rates and are independent of reservoir properties. How production rate of a well declines.
Term
 sketch a realistic, desirable cumulative cashflow diagram and explain what is happening at the major points in the plot.
Definition
 see drawing
Term
 using the expected flow rate equation and monte carlo simulation, what variable allows the greatest change in well flow for the investment cost?
Definition
 permeability
Term
 fill in what happens in the system for a water drive oil reservoir. Reservoir pressure—reservoir production rate—producing gor—water production—well behavior.
Definition
 Reservoir pressure¬¬¬___remains high______reservoir production rate__oil rate drops off slowly but total fluid rate remains high_____producing gor___remains low_____water production__starts early and increases continuosly______well behavior__ flow until water reaches well
Term
 which sector utilizes the most US produced natural gas?
Definition
 industrial
Term
 what is a TFC
Definition
 A unit of measurement for natural gas. It is equivalent to 1 billion MCF, or 1,000,000,000,000 ( 1 trillion) standard cubic feet of gas. Heat 15 million homes forone year;• Generate 100 billionkilowatthoursof electricity;• Fuel 12 million natural gasfiredvehicles for one year.
Term
 fluid flow in the reservoir will be determined by ______,________, and _______
Definition
 permeability systems, pressure systems, structural and stratigraphic features
Term
 there is a reservoir being stimulated. Testing shows that the vertical stresses in the reservoir are greater than that of the horizontal stresses. After hydraulic fracturing, the fracture aims in a ______ direction. The well should be drilled in the ________ direction in order to maximize efficiency.
Definition
 vertical, horiztonal
Term
 half of all natural gas consumed today is produced from wells drilled within the last______ years.
Definition
 3.5
Term
 what is a green completion?
Definition
 The water used to frack the well is removed. The natural gas that is produced with the water is then removed and placed in a pipeline rather than being released into the atmosphere.
Term
 three factors have come together to make shale gas production economically viable. What are they?
Definition
 Advances in horizontal drilling, advances in hydraulic fracturing, and rapid increases in natural gas prices.
Term
 name 3 things that must be done prior to horizontal drilling( out of 5)
Definition
 identify a baseline of potential contaminants in aquifer, identify barriers to hydraulic frac growth in the reservoir, conduct a reservoir model, water sources and disposal, logistics
Term
 list 7 components of the AFE (out of 11)
Definition
 signature page, cost worksheet, geologic section, production engineering, reservoir engineering, facilities engineering, directional drilling targets, casing equipment, drilling progress and cost charts, permits, drilling program and procedure
Term
 what does AFE stand for and what is its purpose?
Definition
 stands for authority for expenditure. The purpose is to provide a list of costs of drilling a well, completing it or abandoning it. This list is provided to partners for approval prior to commencement of drilling or subsequent operations. Failure to prove an authority for expenditure may lead to delays or cancellation of proposed drilling.
Term
 __________ has allowed the pursuit of reservoirs with much lower permeability.
Definition
 increased reservoir contact
Term
 what is the definition of “unconventional oil and gas”?
Definition
 petroleum produced or extracted using methods and techniques different than the conventional oil/gas well method
Term
 the constant Bo is the formation volume factor of a well, or the ratio of reservoir barrels to stock tank barrels( volume of oil in the stock tank). A value of 1 represents a dead oil. Explain why.
Definition
 The oil in the reservoir contains gas in solution, a driving mechanism. If there is no driving mechanism then no more production can naturally take place.
Term
 when considering horizontal drilling, what is the best type of orientation with respect to the fractures?
Definition
 transverse
Term
 what is the payout point?(aka the break-even point)
Definition
 the point at which the sum of all revenue is equivalent to the sum of all investment costs.
Term
 what is the cleanest burning fossil fuel? ( this is on a blue box in the shale primer)
Definition
 natural gas
Term
 another blue box from shale primer
Definition
 Shale gas resource estimates are likelyto change as new information,additional experience, and advances intechnology become available.
Term
 blue box - The first producing gas well in the U.S. wascompleted in ?
Definition
 1821 in Devonianagedshale near the town of Fredonia, New York.
Term
 Key Gas Resource TermsProved Reserves: technically recoverable resourcesOriginal GasInPlace:
Definition
 Proved Reserves: That portion ofrecoverable resources that isdemonstrated by actual production orconclusive formation tests to betechnically, economically, and legallyproducible under existing economic andoperating conditions.Technically Recoverable Resources:The total amount of resource,discovered and undiscovered, that isthought to be recoverable withavailable technology, regardless ofeconomics.Original GasInPlace:The entirevolume of gas contained in thereservoir, regardless of the ability toproduce it.
Term
 process of shale gas development
Definition