Shared Flashcard Set


International Relations Midterm
International Studies
Undergraduate 4

Additional International Studies Flashcards




Treaty of Westphalia
  • orgainzing principle that bound people to their territories; first moderm diplomatic congress
  • Embraced the notion of sovereignty- that the sovereign enjoyed exclusive rights within a given territory; also established that states could determine their own domestic policies in the own geographic space
  • Leaders sought to establish their own permanent national militaries
  • It established a core group of states that dominated the world until the beginning of the 19th century- Austria, Russia, England, France, and United Provinces of the Netherlands and Belgium 
  • "Self help" marked by the doctrine that states rely on no one but themselves for security; no central authority to set and enforce rules and resolve dispute
  • Mearsheimer says that anarchic international system create strong incentives for states to seek opportunities to gain power at the expense of competitors. 
  • Great powers recognize that the best way to ensure security is to achieve hegeomony now ERASE UNCERTAINTY
Mearsheimer's Assumptions about Great Powers Vieing for Power (Anarchy)
  1. The international order is anarchic
  2. Great powers have the capacity t oengage in offensive military actions- they can attack other countries
  3. Countries are never able to know for sure what the other countries intend to do. This causes uncertainty.
  4. Survival is the primary goal of great powers. This includes wanting to keep other countries from being able to interfere in their domestic politics
  5. States are rational actors- says states are not rational actors- country to country rivalry ethos

John Mearsheimer (1995, 91) argues that “the distribution of material capabilities among states is the key factor for understanding world politics.”

Characteristics of Anarchy and Expectations about outcomes associated with it (Kenneth Waltz)
  • Violence at home and abroad: among states, the state of nature is a state of war; war may at any time break out
  • Interdepedence and Integration: they are free to specialize because they have no reason to fear the increased interdependence that goes with specialization
  • Structures and Strategies: the motives and outcomes may well be disjoined, structures cause nations to have consequences they were not intended to have
  • The Virtues of Anarchy: must rely on the means they can generate and the arrangements they can make for themselves
  • Anarchy and Hierarchy: anarchy is seen as one end of a continuum whose other ends is marked by the presence of legitimate and competent government

Distribution of capabilities


Sovereignty (Morgenthau & Waltz)
  • The absolute and perpetual power vested in a commonwealth; sovereign states enjoy exclusive rights within their territories
  • the monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a territory; authority comes from the state or state permission and police authority is granted; sovereign entities cannot meddle in the internal affairs of others
  • Entities are expected to control their own domestic affairs; sovereing entities are not to meddle in the internal affairs of otehr soveeign entities 
  • Tools: condemn, sanctions, threat of force


  • power struggles among states; solution is the balance of power; force, military capability
  • Statism
  • Central Concern- power
  • Anthropomorphizing the state- states act as rational actors; self-interested and self-serving 
  • Organizing principle is anarchy- main actors are states- main goal is survival/power (protect domestic production)- core capabilities is military
  • 'only stupid men will choose foreign policy based on the balance of power as a better kind of international relations or reject it as one among several possible foregin policies'
  • Realists assume that everyone is going to try to take whatever they're going to get
Six Principles of Realism MORGENTHAU

1. Politics is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature-they thik people are greedy

-In order to improve society it is first necessary to understand the laws by which society lives

-Objectivity of the laws of politics

-Human nature is constant 

2. The main signpost is interest defined in terms of power as rational order

-Sets politics as an autonomous sphere of action and understanding apart from the other sphere, such as economics, ethics, religion, etc.

-good foreign policy minimizes riks and maximizes benefits

-Those who have good intentions do not always make the best decisions and those who don't ahve the best intentions don't always make bad decisions- Morgenthau

3.Determine kind of interest varies depending on the political cultural context in which foregin policy is made

-Universal validity

-The idea of national interest is the essence of politics and is unaffected by the circumstances of time and place BUT the content of national interest is always changing in nature and scope. It is not static. It changes with changes in political and social environment. 

-National interest is dynamic and has to be continuously analyzed


4.Awareness of the moral significance of political action and the tension between the moral command and the requirements of successful political action

-Universal moral principles can't be applied to the states

-Moral principles have to be filtered through concrete circumstances of time and place

-The universal moral principles cannot be applied to the actions of states, unless these are analyzed in the light of specific conditions of time and space

-Emphasis is an outcome of political consequences or comparing possible outcomes and choosing the most prudent(care or thought for the future_ one



5.Refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe

-Look at all nations as political entities pursuing policies that respect the interests of other nations while protecting and promoting those of our own

-Difference between Moral Aspirations of a Nation and the Universal Moral Principles


6.Maintains the autonomy of the political sphere, apart from moral and legal analysis

-The difference between political realism and other schools of thought is real, and it is profound

-Autonomy of international politics

-Political realism is neither idealistic nor legalistic and nor even moralistic in its approach to International Politics. It is concerned with national interest defined in terms of power as its sole concern- exists a real and profound difference between political realism and other approaches and theories 

Classical Realism

A state level theory that argues that all states seek power and that is the first and last principle of state behavior

