Shared Flashcard Set


Intoxicating Encounters: Images of Cultural Exchange
1492- 1900
Art History
Undergraduate 2

Additional Art History Flashcards





Theodore de Brye- Cannibalism 1592

Although Columbus refers to Canibales, predatory tribes living on the islands of the West Indies, the word unequivocally takes on its modern meaning in the mid-sixteenth century. "Cannibal" derives from a Spanish version of a Carib term meaning strong men. In the earliest records it is applied to intractable peoples encountered throughout the New World, those who resist the overtures of European traders and settlers. Antagonism of this kind was naturally unwelcome to those Europeans, and it had to be dealt with, militarily but also in the mind. One way to denigrate the truculent was to focus on their least palatable habits, and given the stigma attached on the eastern side of the Atlantic to the eating of human flesh, any suggestion that Native Americans devoured their fellow men, and children helped convey the notion that they were altogether less than human: fearsome enemies, expensive to defeat, but also fair game for bloody acts of reprisal.


Samuel de Champlain- "Carte Geographique de la Nouvelle France" engraving 1613


 the explorer's first significant map of the vast area. Champlain penetrated further into the interior than any previous explorer, and the geographical discoveries that can be credited to him -- and that are recorded for the first time in this map -- are almost too numerous to name. The southern and western coasts of Nova Scotia, the Bay of Fundy and the coast of New Brunswick (areas that the French explored while searching for a suitable command post for their New World colony) are accurately and minutely depicted. Quebec, at the time little more than a trading post that had been founded by Champlain in 1608, takes the form of a citadel flying the French flag. Champlain also indicates and names Montreal, founded in 1611.

In the seventeenth century the contact between Europeans and Native Americans led to increased trade between the two cultures. Europeans traded pots, iron axes or guns for furs brought to them at the forts and habitations. Native Americans also supplied the newcomers with their unique forms of transportation particularly the birchbark canoe and the snowshoe. The growing influence of the fur trade changed the economy of Iroquoians and Algonquians to more specialization in trapping and trading and less reliance on traditional subsistence practicesThe fur trade and the rivalries it led to warfare that with the introduction of firearms destroyed or scattered entire peoples mot notably the Hurons. From the beginnings of contact the Europeans had forbidden trade in guns with Native Americans.


Cabrera, Miguel, " From Spaniard and Black, Mulatto" and "Mestizo and Indian, Coyote"

In response to the results of miscegenation, the Spanish crown instituted a series of casta paintings in an effort to control the expanding pantheon of racial compositions and to emphasize Spanish superiority - Casta paintings were a series of paintings executed during colonial Mexico varying in 

number and sometimes existing in a series of 16 paintings describing the various racial mixtures 

of the inhabitants.  These paintings were commissioned by the Spanish and Creole elite classes.  

Casta paintings often included similar tropes to identify the inhabitants of Mexico with 

taxonomical terminology for the new racial mixtures.  These tropes included a family portrait of 

sorts illustrating the father, mother, and offspring, along with indications of profession and class.  

The series of portraits typically began with Spanish males leading the  series as the ultimate 

progenitor while subsequent portraits illustrated a moral degeneration the closer they related to Afro-Mexicans or Negroes. The Spanish and Creole elite clearly established a pyramid of power  

and prestige with the casta paintings, where the Spanish are at the                                                                                     

-African population in colonial Mexico greatly outnumbered the Spanish    population.  It is estimated that approximately 250,000 to 500,000 Africans were brought to Mexico as slaves.

-A notion of the Limpieza de Sangre or Purity of Blood was transfered to the New World in the form of "Castas" a system that determined access to education, ownership of property, and much more. Spaniards were blue blooded- "creole",spanish or portugese/african was "mulatto" and mestizo (european and indian) and indian was "coyote"

The Enlightenment is generally credited with fostering the acute

observation and 

categorization of all manifestations of life, the castas paintings name conventions were a way of categorizing- it was about power and control. they included mulatto, morisco, lobo, no te entiendo, coyote, and  chino as different classificatory titles.



Francois Bouchard- "Le Petit Dejeuner"-1739


- Shows family enjoying chocolate- buddha on shelf- child on woman' s lap- shows consumption of chocolate as something that has gone from being exclusively decadent served in boudoir to something served to children. 

- drinking of liquid chocolate disappeared with ancient regime at the start of the French Revolution.

