Term
To what does the term correlation refer? 

Definition
The association or relationship between variables in interval/ratio level data 


Term
What is a bivariate correlation? 

Definition
The relationship between one independent and one dependent variable 


Term

Definition
The graphical display of two bivariate interval/ratiolevel variables 


Term
What is a positive correlation between two variables? 

Definition
When the two variables have corresponding scores (e.g. when one goes up, so does the second) 


Term
What is a negative correlation? 

Definition
When high scores on one variable correlate to low scores on another variable 


Term
What does the term covariation mean? 

Definition
Scores on two or more variables that vary together 


Term
What is a regression line? 

Definition
A line drawn through the center of the data represented in a scatterplot 


Term
If the pattern of a set of data points and the line drawn through them has an upward slope, it has a ________ correlation 

Definition


Term
The closer data points cluster around a line, the _______ the relationship between x and y 

Definition


Term
What is the Pearson correlation coefficient? 

Definition
The statistic used to measure the correlation between two interval/ratio level variables 


Term
What does Pearson's r measure? 

Definition
The strength of the linear correlation between two continuous (interval/ratio) variables 


Term

Definition
The sample estimate of the correlation between the two variables in the population 


Term

Definition
The population correlation coefficient 


Term
Pearson's r indicates correlation using what range of numbers? What do the numbers mean? 

Definition
1 through 1
1 is a perfect negative relationship, 0 is no relationship, and 1 is a perfect positive relationship 


Term
What are conditional distributions? 

Definition
The distribution of possible y scores for a fixed x score 


Term
What is the conditional mean of y? 

Definition
The calculated mean of y for every value of x 


Term
The y intercept is the point where... 

Definition
The regression line crosses the y axis (the value of y when x = 0) 


Term
The slope (aka the ___ ______ or the ______ _________) measures the amount of change produced in the y variable by a 1 unit change in the x variable 

Definition
Beta coefficient; regression coefficient 


Term
What is the residual when referring to regression analysis? 

Definition
The error between predicted and actual data 


Term
What is the main difference between the slope coefficient (b) and the correalational coefficient (r)? 

Definition
b informs us about the way a relationship looks (if the relationship is negative or positive and how slanted the line is) r standardizes b so that you can tell the strength of a relationship and compare this to other cases or variables 


Term
What are the 5 assumptions for testing hypotheses about the population slope and correlation coefficient? 

Definition
1 The observations were randomly selected 2 Both variables have normal distributions 3 The two variables are measured at the interval/ratio level 4 The variables are related in a linear form 5 assumption of homoscedasticity 


Term
What is the assumption of homoscedasticity? 

Definition
The error component is independent of and therefore uncorrelated with the independent or x variable, is normally distributed, and has an expected value of zero, and has a constant variance across all levels of x 


Term
How can the assumptions of homoscedasticity and linearity be assessed? 

Definition
By looking at the scatterplots. If the variance of y is the same for it's corresponding x, the conditions are met 


Term

Definition
The finding that a change in one variable leads to or produces a change in another variable, all other things being equal 


Term

Definition
The relationship between two variables is not caused by a third factor or factors related to them both 


Term
The multiple regression equation aims to... 

Definition
Estimate the effect of several independent variables on a dependent variable 


Term
What is a partial slope (or regression) coefficient? 

Definition
The partial slope of the linear relationship between each independent variable and the dependent variable 


Term
What is the additional assumption that is made for the multivariate regression model? 

Definition
The independent variables are not highly correlated among themselves 


Term
What is multicollinearity? 

Definition
Independent variables that are highly correlated with each other 


Term
Can you determine which IV has the strongest effect on the DV by comparing unstandardized partial slope coefficients? 

Definition
No, you must first standardize the slopes using beta weights 


Term

Definition
The change in the amount of variance explained when the second variable is entered into the regression model 


Term
What is a dichotomous variable? 

Definition
A variable that has only two outcomes (e.g. yes or no, did happen or did not happen) 


Term
What is a binary variable? 

Definition
A dichotomous variable that is coded as either 0 or 1 


Term
When is the ordinary leastsquares regression model best used? 

Definition
In analyzing the relationship between independent variables and a continuous dependent variable that is normally distributed 


Term
When is the logistic regression model appropriate to use? 

Definition
When the dependent variable we have is a binary or dichotomous one 


Term
What is a linear probability model? 

Definition
One which assumes a linear relationship between an IV and the probability of a DV 


Term
If the logistic regression coefficient is positive, the value of the odds multiplier will be _____ than 1, indicating an increase in the odds of the DV occurring. 

Definition


Term
What is the likelihood ratio statistic? 

Definition
A goodness of fit test for logistic regression which is 2 times the natural logarithm of the likelihood 