-states seek to increase their power

-states seek to decrease the power of their enemies

-everything states do is in the name of amassing power

-states see other powerful states as rivals because power that is not in yoru hands is threatening

-states are like people- greedy, insecure, and aggressive

-Machiavelli is seen as the first realist when he wrote the prince

  • The international structure is defined by anarchy as its ordering principle and the distribution of capabilities or the number of great powers in the international system -structual constraints determine IR behaviors WAY more than strategy or motivation
  • System is favoring some over others just by its nature because its systemic- structure vs. agency (autonomy)- these feed into each other the way we make sense of the world
  • balancing should be preferred for the simple reason that no statesman can be completely sure of what another will do NEOREALISM
Neo-Realism (Kenneth Waltz)

•Waltz was seen as the founder of neo-realism and rejected Morgenthau's anthropomorphizing of state behavior and instead stressed international level of analysis, anarchic international system imposes limits on choices (read: anarchy stronger than human interest)

-Waltz said you can't just do whatever you want because there is limited structure and to stop anthropomorphizing the state

-Says do not assume actors are behaving rationally- assserting everything is a rational action is not always true- biological reason? 

-Said it was not psosible to understand world politics b simply looking inside of states

-PROBLEM- thoght actors in international politics change significantly

•System-level explanation

•International Balancing

•External Balancing

System-level Explanation (Neo-realism)

solves problems of changing international politics and same outcomes with different causes by focusing on the international system structure or 'set of constraining conditions' one can parsimoniously explain why dissimilar units  may behave in similar ways

-Structures are not direct causes, they act 'through realization of the actors and through competition among them'

International Balancing (Neo-realism)

a state uses internal efforts such as moving to increase economic capability, developing clever strategies and increasing military strength

External Balancing (Neo-realism)

when states take external measures to increase their security by forming allies 


the theory that states respond to material needs, incentives, and power- Wendt

-Suggests that material possessions have a direct effect on outcomes that is unmediated by the ideas people bring to them

•anarchy in culture rather than materialist language

-neorealist says yes but material constraints- things in the way of obtaining power: materialism as in what money you have/resources you have/who you know, these are all things that can both help a state's ability to gain power or get in a way

-This materialist approach reduces everything to matter and what is observable. Social processes (culture, values and norms) between state actors are an indirect function of the material dimension


•Culture, political values, foreign policy

•Organizing principle is interdependence- main actors are the states- main goals are economic gain and cooperation (maximize domestic well-being)- capabilities are technologic and economic

•As president Wilson championed socially conscious legislation that lowered tariffs, graduated the federal income tax, created a more elastic money supply, prohibited unfair business practices, prohibited child labor, and limited RRworkers to an eight hour day

-He removed trade boarders, intertwined spaces, freemovement of goods and capital

•During the Cold War, Economic liberalism emrged which was the liberal economic order solidified and become a dominant factor in international relatinos. Politics became transnational under liberalism- based on interests and coalitions accross state boundaries- and thus great powers became obsolete


Four Dimensions of Liberalism (Michael W. Doyle)


1. Judicial equality and basic rights

2. Legislative assembly authorized by the people

3. Right to own property (key dimension)

4. Primarily market-driven economic system

•Democracy is productive for IR because it gives them power to make a better one, emphasis on free trade-interdependence, multilateral(not always formal),economic cooperation, more counting on each other the better

Democratic Peace (John M. Owen)

•Attracted attention for a number of reasons

-It is the closest thing we ahve to an empirical law in the study of international relations

-It poses an apparent anomaly(deviation) to realism, the dominant school of security studies

-it has become an axiom(established statement) of US foreign policy

•Liberal ideas cause liberal democracies to tend away from war with another liberal democracy

•Liberal ideology and institutions work in tandem to bring abotu democratic peace

Fourteen Points (significance + 5 general principles)

Wilson had announced his 14 pointos as a proposed basis for armistice (agreement) a year before the Paris Peace Conference opened

-Represented a school of thought that a new world order ha to be constructed based on: a respect for law, the acceptance of shared universal values, and the development of international organizations

-many saw them as excessively idealistic

•Wilson envisioned:

1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at

2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas in peace and in war

3. The removal of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all nations.

4. Adequate guarantees for a reduction in national armaments

5. Adjustments of colonial disputes to give equal weight to the interests of the controlling government and colonial population

•A call for 'a general association of nations'

League of Nations

The intergovernmental organization designed to prevent all future wars. The league did not have the political weight to carry out its task because the US refused to join

-What survived from Wilson's 14 points was his call for a 'general association of nations' but resulted in the Covenant of the League of Nations with 42 original members

•The LoN was ineffective because of two flaws: though designed to solve international disputes through arbitration, it had no power to enforce its decisions AND its basic premis of collective security never materialized because at any given time one or more of the great powers did not belong to the leage

•Established the pattern for and served as a model for the UN
Liberal Institutionalism

Least ambitious, does not directly address the important question of how to prevent war, but focuses instead on explaining why economic and environmental cooperation among states is more likely than realists recognize

-Largely ignores security issues and concentrates instead on ecnomic and to lesser extent, environmental issues; aim is to create rules that constrain states but not to challenge the fundamental realist claim that states are self-interested