- body vs. intellect= chocolate vs. coffee

- cocao became drink for children

- drink/substance of ancient regime sunk to the realm of women and children

- symbol of status power now relegated to those who have none.


Coca Cola Advertisements from the 1860's

- in 1860- the isolation of cocaine was discovered-wine mariani was invented- coca extract and wine- cocacola imitated vin mariani

Coca Cola was touted to relieve exhaustion - said to be "brain tonic"- John Pemberton wanted to invent the perfect medicine and drink all in one.- sugary cocaine fizzy drink- commercial product of pure cocaine

- Queen Victoria and Winston Churchill enjoyed coca products- in 1884 the military took interest- drug enhanced military endurance.- 


The English Coffee House of the 17th c. 1674


- coffee houses were public social houses of the 17th and 18th centuries, in which patrons would assemble for conversation and social interaction, while taking part in newly emerging coffee consumption habits for the time. Travellers introduced coffee as a beverage to England during the mid-17th century. Within English coffeehouses, patrons ordered and consumed the new drink. Prior to its popularization, experimentalists used coffee for its medicinal properties. Coffeehouse proprietors served other modern beverages, such as tea and chocolate, as well. Historians often associate English coffeehouses, during the 17th and 18th centuries, to the intellectual and cultural history of the Age of Enlightenment.English coffeehouses also implemented a strict set of rules. According to the first posted "Rules and Orders of the Coffee House" illustrated and printed in 1674 as a coffee broadside, equality was supposed to have prevailed amongst all men in these establishments, and "no man of any station need give his place to a finer man". If one should swear, they would have to forfeit a twelve-pence. If a quarrel broke out, the instigator would have to purchase the offended a cup of coffee. The topic of "sacred things" was barred from coffeehouses, and rules existed against speaking poorly of the state as well as religious scriptures. The rules forbade games of chance, such as cards and dice, as well. Women were excluded women whose inclusion would express rebellion to patriarchy. because Puritanism influenced English coffeehouse behaviorisms, intoxicants were forbidden, allowing for respectable sober conversation. e age of Enlightenment had seen the creation of a bourgeois public sphere for the discussion and transformations of opinions.Historians depict coffeehouses as a gentlemanly sphere where men could partake in conversation and where a man could be safe from his womenfolk;[49] coffeehouses were consequently not a place for a lady who wished to preserve her respectability.[51] As such, complaints against the coffeehouse were commonly vocalised by women.[52] Women used subtle arguments against coffeehouse frequenting, as well as coffee consumption, outlined in "The Women's Petition Against Coffee."[52] They protested against the consumption of coffee arguing that it made men sterile and impotent and stated that it contributed to the nation's failing birth rate. According to the petition, coffee made men "as unfruitful as the sandy deserts, from where that unhappy berry is said to be brought."[52] Women also raised protest against the coffeehouse itself as it "provided in times of domestic crisis when a husband should have been attending to his duties at home."


Theodore de Bryes-  Columbus Setting Foot on the Island of Hispaniola- engraving

Columbus's first expedition of three small ships engaged in reconnaissance and trade; within months a large-scale expedition of 17 vessels and 1,500 men—and a handful of women—followed. Some of the men had fought in the wars in Italy and the recent conquest of the kingdom of Granada. They brought warhorses, war dogs, and ample military equipment. The group had been influenced by Columbus's pronouncements on the wealth of the islands, the ease of communication with the Natives, the seemingly friendly nature of the Taino women, and the backward technology of the military.

The Spaniards arrived expecting to find wealth, and they were ready to take it by force if necessary, especially as the Spaniards discovered that no one remained of a handful of men left behind by Columbus; all had fallen to the Taino. If one accepts the statistic that the Taino population of Hispaniola at the time of the Europeans' arrival was approximately a half-million, then the ratio of Spanish males to Taino males was 1:167. The superior military technology of the Europeans more than made up for the difference in numbers. Further, the Spanish utilized brutality in the early stages of conquest to subdue the enemy as quickly as possible. Some of Las Casas's descriptions of brutality during the early months of the encounter were likely accurate. Shock led to submission. But mortality for the Europeans was also very high; more than half did not survive their first year on Hispaniola.Although technically not slavery, the early encomienda (the settler was given a grant of natives, mostly adult married males, who provided tribute (a head tax) to theencomendero, who was then responsible for their conversion and civilization)

 in the Caribbean permitted the Spaniard to use Indian labor, either in mining or the creation of plantations for exports to Europe, especially sugar. The institution led to the abuse and death of tributary workers. Migration, either forced or voluntary, also contributed to the high rate of mortality, as normal subsistence patterns were disrupted.


