# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

INC1 - WGU
Integrated Natural Sciences
138
Science
10/23/2012

Term
 Control
Definition
 A test that excludes the variable being investigated in a scientific experiment.
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 An educated guess or a reasonable explanation. When the hypothesis can be tested by experiment, it qualifies as a scientific hypothesis.
Term
 Law
Definition
 A general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted. Also known as a principle.
Term
 Principle of falsifiability
Definition
 For a hypothesis to be considered scientific it must be testable--it must, in principle, be capable of being proven wrong.
Term
 Pseudoscience
Definition
 A theory or practice that is considered to be without scientific foundation but purports to use the methods of science.
Term
 Science
Definition
 The collective findings of humans about nature, and a process of gathering and organizing knowledge about nature.
Term
 Scientific Method
Definition
 An orderly method for gaining, organizing, and applying new knowledge.
Term
 Technology
Definition
 The means of solving practical problems by applying the findings of science.
Term
 Theory
Definition
 A synthesis of a larger body of information that encompasses well-tested hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world.
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 The rate at which velocity changes with time; the change in velocity may be in magnitude, or in direction, or in both. It is usually measured in m/s2.
Term
 Air resistance
Definition
 The force of friction acting on an object due to its motion through air.
Term
 Density
Definition
 A measure of mass per volume for a substance.
Term
 Equilibrium rule
Definition
 The vector sum of forces acting on a nonaccelerating object equals zer0.
Term
 Force
Definition
 Simply stated, a push or a pull.
Term
 Free fall
Definition
 Motion under the influence of gravitational pull only.
Term
 Friction
Definition
 The resistive force that opposes the motion or attempted motion of an object through a fluid or past another object with which it is in contact.
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 The property of things to resist changes in motion.
Term
 Kilogram
Definition
 The unit of mass. One kilogram (symbol kg) is the mass of 1 liter (symbol L) of water at 4C.
Term
 Mass
Definition
 The quantity of matter in an object.
Term
 Net force
Definition
 The combination of all forces that act on an object.
Term
 Newton
Definition
 The scientific unit of force.
Term
 Speed
Definition
 The distance traveled per unit of time.
Term
 Support force
Definition
 The force that supports an object against gravity, often called the normal force.
Term
 Vector quantity
Definition
 A quantity that specifies direction as well as magnitude.
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 The speed of an object with specification of its direction of motion.
Term
 Weight
Definition
 Simply stated, the force of gravity on an object.
Term
 Conservation of energy
Definition
 In the absence of external work input or output, the energy of a system remains unchanged. Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Term
 Conservation of energy and machines
Definition
 The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input.
Term
 Conservation of momentum
Definition
 In the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged.
Term
 Efficiency
Definition
 The percentage of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output.
Term
 Elastic collision
Definition
 A collision in which colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or the generation of heat.
Term
 Energy
Definition
 The property of a system that enables it to do work.
Term
 Impulse
Definition
 The product of the force acting on an object and the time during which it acts.
Term
 Inclastic collision
Definition
 A collision in which the colliding objects become distorted, generate heat, and possibly stick together.
Term
 Joule
Definition
 The SI unit of energy and work, equivalent to a newton-meter.
Term
 Kinetic energy
Definition
 Energy of motion, described by the relationship.
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 The product of the mass of an object and its velocity.
Term
 Potential energy
Definition
 The stored energy that a body possesses because of its position.
Term
 Power
Definition
 the time rate of work: Power= work/time
Term
 Relationship of impulse and momentum
Definition
 Impulse is equal to the change in the momentum of the object upon which the impulse acts.
Term
 Work
Definition
 The product of the force and the distance through which the force moves.
Term
 Work-Energy Theorem
Definition
 The work done on an object equals the change in kinetic energy of the object.
Term
 Biology
Definition
 Scientific study of life
Term
 Biosphere
Definition
 Relatively thin life-supporting stratum of the earth's surface, extending from a few miles into the atmosphere to the deep-sea vents of the oceans. The biosphere is a global ecosystem
Term
 Ecosystem
Definition
 Complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their interrelationships in a particular unit of space. An ecosystem's abiotic (nonbiological) constituents include minerals, climate, soil, water, sunlight, and all other nonliving elements; its biotic constituents consist of all its living members.
Term
 Communities
Definition
 an interacting population of various kinds of individuals (as species) in a common location
Term
 Populations
Definition
 the organisms inhabiting a particular locality
Term
 Organisms
Definition
 a living being
Term
 Organs and organ systems
Definition
 a differentiated structure (as a heart or kidney) consisting of two or more tissues and performing some specific function in an organism
Term
 Tissues
Definition
 a group of cells usually of a particular kind together with their intercellular substance that form one of the structural materials of a plant or an animal and that in animals include connective tissue, epithelium, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue
Term
 cells
Definition
 the basic unit of which all living things are composed; the smallest structural unit of living matter that is able to function independently
Term
 Organelles
Definition
 one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.