•This began with Woodrow Wilson's 14 points

•Intertwined face

•Institutions crate the capability for states to cooperate in mutually beneficial ways by reducing the costs of making and enforcing agreements

•Self-interested cooperation among states; solution is regime based on shared interests


Complex Interdependence: Three Pillars

(Liberal Institutionalism)

(Keohane and Nye)


1. The use of MULTIPLE channels of action between societies in interstate and transgovernmental relations- can be formal or informal

2. The absence of a hierarchy of issues with changing agendas and linkages between issues prioritized

3. Objective bringing about a decline in the use of military forcea and coercive power in IR

•Key: Fates and fortunes are inextricable (impossible to separate) from each other's

•Interdependence augments (the possibility of) cooperation


Robert Keohane (1994) identify states’ material interests as distinct from people’s ideas about the world, and their research on the causal effects of ideas uses as its baseline the materialist hypothesis.

Collective Security (Mearsheimer)

Directly confronts the issue of how to prevent war; starts with the assumption that force will continue to matter in world politics and that states will have to guard against potential aggressors

-threat of war can be greatly reduced by challenging realist thinking abotu state behavior for anti-realist norms

-States should reject the idea of using force to change the status-quo

•Responsible states must not act on the basis of their own narrow self-interest, rather they must suppress the temptation to respond to violating states in whatever way that would maximize their interests

•Does not provide a satisfactory explanation of how states ovecome their fears and to trust each other

Schumpeter's Liberal Peace Regime

•Saw the interaction of capitalism and democracy as the foundation of liberal pacifism

•Says imperialism resulted from the combined impact of 'war machine', war like instincts, and export monopolism

•Democratic capitalist whose explanation of liberal pacifism we often invoke

•Democracy and capitalism are forces for peace

-Imperialism will disappear with further development of this

-Capitalism produces unwarlike disposition

•Schumpeter's humans are rationalized, individualized, and democratized; they are also homogenized, pursuing material interests 'monistically'

-Because their material interests lie in peaceful trade, they and the democratic state that these fellow citizens control are pacifistic



1. His 'materialist monism' leaves little room for noneconomic objectives, whether espoused by states or individuals

2. Political life of individuals homogenized at the same time as the individuals were rationalized, individualized, and democratized

3. World poltics are homogenized

Factors Influencing Cooperation

1. Two Payoff-Related factors affect the prospects for cooperation 

-Changes in the payoffs can change the game (p.dilemma and s.hunt)

-Magnitude of the payoffs is important for determing how long the 'shadow of the future is' (if payoffs increase over time, that is good for cooperation)

•Ways to change payoff structure

-Unilateral strategies (like building defensive weapons instead of offensive wones to overcome security dilemma)

-Bilateral bargaining (like issue linkage)

-Multilateral negotiation (like using institutions to create norms that appeal to domestic constituencies and to share info among states)

2. Iteration(Iteration is a way of advancing step by step, in successive efforts of testing and adaption)- 'the shadow of the future'

•Effectiveness of strategies like 'tit for tat' depends on 2 factors: ability to distinguish reliability between cooperation defection (could fail due to lack of transparent info, lack of control over sub-national agents) AND ability to punish defections (i.e. could fail due to collection action problem)


3.Number of Players

•As the number of players increases, transaction and information costs rise

-as the number of players rise, future payofs are more likely to be heterogenous which increases the risk that one state will defect (could send the whole game into defection)

-As number of players rise, punishing becomes collection action problem

•Ways to change: institutions can reduce info and transaction costs and can have clauses for collective punishment in the event of defection

•Cheating is the main inhibitor of international cooperation- Said Mearsheimer



Stag Hunt

Everyone agreest to split whatever they hunt so they will all stay quiet, do you go for the easy shot and ruin the chances for your team or wait to get what your team gets

•What to do when someone shoots the rabbit- depends on who (someone with a lot of power or a little)


Prisoner's Dilemma
(Fill in later)

•(Idealism, identity perspective); differences in identities; solution is shared norms- organizing principle is norms/ideas- main actors are states/IGOs/NGOs- ain goals are solving global problems (maximizing everyone's well being) core capability is knowledge

RESPONSE TO MATERIALISM- Wendt challenging flaw of neorealists and neoliberalists- commitment to materialism

•Human structures are determined mainly by shared ideas rather than material forces, and the identities and interests of human beings are constructed or are the prdouct of tehse shared ideas rather than being products of nature

•Alexander Wendt said that states are self interested but SELF-HELP and ANARCHY need to be distinguished

-self-interested conceptions of security are not constituitive property of anarchy; anarchy only plays a 'permissive role' in competetive and self-help politics

•Even power politics is socially constructed not by nature- neutrality is a political idea

•Does not deny that power and interest are important, but asks a different and prior set of questions- asks what interests ARE and it investigates the ends to which and the means by which power will be used- Finnemore

-Interests will exist but its a matter of how we intersect them





•Shared norms is a solution to different identities i.e. sovereignty

-Organizing principles of constructivism

•A norms approach addresses an issue obscured by approaches that treat interests exogenously- focuses attention on the ways in which interests change; since norms are socially constructed, they evolve with the changes in social interaction


(Finnemore)- Democracy

Norms Matter because...