Seneca comb, European with Dog and Gun, Iroquois comb, European’s on horseback -carved antler

in 1668- the French Jesuits established a mission among the Seneca

-Native images leave out racial differences- use cultural markers- dress,weaponry- as the distinguishing feature of Europeans.- Visual vocabulary.- The Seneca were on of the 6 nations of Iroquois- the combs have mythological significance and symbolized connection to spirit world.-combs used for personal decoration and as a testament to the community of their identity with a particular clan or animal totem The man depicted on the Seneca comb is wearing breeches and a tri-corner hat and standing in erect military style, his face is chiseled simply with a circle for an open mouth, with a u-shaped nose, two dots for eyes, and straight lines for eyebrows.

The Iroquois "Greenhalgh" Comb depicts two men on horseback, vaguely discernible are the stern looks on their faces and their identical brimmed hats;breeches. The horses have large round indentations for eyes-perhaps short-cut manes about their necks, the men are wearing leather boots and large breeches and wide brimmed hats- possible soldiers- one is carring a long object that touches the ground- a possible gun.

- the combs indicate native impressions of Euros.- attributes power to the european visitors, as  earlier combs depicted  sacred and powerful clan animals. and indicate a fascination with euros- strange people and animals that accompanied them. 


Thomas Heywood- Philocothonista or the Drunkard, opened,dissected and anatomized- woodcut 1635


-Thomas Heywood categorizes drunken men into the types of beast they become when drunk, based on the actions they take while under the influence. Categories include those who are drunk like calves and apes, dogs, sheep, and foxes. The text is somewhat light-hearted, while still being disapproving of the state of a drunkard.- this depiction of drunkenness came with the movement towards moderation in the age of Reformation- which did not have lasting results.- the idea that drunkenness attracted the wrath and punishment of God.


Jan Steen-The Effects of Intemperance 1663-65

A gifted storyteller in the tradition of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Steen composed and embroidered with illustrated detail accounts of human behavior.

- "Jan Steen Household" is what the dutch call a boisterous and ramshackle family- a (catholic) moralist, Steen painted many such families, preaching through laughter at the human comedy: people like ourselves behaving as they shouldn't.

- the woman on the left is that most reprehensible creature, a dutch housewife and mother who is not teaching her children virtue, she has slumped in a drunken slumber, her clay pipe slipping from her hand, the little coal brazier threatens to set fire to her gown, and her child is picking her pocket.

- above hangs a basket in which the fate of those who grow up w/o parental guidance is foretold: it contains the crutch and calpper of the beggar and the birch of judicial punishment.

- Another child illustrates a Dutch proverb by throwing roses before swine, while the trio to the right waste a good meat pie by feeding it to a cat.

- Parrot ( mimic of human behaviour) is drinking wine given to it by the maid, as luxuriously dressed as her mistress and almost as tipsy

- In the arbour beyond, a man, perhaps the father, is dallying w/ a buxom girl


Quinten Massys- Money-Changer and his Wife, 1514

Once the era of overseas discovery and exploration was well underway, trade became a global matter. At that time, paper money (a Chinese invention) was used in Europe merely as a receipt for monies tendered, and the material value of coins still corresponded to their nominal value. Yet money looked different depending on where one went. Only money changers were able to determine the value of a coin by looking at it through a magnifying glass and by placing it on the scales to find out its exact gold or silver content. For this reason money changers were an indispensable part of life in the great trade centres and market towns. Even the man in the street required their services. Without the money changers a soldier who wanted a tankard of beer in the town where he was garrisoned would have had to drink water if he had carned only the currency of his native city. Flemish painter Quentin Massys observed a money changer at work in Antwerp. At that time the city was the main port of the Low Countries, and bustled with economic activity. Money changers enjoyed high status. Nevertheless, they were always suspected of being stingy, avaricious and of charging exorbitant interest. Perhaps the wife of the money changer depicted is contemplating a prayer book in the pious hope that she and her husband will not be led into temptation by the lure of riches....


Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, The Grand Odalisque, 1814

- Fascination w/ fantasy of oriental opium dens/harems- dreamy pleasure world- appeals to sensuality moves from exotic to erotic- the audience was proper middle class males.

