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International Studies
Test 1-Chapter 2
47
Political Studies
Undergraduate 1
01/29/2012

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Term
Anarchical Political System
Definition
An anarchical system is one in which there is no central authority to make rules, or to resolve disputes about the actors in the political system.
Term
appeasement policy
Definition
A policy advocated by the British and French toward the Germans following World War I. The hope was to maintain peace by allowing Hitler to annex the Sudentenland region of Czechoslovakia.
Term
Asymmetrical Warfare
Definition
A strategy by which a national military or other armed force, including a terrorist organization, that is relatively small lightly equipped attacks a militarily stronger opponent by using unconventional means, such as terrorism, or with limited unconventional weapons, such as nuclear explosives and material, biological agents, or chemical agents.
Term
Balance of power
Definition
A concept that describes the degree of equilibrium (balance) or disequilibrium (imbalance) or power in the global or regional system.
Term
Bipolar System
Definition
A type of international system with two roughly equal actors or coalitions of actors that divide the international system into two poles.
Term
Cold War
Definition
The confrontation that emerged following World War II between the bipolar superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States. Although no direct conflict took place between these countries, it was an era of great tensions and global divisions.
Term
Containment Doctrine
Definition
U.S. policy that sought to contain communism during the cold war.
Term
d├ętente
Definition
A cold war policy involving the United States, the Soviet Union, and China, which sought to open relations among the countries and ease tensions.
Term
East-West axis
Definition
A term used to describe the ideological division between hemispheres following World War II. The East was associated with communism, while the West associated with democracy.
Term
economic independence
Definition
The close interrelationship and mutual dependence of two or more domestic economies on each other.
Term
Economically developed country (EDCs)
Definition
An industrialized country mainly found in the Northern Hemisphere.
Term
ethnonational groups
Definition
An ethnic group in which a significant percentage of its member favor national self-determination and the establishment of a nation-state dominated by the group.
Term
Eurowhites
Definition
A term to distinguish the whites of Europe and of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States, and other countries whose cultures were founded on or converted to European culture from other races and ethnic groups, including Caucasian peoples in latin America, the Middle East, South Asia, and elsewhere.
Term
feudal system
Definition
Medieval political system of smaller units, such as principalities, duke dome, and harmonies, ruled by minor royalty.
Term
globalization
Definition
A multifaceted concept that represents the increasing integration of economics, communications, and culture across national boundaries.
Term
gross national product(GNP)
Definition
A measure of the sum of all goods and services produced by a country's nationals, whether they are in the country or abroad.
Term
hegemonic power
Definition
A single country or alliance that is so, dominant in the international system that it plays the key role in determining the rules and norms by which the system operates. As the dominant power in the system, it has a central position
Term
Holy Roman Empire
Definition
The domination and unification of a political territory in Western and Central Europe that lasted from its inception and Charlemagne in 800 to the renunciation of the imperial title by Francis II in 1806
Term
Imperialism
Definition
A term synonymous with colonization, meaning domination in Norther Eurowhites over Southern nonwhite as a means to tap resources to further their own development.
Term
Industrial revolution
Definition
The development of mechanical and industrial production of goods that began in Great Britain in the mid-1700s and then spread through Europe and North America.
Term
International system
Definition
An abstract concept that encompasses global actors.
Term
Less developed countries (LDCs)
Definition
Countries, located mainly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with economies that rely heavily on the production of agriculture and raw materials and whose per capita GDP and standard of living and substantially below Western standards.
Term
Limited unipolar system
Definition
A configuration of the international system in which there is one power center that plays something less than a fully dominant role because of a range or external and/or internal restraints on its power.
Term
McWorld
Definition
This concept describes the merging of states unto an integrated world. Benjamin Barber coined this term to describe how states are becoming globalized, especially with the growth of economic interdependence.
Term
Multipolar system
Definition
four or more international actors
Term
Munich conference
Definition
A meeting between France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy in 1938, during which France and Great Britain, unwilling to confront Hitler, acquired with Germany's decision to annex the Sudetenland. This appeasement of Germany became synonymous with a lack of political will.
Term
Nationalism
Definition
Belief that the nation is the ultimate basis of political loyalty and that nations should have self governing states.
Term
Newly Industrializing countries (NICs)
Definition
Less developed countries whose economics ad whose trade now include significant amounts of manufactured produces/ As a result, those countries have a per capita GDP significantly higher than the average per capita GDP for less developed countries.
Term
North
Definition
The economically developed countries including those of Western Europe, the United States, and Canada in North America, Japan in Asia and Australia and New Zealand in Oceania.
Term
NATO
Definition
An alliance of 26 member countries, establishing 1949by Canada , the United States, and most of the countries o Wester Europe to defend its members for soviet-led attacks.
Term
popular sovereignty
Definition
A political doctrine that holds that sovereign political authority resides with the citizens of a state. The citizenry grant a certain amount of authority to the state, its government, and the political leaders, but do not surrender ultimate soveriegnty.
Term
power poles
Definition
an actor in the international system that has enough military, economy, and or diplomatic stregth to often have an important role in determining the rules and operation of the system.
Term
Protestant Reformation
Definition
The religious movement initiated by Martin Luther in Germany in 1517 that rejected the Catholic Church
Term
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
Definition
A measure of the relative purchasing power of different currencies. It is measured by the price of the same goods in different countries.
Term
realpolitik
Definition
Operating according to the belief that politics is based on the pursuit, possession and application of power
Term
Renaissance
Definition
A period of cultural and intellectual rebirth and reform following the dark ages from approximately 1350 to 1650
Term
South
Definition
The economically less developed countries primarily located in Africa, asia, and latin america
Term
Sovereignty
Definition
Political independence from any higher authority
Term
state
Definition
political actor the has sovereignty and a number of character is tics including territory population organization and recognition.
Term
Superpower
Definition
The leader of a system pole in a bipolar system. During the cold war, the USSR and the US were each leader of a bipolar system pole.
Term
Sustainable development
Definition
The continue to improve the quality of life of those in the industrialized countries and particularly those in the less developed countries while simultaneously protecting Earth's biosphere.
Term
Third World
Definition
Once commonly used to designate the countries of asia africa latin america and elsewhere that were economically less developed.
Term
Treaty of Westphalia
Definition
Ended the Thirty Years' War 1618-1648. Signals the birth of the modern state system and the end of the the theoretical subordination of the monarchies of Europe..
Term
tribalism
Definition
Coined by Benjamin Barber to describe the internal pressure on countries that can lead to the fragmentation and even to their collapse.
Term
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Definition
nuclear weapons with a tremendous capability to destroy a population and the planet, but also include some exceptionally devastating conventional arms.
Term
West
Definition
Historically, Europe and those countries and regions whose cultures were founded on or converted to European culture: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US.
Term
Westernization of the international system
Definition
A number of factors including scientific and technological advances, contributed to the domination of the West over the international system that was essentially created by the Treaty of Westphalia.
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