1. the definition of who qualifies as human and therefore as deserving of humanitarian protection by foreign goverment has changed

2. while humanitarian intervention in the 19th century was frequently multilateral, it was not necessarily so

3. Action in concert with others is not enough to confer legitimacy on the intervention actions; states also actively seek authorization from the UNa nd restrain their actions to conform to that authorization


•Realist Analysis: only doing it for your own credentials; certain kind of attractive soft power; favorable impressino SOFT-POWER; help develop them they'll be more likely to help you, creating an ally

•Liberalist Analysis: liberalism talks about the role of institutions

•Normative context important for understanding this pattern of humanitarian intevention, which relates to actors' interests

•Humanitarian justifications ahve been used to disguise baser motives in interventions


•a supposition or system of ideas intended to explain something, especially based on general principles independent of the thing explained

-a theory leads to specific and testable predictions about empirical reality- the more observations support these predictions, the more the theory is confirmed

-falsifiability and counterfactual

-theory must be judged by its purpose- to bring order and meaning to a mass of phenomena that without it would remain disconnected and unintelligible 

•Ascertaining facts and giving them meaning through reason- metrics that we can count on; sense of facts that we need to explain this (Morgenthau)

-opposite of dogma; data vs. dogma

•Level of Analysis

•Proximate vs. Ultimate Causes


(internal) Validity
the approximate truth about inferences or theories regarding cause-effect or causal relationship
Generalizability (aka external validity)

the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold the other persons in other places at other times; forgoing parsimony (details) for scope, works here but not in other places; how much can this theory hold up to others


Empirical Research

•Knowledge from analysis of direct and/or indirect observation which we contrast against normative political theory, which is concerned with questions of norms such as justice and rights

-building generalizations from experience and historical facts

Niccolo Machiavelli was the first empirical scientist

-do what is necessary to bring about peace and prosperity

-associated with the thesis that 'the ends justify the means'

-conclusions about the best statesmanship from events from his time and the past

-thought that those who didn't know history were bound to repeat it

-preached empiricism: observational science; what you can look at and what you can count; emphasized the importance of starting from the facts, rather than from imagination; one should start from what IS rather than one what OUGHT to be

Problem-Driven Research

using a real world problem as a starting point for observation, then observing how that problem has been studied by others

-then, applying the most relevant method to study it now

-what's the best way to go about studying it

•Identify, criticize, and suggest plausible alternatives to the theoretical assumptions, interpretations of political conditions, and the specifications of problems that underlie prevailing empirical accounts

J. David Singer AND Ian Shapiro 

Method-Driven Research

application of theoretical question or approach of analysis to data

-'if the only tool you ahve is a hammer, everything around you starts to look like a nail.'

•leads to self-serving construction of problems

-people care more abotu their theories than the problem and will prove their theory right instead of the problem

Inductive Method

•Makes broad generalizatinos from specific observations, goes from specific to general SMALL TO BIG

-Like machiavelli 

-makes many observations, discern pttern, make a generalization, and infer an explanation or theory

-observations --> hypothesis (or theory)

•The inductivist begins by trying to account for particular phenomena or classes of phenomena and then sees what conditions might this apply under more generally- not determined to arrive at any particular theory because they pursue general accounts


Deductive Method

•starts out with a general statement or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion BIG TO SMALL

-scientific method uses deduction to test hypothesis and theories

-holds theory and based on it we make a prediction of its consequences

-hypothesis --> test

•The deductivist starts from the preferred theory or model and then opts for the type of description that will vindicate the general claims implied by the model



Level of Analysis Problem (tradeoffs involved in IR theorizing)

•"Focusing upon: the total system, international organizations, regions/coalitions, extra-national associations, nations, domestic pressure groups, social classes, elites, and individuals"

-And though most of us have tended to settle upon the nation as our most comfortable resting palce, we have trained our propensity for vertical drift

-Systemic level of analysis vs. national level


•One protecting power

•Why great powers vie with each other for power and strive for hegemony is drived from five assumptions

1. The international system is anarchic

2. Great powers inherently possess some offensive mlitary capability

3. States can never be certain about other states' intentions

4. Survival is the primary goal of great powers

5. Great powers are rational actors 

•Fear, self-help, and power maximization result

-the pursuit of power only stops when hegemony is achieved

-absolute power vs. relative power

Balance of Power

•Balancing is defined as allying with others against the prevailing threat

•Doctrine intended to prevent any one nation from becoming sufficiently strong so as to enable it to enforce its will on the rest; theory that weaker states are inclined to balance or ally against a larger threatening power

•The BoP and policies aiming at its preservation are not only inevitable but are an essential stabilizing factor in a society of sovereign nations

•The instability of the international balance of power is due not to the faultines of the principle but to the particular conditions under which the principle must operate in a society of sovereign nations

•Inevitable and essential


•Long peace in Europe due to BoP

•Manifestation of general social principle to which all societies composed of a number of autonomous units owe the autonomy of their component parts

Two Main Patterns of BoP (Mearsheimer)