-Ingres took a neo- classicist approach to idealize nude subjects in which the line of the subject took precedence over color and the figure resembles a living statue. 

- Ingres was acclaimed as a the leader of the academic opposition to  new Romanticism.

-initiated the Orientalist movement -- a time of European fascination with Islamic culture. This painting is most popularly known for the distorted back of its model, suggesting that she has several extra vertebrae. It is true that although Ingres was a product of Academic training and a late disciple of Raphael, his lines often rebelled against Academic figure methods.


A battle-scene from the First Chinese Opium War     (1839-42)

 -The climax of trade disputes and diplomatic difficulties between China under the Qing Dynasty and theBritish Empire after China sought to restrict illegal British opium trafficking. It consisted of the First Opium War from 1839 to 1842[1]and the Second Opium War from 1856 to 1860.[2]

Opium was smuggled by merchants from British India into China in defiance of Chinese prohibition laws. Open warfare between Britain and China broke out in 1839. Further disputes over the treatment of British merchants in Chinese ports resulted in the Second Opium War.--The Imperial Chinese Court banned the use of opium( the kind empe Britain forced the Chinese government into signing the Treaty of Nanking and the Treaty of Tianjin, also known as the Unequal Treaties, which included provisions for the opening of additional ports to unrestricted foreign trade, for fixed tariffs; for the recognition of both countries as equal in correspondence; and for the cession of Hong Kong to Britain. The British also gained extraterritorial rights. Several countries followed Britain and sought similar agreements with China. Many Chinese found these agreements humiliating and these sentiments contributed to the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864), the Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901), and the downfall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, putting an end to dynastic China.ror)

-As well as seizing supplies in the factories, Chinese troops boarded British ships in international waters outside Chinese jurisdiction, where their cargo was still legal, and destroyed the opium aboard. After the opium was surrendered, trade was restarted on the strict condition that no more drugs would be smuggled into China. Lin demanded that British merchants had to sign a bond promising not to deal in opium under penalty of death.[21] The British officially opposed signing of the bond, but some British merchants that did not deal in opium were willing to sign. Lin had the opium disposed of by dissolving it in water, salt, and lime, and dumping it into the ocean.

In 1839 Lin took the step of publishing a letter addressed to Queen Victoria questioning the moral reasoning of the British government (it is not known that she ever received it). Citing what he understood to be a strict prohibition of the trade within Great Britain, Lin questioned how it could then profit from the drug in China. He wrote: "Your Majesty has not before been thus officially notified, and you may plead ignorance of the severity of our laws, but I now give my assurance that we mean to cut this harmful drug forever." [22] In fact, opium was not illegal in England at the time, however, and comparably smaller quantities were imported. The British government and merchants offered no response to Lin, accusing him instead of destroying their property. When the British learned of what was taking place in Canton, as communications between these two parts 

- The British Empire was the main drug kartel in power- wanted to control trade of opium via East India Trade Company- CHINA vs. BRITISH EMPIRE--> China was defeated and forced to sign a treaty in which Britain demanded that trade continue & China pay a tax- under the guise of the claim that China needed to be controlled by a greater power.

- Trade dictatorship established by the East India Trade Company- opium was hard currency.


Emily Pauline Johnson

-the youngest of four children born to George Henry Martin Johnson (1816–1884), a Mohawk chief, and Emily Susanna Howells Johnson (1824–1898), a native of England. Emily Howells had immigrated to the United States in 1832 as a young child with her father, stepmother and siblings.

- Lauded as the " Perfect Canadian" she had a 15-year stage career. She was perceived as a beauty, and an exotic Native performer .

-After her first recital season, Johnson decided to emphasize Native aspects by assembling and wearing a feminine Native costume of her own invention, pieced together by articles of clothing and accessories she held dear- a buckskin, a blanket, etc. Johnson, and her siblings, inherited an artifact collection from their father, which included significant items such as wampum belts and spiritual masks

.Johnson's decision to develop this stage persona, and the popularity it inspired, showed that the audiences she encountered in Canada, England, and the United States recognized and were entertained by Native peoples in performance. Johnson performed in the period of popularity of Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show and ethnological aboriginal exhibits in the 1890s 

- For the first half of her performance, she wore her hair up, and dressed in the current Euro fashions ( in this way her performances were like fashion-shows),and recited poetry that spoke of the magnificent North, and the Great Canadian Mounty. She also billed herself as Miss E. Pauline Johnson, a formality that inferred deportment and indicated proper protocol- as a single woman would not have traveled alone and certainly not made her own wealth- it was seen as unseemly. Her efforts to remain proper were in themselves a proclamation of her chastity.

