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International Relations
HRs, Theories, IGOs, Globalization
International Studies
Undergraduate 1

Additional International Studies Flashcards




- the state of nature concept is not all ways true
- If state of nature is true than war is constant, but war is not constant.
- why do states go to war sometimes but not others
- negates the human nature principles of classical realism
Neorealism (Defensive)
Waltz: Principles
- states are self interested
- states are concerned with relative gains and the distribution of capabilities
- states seeks to preserve their own sovereignty (status quo)
- security dilemma exist w/in int'l system
Key Outcomes
- states enters into alliances to protect its interests against great powers
- the int'l system is not anarchical - there's an hierarchy
- not all states are status quo states
Morgenthau: Principles/Characteristics
- the int'l system exist in a state of nature where it is anarchical and chaotic
- states are self interested - interest is define as power
- states seek to max power
- no universal moral, ethics. justice is relative
- states seeks relative gains
- states will align themselves to preserve power
Out come/Predicted Behavior
- constant pursuit of power
- war is inevitable
- assumes that states only interact with each other once
- negate historical relations and state identity
- human nature is not always constant
- some states seek absolute gains
- state sovereignty was establish after the Thirty Years War
- 2 principles: external (recognition of as a state by other states) and internal (rights to excise control over domestic affairs) state sovereignty
Soft vs Hard Power
- soft power (Nye) - the ability of a state to attract its ideas, to set political agenda without using force and through the use of persuasion
- hard power - the military/economic abilities of a state
Balance of power
Example Concert of Europe
- Sovereign states, such as GB, Russia, Prussia, Austria Hungry and France, worked together in order to prevent the emergence of a preponderance of power
- multiple states with some connection/ideologies,
- sovereign control over borders/population,
- shared outlook on rules of the games, - some ability to estimate power of other states
State of Nature
- According to Thomas Hobbes the state of nature of brutal and choatic. Individuals living in the state of nature is conflicted with the security dilemma because of fear competetion. In order to resolve this dilemma individuals should enter into a covenant with a state and transfer his or her rights in exchange of security.
Peloponnesian War
Athen's growth proposes a threat to Sparta. The bipolarity structure of the cities states allow a small conflict to expand to a large scale war.

-Thucydides recorded the events
The Melian Dialogue
The dialogue outlined the basic law of human nature and some principles of realism.
-Athenians argued that since the strong rules the weak, the Melian should ceded to Athens in order to safeguard their borders. No justice.
Peace of Westphalia
- ended the 30 years war
- established the principles of states sovereignty
Concert of Europe
- members: Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France
- meet to avoid conflicts among great powers and to prevent internal revolutions
- goal: to satisfy the revisionist states by giving them more land
National Self Determination
- it is the belief that the individuals have the rights to live in a nation where the people shares the same culture and ethnicity.
- originate after WWI - Woodrow Wilson
- League of Nation failed to protect minorities
- Jackson's criticism - states that are artificially constructed are internally weak.
Treaty of Versailles
- self determination - the creation of small states out of large empires
- military limitations on Germany
- war guilt - Germany was blamed for the war and forced to pay for war damages
- establish League of Nations
WWI Causes
- system level: rigid alliances that led to a larger war, GB didn't fulfill its goals as the balancer, German power and aggression
- state level: the rise of nationalism, principles (cultural groups are entitled to self determination), German domestic policies (political leaders used war as a diversion from domestic policy)
League of Nations
o Objective – collective security – a respond to the use of alliances to obtain security – an agreement that an attack on one state would required all other states to respond military to the agressor.
o Institutions – Court of International Justice – a court to resolve disputes among states
o monitor the treatment of minorities
o Problems
 National self determination- failed. Minorities were dissatisfy
 Structure – hierarchical – power wasn't distributed equality. Council = GB, France, Italy, Japan
 Lack of Authority = no obligation
 Defections (states leaving the League) – United States, Germany, Japan, Italy
 the principles of self determination conflicted with the practices of the super powers who had colonies around the world and internal issues
 GB = Ireland, India
 US = African American
The German Problem – systematic Level – Relative power of Germany
- growing population, economy = need more territory = Lebensraum
- Germany never resolved this issues following WWII
- need territory to match its political and economic power
- the allies (GB) give in to Germany's need
- Realists = a moment of weakness of the allies = a mistake appeasement is a dangerous policy because it allows the enemy strategic gains
- Why?
- GB felt guilty. Treaty of Versa was unfair. Germany's claim of Lebensraum was valid. GB was ignorance of Hitler's ambition. Seek appeasement in order to safe guard their empire.
Causes of WWII
- systematic level:The German Problem – - state level: Appeasement and
German Politics and Culture, US reluctant to assume responsibilities as a hegemon.
- individual: Hitler – personality, ambitions. Chamberlain - naive
United Nations
• United Nations
o UN is not a an actor – institution organization that coordinate the resources of actors. UN lacks a military force and economic resources
o Organization
 Principal Bodies
 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
 Secretary General
 General Assembly – standard setting – human rights cooperation
 Security Council – 5 permanent member, each with a veto. 10 rotating members (regional).
 Duties
 Peace Keeping – providing service to a state, required consent of the state
 Economic Sanctions and Military Force – used when means failed. Military forces are obtained through member states
o Justice (Human Rights)
 human rights were competing with state sovereignty
 required to – take steps to encourage an reaffirm human rights
 human rights dimension was relatively weak
 Universal Declaration on Human Rights – not a treaty, not binding, no enforcement, no legal requirements. It did lay out rights of the individuals to court.
o Peace and Security – more important (principle of state sovereignty)
 Collective Security
 Affirmation of State sovereignty – respect for borders, outside states should not meddle with internal affairs
 UN Charter puts more weight on collective security
 Problems with Collective Security
 the use of VETO
 the structure of the Security Council – members protecting their interests
 membership of the Security Council – failure to include Japan and Germany – creditability problem
 cost of military and economic sanctions – reply on the contribution of membership states – Financial Resources
States that are granted external sovereignty but failed to control internal sovereignty
Mutually Assured Destruction
o if both sides assured that the other side has the 2nd strike capacity both sides would avoid using nuclear weapon
o Realists believed that nuclear weapons deter war
o stability can only be achieved if both sides have 2nd strike capability
 if one side can attack the other side's nuclear weapon then the enemy's 2nd strike capability is destroyed = instability
o the idea became irrational - Nuclear Treaty Ban
 more states began developing nuclear weapon (GB, France). Stability can only be provided if 2 super power have nuclear weapon
Cuban Missile Crisis
The event where the US and SU were on the verge of using their nuclear weapons. After the crisis both states realized the effects of MAD and opened up communications to insure against nuclear holocaust. Security Dilemma
• Containment (Kennan)
o Source of Soviet Conduct
 Soviet was using an ad hoc strategy
 Soviet actions shift to different geographical location at different time
 threat is not just militarly but ideological
 US need to counteract Soviet's action by winning support in area under Soviet influences
o Reformation of the Truman Doctrine
An set of policies that US implements in the beginning stages of the Cold War. The objective was to stop the spread of SU power or communism. Deterrence led to the US involvement in Vietnam
Hoffmann's Cold War explanations
• Hoffman's view – Post Revisionist – system level
o Both sides were misperceiving the other side. Intension vs Outcome
o Misperception among both states, a characteristics of the system
 Marshall Plan, Nato – were seen as an act of aggression – misperception
 Security Dilemma – defensive act of states are interrupted as offensive acts
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