Direct Opposition: results directly from the desire of either nation to see its policies prevail over the policies of the other; so long as the BoP operates successfully in such a situation, it fulfills two functions: creates a precarious stability in the relations between the nations, a stability that is always in danger of being disturbed and therefore is always in need of being restored- subject to continuous change AND ensures the freedom of one nation from domination by the other

Competition: A's desire to dominate C is balanced by B's power which has two functions: creates a precarious stability and security in the relations between A and B AND safeguard the independence of C against encroachments of A or B

-power of one country necessary to dominate another in the face of an opposing country

Qualities of BoP

•Can be through diminishing the weight of the heavier scale or by increasing the weight of the lighter scale

•Conflicting aims, temporary, active intervention, difficult to determine if it truly exist, equilibrium, big power game, status quo, revisionists (states aspiring for more balance of power in their favor; certain states are fine as long as they're in peace)

-two states can balance against each other by matching their increases in military capability

-multiple states can form BoP

BoP Prevail when ONLY TWO requirements are met

1. Order be anarchic

2. That it populated by units wishing to survive


There are two assumptions at the foundation of all equilibriums: elements to be balanced are necessary for society or are entitled to exist and that without a state of equilibrium among them one element will gain ascendency over the others, encroach upon their interests and rights, and may ultimately destroy them

•Since the goal is stability plus the preservation of all the elements of the system, the equilibrium must aim at preventing any element from gaining ascendency over the others

Status Quo

•states happy with their place in the system

-existing state of affairs

The Status-Quo Bias: since the goal is stability plus the preservation of all the elements of the system, the equilibrium must aim at preventing any element from gaining ascendency over the others

The Balancer (Morgenthau)

•Only objective within the system is the maintenance of the balance

-will put its weight always in the scale that seems to be higher or lighter than the other

•The balancer is not permanently identified with the policies of either nation or group of nations. Its only objective within the system is the mainte- nance of the balance, regardless of the concrete policies the balance will serve. In conse- quence, the holder of the balance will throw its weight at one time in this scalc, at another time in the other scale, guided only by one consideration-the relative position of the scales.



•Dis/Armament: (increasing the weight of the weaker ones) nations endeavor with the power at its disposal to maintain or reestablish the balance of power with armaments

•Compensations: (acquisition or reservation of property and benefit) nation has the right, without having full title to the territory concerned, to operate iwthin its sphere of influence without competition or opposition from another nation (diminishing weight of heavier one) territorial acquisitions- as to not upset the balance of power, nations divide territories


•Buffer States

•Alliances/Counter-Alliances: requires of necessity a community of intersets for its foundation- members must agree on policies and measures; nations will turn from an alliance if it believes its strong enough without one (increasing the weight of the weaker one) relations between one nation or alliance of nations and anotehr alliance

Machiavelli warned weak nations against making alliances with strong ones except out of necessity


Offensive Realism

States pursue greater power


Defensive Realism

States pursue survival 



•Bandwagoning refers to alignment with the source of danger

•Trying to get in with the big dog

-opposite of balancing

-joining the bandwagon is joining the powerful

Stephen Walt

•a bandwagoning world is much more competitive

•if states tend to ally with those who seem most dangerous, then great powers will be rewarded if they appear both strong and potentially aggressive 

•international rivalries will be more intense because a single defeat may signal the decline of one side and the ascendency of the other

•IN GENERAL the weaker the state the more likely it is to bandwagon- must choose the winning side vs. strong states can turn a losing coalition into a winning

•states will also be tempted to bandwagon when allies are unavailable 

free-riding is the optimal policy for a weak state because its efforts will contribute little in any case

buck-passing: states that are threatened strive to pass to others the burdens of standing up to the aggressor

•in wartime, the closer one side is to victory, the greater the tendency for others to bandwagon with it 
Soft Power

•Ability to get what you want through attraction, not coercion


•Joseph Nye (1937-present): the ability to affect others through the co-optive means of framing the agenda, persuading, and eliciting a positive attraction in order to obtain preferred outcomes; includes intangible factors such as institutions, ideas, values, culture, perceived legitimacy of policies

-Nye wrote respond to the myth that soft power is more humane than hard power, that Hitler, Stalin, and Mao after all, posessed a great deal of soft power in the yes of their acolytes

Cultural Diplomacy: the exchange of ideas, information, values, systems, traditions, beliefs, and other aspects of culture, with the intention of fostering mutual understandings 

Hard Power: coerce with political, economic, or military

-payments vs. coercion attraction


Realism vs. Neo-realism

-Realists think that conflict is the result of human nature, which is imperfect and flawed whereas Neorealists assert that the international system, which they describe as “anarchic,” influences national actors to vie for power due to a lack of a global system of governance or central authority.

-Neorealists say All nation-states are similar in their needs – energy, food, military, infrastructure, etc. – but differ in their ability to achieve these needs

-Morgenthau does not acknowledge the formation of allies because of self interest vs. Waltz would say there are allies

-Realist looks at interest in terms of power whereas neorealist says yes but material constraints- things in the way of obtaining power: (materialism) what money you have/resources you have/who you know, these are all things that can help a state's ability to gain power or get in the way

-Realism doesn't acknowledge the differences between states and doesn't look at structure

-Neorealism realizes limits


IGOs (Intergovernmental Organizations)

An IGO is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states, or of other intergovernmental organizations. IGOs are established by treaty or other agreement that acts as a charter creating the group.