- The second half of her performances consisted of the recital of poetry to do with land claims and the recounting of other tales of injustice towards the Indigenous peoples of Canada. She dressed in a costume of her own invention, and wore her hair down.

-At the time the idea of getting back to nature was fashionable



Rossetti,  Beata Beatrix famous portrait of Lizzie Siddal

-In the work, amidst a yellow haze of relatively indistinct shapes, including Florence's Ponte Vecchio and the figures of Dante and Love, Lizzie sits, representing Dante's Beatrice. With an upturned chin and closed eyes, Lizzie appears keenly aware of her impending fate, death. A bird, which serves as the messenger of death, places a poppy in her hands. Critics have praised the piece for its emotional resonance, which can be felt simply through the work's moving coloring and composition. The true history of Rossetti and his beloved wife further deepens its meaning; although their love had waned at that point, Lizzie still exerted a powerful influence on the artist.

-She was employed as a model by Deverell and through him was introduced to the Pre-Raphaelites. William Michael Rossetti, her brother-in-law, described her as "a most beautiful creature with an air between dignity and sweetness with something that exceeded modest self-respect and partook of disdainful reserve; tall, finely-formed with a lofty neck and regular yet somewhat uncommon features, greenish-blue unsparkling eyes, large perfect eyelids, brilliant complexion and a lavish heavy wealth of coppery golden hair."[1] Pre-Raphaelitism. Through this art, the goddess, and in particular, the dark goddess, was manifested at a time central to the spiritual evolution of England, and the world.

-It was long thought that she suffered from tuberculosis, but some historians now believe that an intestinal disorder was more likely. Some have suggested that she might have been an anorexic, while others attribute her poor health to an addiction to laudanum or to a combination of ailments.[2]

 By Christmastime Lizzie was pregnant but, perhaps mainly due to her laudanum addiction, the baby girl was stillborn on May 2, 1861. This dealt a blow to an already fragile relationship, plunging Lizzie into depression and increasingly irrational behavior.

On February 10, 1862, Rossetti arrived home from teaching to find his wife unconscious in bed, with an empty phial which had contained laudanum sitting on the nearby table. Attempts to revive her were unsuccessful, and she was pronounced dead the next morning.

- Laudanum In pill form, it was nicknamed the "Stones of Immortality" and contained opium thebaicum, citrus juice, and quintessence of gold. Opium?? What a strange ingredient, you might say. With opium dens a common part of Victorian lowlife (and secret high life), how could they have thought that it was an acceptable ingredient in medicine cabinets? However, the bottom line is...they did, and they did in vast numbers. Opium, in all its many forms, was incredibly popular during the Victorian era. In 1830, Opium importation was at an all-time high, with 22,000 pounds brought into the country that year.

Symbolically speaking, the poppy flower, from which opium comes, represented death in countless Pre-Raphaelite artworks.. In fact, in 1895, Bayer  produced a substance from poppies known as heroin

As the 1860s progressed, Rossetti would become the grand prince of bohemianism as his deviations from normal standards became more audacious. And as he beceme this epitome of the unconventional, his egocentric demands necessarily required his close friends to remodel their own lives around him. His bohemianism was like a web in which others became trapped – none more so than William and Jane Morris [3].

Is she fair now as she lies?
Once she was fair;
Meet queen for any kingly king,
With gold-dust on her hair.
Now these are poppies in her locks,
White poppies she must wear;
Must wear a veil to shroud her face
And the want graven there:
Or is the hunger fed at length,
Cast off the care?

You should have wept her yesterday,
Wasting upon her bed:
But wherefore should you weep to-day
That she is dead?
Lo, we who love weep not to-day,
But crown her royal head.
Let be these poppies that we strew,
Your roses are too red:
Let be these poppies, not for you
Cut down and spread.’

O just, subtle, and all-conquering opium! that, to the hearts of rich and poor alike, for the wounds that will never heal, and for the pangs of grief that “tempt the spirit to rebel,” bringest an assuaging balm; ... Thomas De Quincy- Confessions of an English Opium Eater

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