Term
 molecules
Definition
 the smallest particle of a substance that retains all the properties of the substance and is composed of one or more atoms
Term
 Producers
Definition
 plants and other photosynthetic organisms that convert light energy to chemical energy.
Term
 consumers
Definition
 Organisms, such as animals, that feed on producers and other consumers.
Term
 deoxyribonucleic acid
Definition
 DNA
Term
 DNA
Definition
 substance of genes, the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offsrping
Term
 genes
Definition
 Unit of heredity that occupies a fixed position on a chromosome.
Term
 Genome
Definition
 The entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits.
Term
 eukaryotic cell
Definition
 subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles, including the chloroplasts. Contains a nucleus.
Term
 prokaryotic cell
Definition
 DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by membranes. NO NUCLEUS.
Term
 system
Definition
 a combination of components can form a more complex organization called a ______
Term
 emergent properties
Definition
 any unique property that "emerges" when component objects are joined together in constraining relations to "construct" a higher-level aggregate object, a novel property that unpredictably comes from a combination of two simpler constituents
Term
 reductionism
Definition
 reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study.
Term
 systems biology
Definition
 to model the dynamic behavior of biological systems.
Term
 High-throughput technology
Definition
 mega-data-collection methods(example: automatic DNA-sequencing machines that made the Human Genome Project possible)
Term
 bioinformatics
Definition
 Huge databases that result from high-throughput methods.
Term
 Interdisciplinary research teams
Definition
 team of diverse specialists, including engineers, medical scientists, chemists, physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, and of course, biologists from a variety of fields.
Term
 negative feedback
Definition
 Most common form of feedback in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process.
Term
 Positive feedback
Definition
 Less common in which an end product speeds up its production.
Term
 domain Bacteria
Definition
 Most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among multiple kingdoms.
Term
 domain Archaea
Definition
 Live in Earth's extreme environments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs. This domain includes multiple kingdoms. Prokaryotes
Term
 domain Eukarya
Definition
 To include Protists, Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Fungi and Kingdom Animalia. Multi-cellular organisms.
Term
 Inquiry
Definition
 A search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions.
Term
 Discovery Science
Definition
 descriptive science
Term
 data
Definition
 Recorded observations
Term
 discovery science
Definition
 describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data.
Term
 Inductive Reasoning
Definition
 Deriving generalizations based on a large number of specific observations.
Term
 Deductive Reasoning
Definition
 Hypothesis based - Predictions, experiments, observations.
Term
 Controlled experiment
Definition
 an experimental group is compared with a control group
Term
 Models
Definition
 diagrams, graphs, three-dimensional objects, computer programs or mathematical equations.
Term
 Newton's first law
Definition
 Every object continues in its state of rest, or a uniform speed in a straight line, unless acted on by a nonzero force.
Term
 Newton's second law
Definition
 The acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the net force, is in the same direction as the net force and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Term
 Newton's third law
Definition
 Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.
Term
 scalar quantity
Definition
 a quantity that can be described by magnitude only, a quantity not involving direction.
Term
 vector
Definition
 A quantity, such as the velocity of an object or the force acting on an object, that has both magnitude and direction.
Term
 resultant
Definition
 the sum of two or more vectors
Term
 The law of conservation of momentum
Definition
 In the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged.
Term
 the law of conservation of energy
Definition
 In the absence of external work input or output, the energy of a system remains unchanged. Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Term
 tangential velocity
Definition
 Velocity that is parallel to a curved path.
Term
 gravitational force
Definition
 The attractive force between objects due to mass.
Term
 inverse-square law
Definition
 the intensity of the light decreases as the inverse square of the distance - Gravity gets weaker with distance.
Term
 centripetal force
Definition
 Any force that is directed at right angles to the path of a moving object and that tends to produce circular motion. "center-seeking" or "toward the center"
Term
 parabola
Definition
 The curved path followed by a projectile near the Earth under the influence of gravity only.
Term
 escape speed
Definition
 The speed that a projectile, space probe, or similar object must reach in order to escape the gravitational influence of the Earth or of another celestial body to which it is attracted.
Term
 absolute zero
Definition
 The theoretical temperature at which a substance possesses no thermal energy.
Term
 Calorie
Definition
 The amount of heat associated with changing 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.
Term
 conduction
Definition
 The transfer of thermal energy by molecular and electronic collisions within a substance (dspecially within a solid.)
Term
 Convection
Definition
 The transfer of thermal energy in a gas or liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid. The fluid flows, carrying energy with it.
Term
 Entropy
Definition
 The measure of the energy dispersal of a system. Whenever energy freely transforms from one form to another, the direction of transformation is toward a state of greater disorder and, therefore, toward one of greater entropy.