-examples are: UN, NATO, WTO, World Bank

NGOs (non-governmental organizations)

A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a not-for-profit organization that is independent from states and international governmental organizations. They are usually funded by donations but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers.


-examples are: Sierra Club, Habitat for Humanity, 

IOs (International Organizations)

An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types are IGOs and NGOs


-examples: UNICEF, UNAID, IMF

Security Council (UNSC)

(DECIDES): For international security issues

-the "primary responsibility for maintenance of international peace and security and can take measures it deems necessary in that pursuit

-intervention authorized by the UNSC is unambiguously legal

-UN's principal crisis-management body, empowered to impose binding obligations on the UN's members to maintain peace 

-may adopt compulsory resolutions 

-Comprised of 15 members

-Permanent Members(5): China, France, Russia, US, and UK have veto power


-Non permanent members are elected by general assembly and have 2 year terms(10)

Peacekeeping Forces

employed by the World Organization to maintain or re-establish peace in an area of armed conflict. The UN Peacekeeping Forces may only be employed when both parties to a conflict accept their presence. Accordingly, they may also be used by the warring parties to avoid having a conflict escalate and, in the event, also to have a struggle called off.

-They are normally deployed as a consequence of a Security Council decision. However, on occasion, the initiative has been taken by the General Assembly. Operational control belongs to the Secretary-General and his secretariat.


-We distinguish between two kinds of peacekeeping operations - unarmed observer groups(concerned with gathering information for the UN about actual conditions prevailing in an area) and lightly-armed military forces. The latter are only allowed to employ their weapons for self-defence


(IMPLEMENT): Administrative organ of the UN

-an international staff working in duty stations around the world- carries out the diverse day-to-day work of the organization. It services the other principal organs of the UN and admsinisters the programs and policies laid down by them. At its head is the Secretary-General who is appointed by the general assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five year, renewable term and is the UN's foremost representative

-peacekeeping operations, mediating international disputes, surveying economic and social trends and problems to preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development

-inform the world's communications media about the work of the UN; organize international conferences on issues of worldwide concern; interpret speeches and translate documents into the Organization's official languages 

-International civil servants 

-only can answer to the UN and cannot take instructions from any government outside authority


-Primary Sectors: torts/conflict resolution, events/training, research and development, monitoring/evaluation, economic policy

General Assembly

(RECOMMENDS): Deliberative assembly of all UN member states

-may resolve non compulsory recommendations to states or suggestions to the security council

-empowered to make recommendations to States on international issues within its competence. It has also initiated political, economic, humanitarian, social, and legal actions; 193 members and 1 country = 1 vote

-adopts budget

-According to the charter, the general assembly may consider and approve the UN budget, elect non permanent members of the UNSC and UN councils, appoint Secretary-General on the recommendation of the UNSC, consider and make recommendations on general principles of cooperation for maintaining int'l peace and security, discuss any q's relating to int'l peace and security and make recommendations on it, discuss and make recommendations on any questions within the scope of the charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the UN

-Six Main Committees: Disarmament and International Security; Economic and Financial; Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian; Special Political and Decolonization; Administrative and Budgetary; and Legal

-Seven Commissions

-Councils, panels, working groups


-President who is elected prior to the opening session each year

UN Programs

UN uses more than a dozen major programs to advance economic development and social stability in poor states of the global south


i.e. UNEP, UNICE, UNHCR, UNDP, UN Conference on Trade- development, WFP/FAO (World Food Program), UNRW/T


Walzer's Just War Framework




1. There exists an international society of independent states- principle of non-intervention

-survival and independence of separate political communities

2. This international society has a law that establishes the rights of its members- above all, the rights of territorial integrity and political sovereignty 

-rest on the right of men and women to build a common life and to risk their individual lives only when they freely choose to do so

3. Any use of force or imminent threat of force by one state against the political sovereignty or territorial integrity of another constitutes aggression and is a criminal act

4. Aggression justifies two kinds of violent response: a war of self-defense by the victim and a war of law enforcement by the victim and any other member of int'l society.

5. Nothing but aggression can justify war


6. Once the aggressor state has been militarily repulsed, it can also be punished.

jus in bello (justice in the conduct or means of war)

doing war justly

1. Obey all international laws on weapons prohibition

2. Discrimination and non-combatant immunity

-discriminate between civilian population that's morally immune from intentional attack and legit military, political, industrial targets involved in rights violating harm 

3. Proportionality

-force proportional to end they seek

4. Benevolent Quarantine for POWs

5. No means Mala in se (evil in themselves) aka nothing sinister of in itself

6. No reprisals 

-when country A violates jus in bello in war with country B, country B then retaliates with its own violation of just in bello, seeking to chasten A into obeying the rules

-There are strong moral and evidentiary reason to believe that reprisals don't work, but instead escalate death


-"winning well is the best revenge"

jus ad bellum (justice in the resort to war)

