# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 13 - Inferential Statistics
IACA
26
Criminal Justice
Professional
09/05/2014

Term
 Population
Definition
 unit sample
Term
 Study population
Definition
 population of relevance
Term
 Sampling unit
Definition
 element/set of elements that forms basis of selection.
Term
 Sampling frame
Definition
 actual list of sampling unit
Term
 Observation (sampling)
Definition
 element or aggregation of elements which the data is to be collected and/or analyzed.
Term
 Simple random sampling design
Definition
 most basic, every member of population has an equal chance of being chosen, but seldom used due to being labor intensive.
Term
 Systematic random sampling design
Definition
 (Interval random sampling)consists of a master list of members of the population, then setting a interval by dividing total # of units by present size of sample. Use is good for long lists, large samples, but assumes no order is present and the order is known as periodicity. Can be biased.
Term
 Stratified random sampling
Definition
 consists of classifying the elements, dividing the target population categoreis of homogeneous groups and then draws independent random samples from each strata/category. Uses a smaller sample size and takes into account the effect on dependent variables.
Term
 Cluster sampling
Definition
 similar to stratified but groups are naturally occurring. The clusters are chosen randomly and can have more than one stage.
Term
 Multistage
Definition
 repetition of two sampling concepts (listing and sampling).
Term
 Stat Inference
Definition
 incudes, t-test, p-test, chi-squared to conclude the sample was drawn is of significance and not by chance or coincidence.
Term
 Stat inference purpose
Definition
 whether the findings are important and can be generalized and provide if the study was conducted again the results would be the same.
Term
 Common uses of stat inference
Definition
 test differences between measures of central tendency, of percentages, proportions, rates, association and duration and rate of change of trends.
Term
 T-test, z-test
Definition
 between mean rates and proportion
Term
 f-test
Definition
 analysis of variance, regression, slope and direction of trends.
Term
 chi-squared
Definition
 "goodness of fit"
Term
 null hypothesis
Definition
 zero - no differences not indicative of the population.
Term
 Type I errors
Definition
 false positive
Term
 Type II errors
Definition
 false negative
Term
 Confidence intervals
Definition
 range of values around sample stat that the "true" or population value lies. lower range (narrow) and higher range (wide)
Term
 Significance important to determine
Definition
 to extent results can be attributed to the project, size/magnitude of differences, program costs and other support for quantitative results.
Term
 Stat tests provide
Definition
 objectivity, basis for judging, taking descriptive stats and putting into relevant terms
Term
 Considerations for statistical testing
Definition
 the risk, similarity of population, applicability of test to the data, and specific decisions about project.
Term
 Statistical testing provides
Definition
 relationships between activities/outcomes and generalization of results to similar times, places and situations.
Term
 Sampling rules
Definition
 cost of collection, time, and hypothesized relationships and technical capability.
Term
 Hypothesis rules
Definition
 lower alpha value, lower risk of Type Ilower alpha value, more rigorous the testincrease alpha value (.01-.05) increase in type I error, decrease type II error
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