Term
 First law of thermodynamics
Definition
 A restatement of the law of energy conservation, usually as it applies to systems involving changes in temperature: Whenever heat flows into or out of a system, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred.
Term
 Heat
Definition
 The thermal energy that flows from a substance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature, commonly measured in calories of joules.
Term
Definition
 The transfer of energy by means of electromagnetic waves.
Term
 Second law of thermodynamics
Definition
 Heat never spontaneously flows from a low-temperature substance to a high-temperature substance. Also, all systems tend to become more and more disordered as time goes by.
Term
 Specific heat capacity
Definition
 The quantity of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 A measure of the hotness or coldness of substances, related to the average translational kinetic energy per molecule in a substance; measured in degrees Celsius, or in degrees Fahrenheit, or in kelvins.
Term
 Thermal energy (or internal energy)
Definition
 The total energy (kinetic plus potential) of the submicroscopic particles that make up a substance.
Term
 Thermodynamics
Definition
 The study of heat and its transformation to different forms of energy.
Term
 Third law of thermodynamics
Definition
 No system can reach absolute zero.
Term
 Alternating current
Definition
 Electric current that repeatedly reverses its direction; the electric charges vibrate about relatively fixed positions.
Term
 Conductor
Definition
 Any material having free charged particles that easily flow through it hen an electric force acts on them.
Term
 Coulomb
Definition
 The SI unit of electrical charge.
Term
 Coulomb's Law
Definition
 The relationship among force, charge, and distance.
Term
 Direct current (DC)
Definition
 An electric current flowing in one direction only.
Term
 Electric Current
Definition
 The flow of electric charge that transports energy from one place to another. Measure in amperes.
Term
 Electric field
Definition
 Defined as force per unit charge, it can be considered to be an energetic "aura" surrounding charged objects.
Term
 Electric potential
Definition
 The electric potential energy per amount of charge, measured in volts, and often called voltage.
Term
 Electric Potential energy
Definition
 The energy a charge possesses by virtue of its location in an electric field.
Term
 Electric power
Definition
 The rate of energy transfer, or rate of ding work; the amount of energy per unit time, which can be measured by the product of current and voltage, measured in watts.
Term
 Electric resistance
Definition
 The property of a material that resists the flow of electric charge through it. It is measured in ohms.
Term
 Electrically polarized
Definition
 Term applied to an atom or molecule in which the charges are aligned so that one side has a slight excess of positive charge and the other side a slight excess of negative charge.
Term
 electromagnet
Definition
 A magnet whose field is produced by an electric current. It is usually in the form of a wire coil with a piece of iron inside the coil.
Term
 Electromagnetic induction
Definition
 The induction of voltage when a magnetic feild changes with time.
Term
 Electrostatics
Definition
 The study of electric charge at rest (not in motion, as in electric currents).
Term
Definition
 An electric field is induced in any region of space in which a magnetic field is changing with time. The magnitude of the induced electric field is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic field changes. The direction of the induced field is at right angles to the changing magnetic field.
Term
 Insulator
Definition
 Any material without free charged particles and through which current does not easily flow.
Term
 Magnetic domains
Definition
 Clustered regions of aligned magnetic atoms. When these regions themselves are aligned with one another, the substance containing them is a magnet.
Term
 Magnetic field
Definition
 The region of magnetic influence around a magnetic pole or around a moving charged particle.
Term
 Magnetic force
Definition
 (1) Between magnets, it is the attraction of unlike magnetic poles for each other and the repulsion between like magnetic poles. (2) Between a magnetic field and a moving charge, it is a deflecting force due to the motion of the charge; the deflecting force is perpendicular to the velocity of the charge and perpendicular to the magnetic field lines.
Term
Definition
 A magnetic field is induced in any region of space in which an electric field is changing with time. The magnitude of the induced magnetic field is proportional to the rate at which the electric field changes. The direction of the induced magnetic field is at right angles to the changing electric field.
Term
 Ohm's Law
Definition
 The statement that the current in a circuit varies in direct proportion to the potential difference of voltage and inversely with the resistance.
Term
 Parallel circuit
Definition
 An electric circuit with two or more devices connected in such a way that the same voltage acts across each one, and any single on e completes the circuit independently of all the others.
Term
 Potential difference
Definition
 The difference in potential between two points, measured in volts, and often called voltage difference.
Term
 Semiconductor
Definition
 A material that can be made to behave sometimes as an insulator and sometimes as a conductor.
Term
 Series circuit
Definition
 An electric circuit with devices connected in such a way that the same electric current exists in all of them.
Term
 Fact
Definition
 A phenomenon about which competent observers can agree.
Term
 Resultant
Definition
 The net result of a combination of two or more vectors.
Term
 Terminal Speed
Definition
 The speed at which the acceleration of a falling object stops when air resistance balances weight.
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