1. Just cause

-self-defense from external attack

-defense of others from such 

-protection of innocents from brutal regimes

-punishment for grievous uncorrected wrong doing

2. Right intention

-the right reason for launching war is not enough: the actual motivation behind the resort to war must also be morally appropriate

-ulterior motives, such as power or land grab, or international motives, such as revenge or ethnic hatred are ruled out

3. Proper authority and public declaration (Finnemore)

4. Last resort

5. Probability of success

6. Proportionality:

-weigh the universal goods expected to result from it, such as securing the just cause, against the universal evils expected to result, notably casualties 


•even actual laws are not always enforced/followed


Legalist Frameworks for Conduct of War



•Just and Unjust War (Michael Walzer)

-Self-determination: the right of people to "become free by their own efforts" if they can

-Nonintervention principle guarantees their success will not be impeded or their failure prevented by the intrusions of an alien power

-there is no right to be protected against the consequences of domestic failure, even against a bloody repression

-war is justified when a response to aggression

-Walzer says war is never just on both sides 


•The comparison of international to civil order is crucial to the theory of aggression. 

Geneva Conventions (1949 Four articles)

-The initial 1864 treaty initiated by an organization called the 'International Committee for Relief to the Wounded' for soldiers to receive medical care regardless of nationality 

-The 1st treaty was amended and culminated in 1949 when nations gathered to address the horrors of WII

-The 1949 assembly resulted in the adoption of four Geneva Conventions 

-The 1st Geneva Convention was held in 1864. That 1st conference established a set of rules to protect wounded and sick troops in the field

1. Convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded and sick in armed forces in the field

2. Convention for the amelioration of the condition of wounded sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea

3. Convention relative to the treatment of POWs

4. Convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war


•Ultimately adopted by 190 countries

Geneva Conventions Article III

-The following acts are prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above mentioned persons 

a)violence to lie and person-murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment, and torture

b)taking hostages

c)outrages upon personal dignity- humiliating and degrading treatment

d)passing of sentences and the carrying out of the executions without previous judgement pronounced by a regularly constituted court


•An impartial humanitarian body such as International Committee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the parties to the conflict

Hague Laws

•The 1899 Hague Peace Convention and the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare. Another conference was scheduled and then cancelled with the outbreak of WWI

•Hague conventions loosely fall into categories of:



-property rights

-duties of neutral countries 

I. Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes

II. Convention with respect to the laws and customs of war on land

III. Convention for the adaptation to maritime warfare

(1) IV. Declaration concerning the prohibition of the discharge of projectiles and explosives from balloons or by other new analogous methods

(2) IV. Declaration concerning the prohibition of the use of projectiles  with sole object to spread asphyxiating poisonous gases


(3) IV. Declaration concerning the prohibition of the use of bullets which can easily expand or change their form inside the human body such as bullets with hard covering

The World Trade Organization Goals

•The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations


1. to set and enforce rules for international trade

2. to provide a forum for negotiating and monitoring further trade liberalization

3. to resolve trade disputes

4. to increase transparency of decision-making processes

5. to cooperate with other major international economic institutions involved in global economic management


6. to help developing countries benefit fully from the global trading system


the opposite of free trade

•Protectionism imposes actions that create barriers to trade such as tariffs, sanctions, embargoes, subsidies on domestic products


-Trade barriers cost the economy: create incentives for businesses to shift towards the protected sectors of the economy and away from others

-Negative impact on income distribution- income moves from consumers and non protected sectors to protected sectors

-invites retaliation between countries- one country employs protectionism, another country retaliates and odes the same, and everyone loses


•Protectionism is in a country's own best interest

•The political process generally favors special interest desiring protection rather than general consumer interests

-the benefits of free trade are diffused across society

-the benefits of protection are concentrated in a few groups of producers


-this situation provides motivation for producers to organize in order to influence public policy and gain protection

Neoclassical Definition of Economy

 Neoclassical economists believes that a consumer's number-one concern is to maximize personal satisfaction, and that everyone makes decisions based on fully informed evaluations of utility. This theory coincides with the idea of rational behavior theory, which states that people act rationally when making economic decisions

-Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics that relates supply and demand to an individual's rationality and his ability to maximize utility or profit.

-Classicals were right about the long-term; Keynes was right about the short-term

•Government intervention should be limited to the short term

-John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) England

*government can get involved but just for a short amount of time*

•Believe that the purpose of economic activity is to benefit individual consumers and to maximize utilization of the Earth's scarce resources


•Instruct society on how markets function in the production of wealth and how these markets can be made most efficient 

Political Economy definition of Economy

interaction of the market and such powerful actors as states, multinational firms, and international organizations

-the purpose of economic activity

-the interaction of the market and powerful actors 

-World of politics and economics do intertwine 


•political economists are interested in analyzing and explaining the ways in which various sorts of government affect the allocation of scarce resources in society through their laws and policies as well as the ways in which the nature of the economic system and the behavior of people acting on their economic interests affects the form of government and the kinds of laws and policies that get made

Marxist Definition of Economy

-politics born from economics: how bourgeoise accumulate power over the proletariat

•Considers economics to have social and political neoliberal biases that favor efficiency over social problems like equality 


-critique of capitalism 


class without the ownership of the means of production, subsistence only to sell their labor power 


 modern capitalists, owners of the means of social production and the employers of wage labor

Invisible Hand in Economics

•Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations

-refuted mercantile propositions (that government control of foreign trade ensures state stability)

•RATHER: The markets invisible hand rapidly adjusts to equilibrium, ensures stability


-The unobservable market force that helps the demand and supply of goods in a free market to reach equilibrium automatically is the invisible hand

-He explained that an economy will comparatively work and function well if the government will leave people alone to buy and sell freely among themselves. He suggested that if people were allowed to trade freely, self interested traders present in the market would compete with each other, leading markets towards the positive output with the help of an invisible hand.


