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A horse in Germany, famous throughout Europe for his ability to answer questions. Psychologist Oskar Pfungst theorized that Hans answered questions not through understanding them and knowing the answers but through responding to visual signals inadvertently produced by the questioner or other observers. It could not answer questions when fitted with blinders. 1. Value of skepticism 2. Value of careful observations under controlled conditions 3. Problem of observerexpectancy effects 


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Types of research strategies 

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1. design: experiment, correlation, descriptive 2. setting: field and laboratory 3. datacollection: selfreport and observation 


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Aim is to describe the subject(s)' behavior without investigating relationships between specific variables 


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Summarize sets of data e.g. mean, median, variability, standard deviation, correlation coefficient 


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Help researchers decide how confident they can be in judging that the results observed are not due to chance. Level of significance (p)  the probability that a correlation coefficient as large as or larger than that observed would occur by chance if, in the larger population, the two variables were uncorrelated. Statistically significant  p is less than 0.05. 


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Random variability in results 


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Nonrandom effects caused by some factor or factors extraneous to research hypothesis. 


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Reliable  degree to which the test yeildsd similar results each time. Validity  whether or not the test measures or predicts what it intended to measure or predict. 


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Face validity vs. Criterion validity 

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Face  common sense tells us that the procedure measures what it's supposed to measure. Criterion  correlate measurement scores with another, more direct index of the characteristic we wish to measure. 


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Observerexpectancy effects 

Definition
A researcher who desires or expects a subject to respond in a particular way may unintentionally communicate that expectation and influence the subject's behavior. Example: Autistic children type meaningful sentences through the help of "facilitators". 

