# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Intro to Statistics
Introductory Statistical Terms
32
Mathematics
Undergraduate 1
05/04/2009

## Cards Return to Set Details

Term
 Descriptive Statistics
Definition
 Collection, organization, sumarization, and presentation of data
Term
 Sample
Definition
 Group within a population
Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 generalizing from samples to populations performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables
Term
 Discrete Variables
Definition
 assume values that can be counted (people, puppies, etc.)
Term
 Continuous Variables
Definition
 Assume infinite number of values between any two specific values (measurements, weights, temp)
Term
 Boundaries/Class Boundaries
Definition
 if a value is "14" it means "a value between 13.5 and 14.5", same for class boundaries
Term
 Random Sampling
Definition
 just pick random people from a population
Term
 Systematic Sampling
Definition
 Picking like every 7th or 19th or 100000th or whatever^th
Term
 Stratified Sampling
Definition
 Random sampling within certain strata (ie gender, education level, location)
Term
 Cluster
Definition
 Picking one strata from a population and sampling all of the members of that strata.
Term
 Frequency distribution
Definition
 organization of raw data using CLASSES and FREQUENCIES
Term
 rules for classes
Definition
 must be exhaustiveMust be equal in widthMust be continuousMust be mutually exclusivePreferably class width is odd
Term
 Class limit-boundary relationship
Definition
 if a limit is 1.856- 3.856 then the boundaries are 1.8555-3.8565
Term
 Histogram
Definition
 Bar graph, bars touch, class boundaries along the x axis
Term
 Frequency Polygon
Definition
 class midpoint on the x-axis, frequency on y-axis, line graph
Term
 Ogive
Definition
 Class boundaries on x-axis, cumulative frequency on y-axis
Term
 Mean
Definition
 Average- all values in sample divided by number of values
Term
 Mean for frequency chart
Definition
 If all you get is a frequency chart, find the midpoint of each class, multiply the frequency of each class by the midpoint, and divide that by the number of values
Term
 Median
Definition
 Value in middle. If there are an even number of values, average those two
Term
 Mode
Definition
 Value that occurs most often
Term
 modal class
Definition
 Class on a frequency chart that has the most values
Term
 Midrange
Definition
 lowest value plus highest value divided by two
Term
 Range
Definition
 Shown as "R", = highest value-lowest value
Term
 Chebyshev's theorem
Definition
 The proportion of values from a data set that will fall "k" standard deviations from the mean will be at least 1-1/k^2 where K is greater than one
Term
 P(BlA)
Definition
 Probability that B will happen, given A happening
Term
 Discrete probability distribution
Definition
 Consists of the values a random variable can assume and the corresponding probabilities of the values.
Term
 Binomial Experiment
Definition
 Fixed number of trialsOnly two outcomes eachIndependent outcomesProbability of success must remain same for all outcomes
Term
 P(S)
Definition
 Probability of success in a binomial experiment
Term
 P(F)
Definition
 Probability of failure
Term
 q
Definition
 Numerical probability of failure
Term
 Standard Normal distribution
Definition
 Mean of zeroStandard Deviation of one
Term
 Central Limit Theorem
Definition
 As sample size, n, approaches infinity the distribution curve will approach normal.
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