-In a free market scenario where there are no regulations or restrictions imposed by the government, if someone charges less, the customer will buy from him. Therefore, you have to lower your price or offer something better than your competitor. Whenever enough people demand something, it will be supplied by the market and everyone will be happy. The seller end up getting the price and the buyer will get better goods at the desired price.

Efficiency of Markets

-degree to which stock prices and other securities prices reflect all available, relevant information.

-market efficiency measures the availability of market information that provides the maximum amount of opportunities to purchasers and sellers of securities to effect transactions without increasing transaction costs.

•Stock's price will reflect fully reflect all available and given information any given time


-stocks reflect fair value 

Neoclassical Synthesis

•Samuelson (1955) appealing to Keynes (1936)

•consensus among professional economists 

•Constrained optimization: choice under conditions of scarcity

-rational behavior, free and open markets

-Keynesian in the short run and neoclassical in the long run


-policy makers will be able to adjust the economy (especially using fiscal policies, seen by NCS’ economists as far more effective than monetary policy) in the short run, but considering also that equilibrium will be reached in the long run without the need for public interventi

The role of institutions/cooperation in Political Economy

-It is said that both then neoclassical institutionalism and public choice conceptions of institutions are grounded in rational intentions 


-In what ways might each neoclassical institutionalism and public choice be considered rational 


Public choice v. Neoclassical Institutionalist 

(Views on economic institutions)


Public Choice: assumption that government institutions are created by powerful groups, public officials, and politicians to promote their own interest, which decrease efficiency 

-interested in applying the method of formal economics to analysis of political behavior and institutions, especially to the political organization of free men

Neoclassical Institutionalism: assumption that government institutions are created to solve economic problems by offsetting transaction costs to firms which increase efficiency

-Bypasses linkages because framework is in place 


-attempts to explain the origin, evolution, and functioning of all types of institutions as the result of the maximizing behavior of rational individuals 

Five Goals of Terrorism

1.Regime Change: overthrow of government and its replacement with one led by the terrorists or one more to their liking (Shining path in Peru)

2. Territorial Change: taking territory away from a state either to establish a new state (Tamil Tigers seeking areas of Sri Lanka) or to join another state (Lashkar-e Tayyiba seeking incorporating Indian Kashmir into Pakistan)

3. Policy Change: pressures state behavior (al-Qaida's demand to the U.S. to drop support for Israel and Saudi Arabia)

4. Social Control: constrains the behavior of individuals rather than the state (KKK seeking continued oppression of non-whites)


5. Status quo maintenance: support of an existing regime or territorial arrangement against political groups seeking to change it (Protestant paramilitary groups in Northern Irleland supported status quo of northern Ireland as British territory against IRA demands it be transferred to Ireland)


Five Strategies of Terrorism 

(What contributes to each of them thriving)


1. Attrition: terrorists seek to persuade the enemy that the terrorists are strong enough to impose considerable costs if the enemy continues a particular policy

•the greater the costs a terrorist organization is able to inflict, the more credible its threat to inflict future costs, and the more likely the target is to grant concessions 

•Three variables factor in the outcome: state's level of interest in the issue, the constraints on its ability to retaliate, and its sensitivity to the costs of violence

•Subject of uncertainty is power and resolve and the target of persuasion is the enemy

2. Intimidation: terrorists using intimidation try to convince the population that the terrorists are strong enough to punish disobedience and that the government is too weak to stop them, so that people behave as the terrorists wish

•Subject of uncertainty is power and its target of persuasion is its own population

•Weak states and rough terrain are two factors that facilitate intimidation 

3. Provocation: an attempt to induce the enemy to respond to terrorism with indiscriminate violence, which radicalizes the population and moves them to support the terrorists

•Constraints on retaliation and regime type are again important in determining when provocation is successful. Government must be capable of middling levels of brutality

•subject of uncertainty is trustworthiness and its target of persuasion is its own population

4. Spoiling: attack in an effort to persuade the enemy that moderates on the terrorists' side are weak and untrustworthy, thus undermining attempts to reach a peace settlement

•More successful when the enemy perceives moderates on their side to be strong and therefore more capable of halting terrorism

•subject of uncertainty is trustworthiness and its target of persuasion is its enemy

5. Outbidding: use violence to convince the public that the terrorists have greater resolve to fight 

the enemy than rival groups, and therefore are worthy of support

•Favored when multiple groups are competing for the allegiance of a similar demographic base of support


•Its subject of uncertainty is resolve and its target of persuasion is its own population

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