# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

ILS
First Semester Final Review
107
Science
07/09/2013

Term
 What is the scientific method and all of its steps?
Definition
 A series of steps used to approach a problem.   1. Question 2. Problem     3. Hypothesis     4. Experiment    5. Conclusion
Term
 What is a controlled experiment? Why is it important?
Definition
 The experiment that has no change. The controlled variable and the experimental are kept at the same similarities
Term
 Convert the following into scientific notation: 3.1 X 107
Definition
 31,000,000
Term
 What are all the basic SI (metric) units for mass, temperture, length, and volume?
Definition
 Mass = Grams Temperture = Celsius Volume = Liters Length = Meters
Term
 Know the values and meanings of kilo, hecto, deka, deci, centi, and milli.
Definition
 Kilo =  k, 1,000; 103 Hecto = h, 100, 102 Deka = da, 10, 101 Deci = d, 0.1, 10-1 Centi = c, 0.01, 10-2 Milli = m, 0.001, 10-3
Term
 Know the basic tools for measuring mass, temperature, length, voulume, and etc.
Definition
 Mass = Balance Beam Volume = Beaker, Flask, Pipette, Burette, and Graduated Cylinder Temperature = Thermometers Length = Rulers
Term
 What is the conservation of mass? Why is it important?
Definition
 Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Term
 What is a light year?
Definition
 a unit of astronomical distance that light travels in one year
Term
 What is the big bang theory?
Definition
 The big bang theory is the whole universe was in hot dense state 13.7 billion years ago the universe started with a big bang
Term
 Be able to calculate speed, velocity, distance, time, and acceleration.
Definition
 Speed = d/t Velocity = d/t Distance = s x t Time = d/s Acceleration = f/m
Term
 How long does it take for the moon to go through its phases? To travel around the Earth?
Definition
 27.3 days to orbit earth and regular is 29.5
Term
 What are Newtons 3 laws Of motion? Give examples for each.
Definition
 1. And object in motion/rest will stay in motion/rest unless acted upon by an outside force. 2. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting upon it. 3. For every action there's an equal but opposite reaction
Term
 In the compound Al2(SO4)3, how many atoms I are in the compound? How many oxygen atoms?
Definition
 9 and 4
Term
 Tell me which of the following are physical or chemical changes: freezing point, density, rusting iron, cooking eggs, burning wood, dissolving salt, and buoyancy.
Definition
 Physical:Freezing point, density, rusting iron Chemical:cooking eggs, dissolving salt, burning wood, buoyancy
Term
 What is always true about density of a substance?
Definition
 The density of a substance varies with the samples of that substance.
Term
 Explain the difference between a pure substance and a mixture.
Definition
 A pure substance is any type of material a mixture is substance made by mixing other substances together.
Term
 What are the parts of a solution?
Definition
 air, koolaid
Term
 What are the ways you can dissolve a solute faster? Give all three and how they change the process.
Definition
 increase temperature, surface air, and stir faster and put pressure.
Term
 Know the history up through modern atomic theory and then tell me the location of the electron, proton, and neutron.
Definition
 Electron outside the nucleus, protons and neutrons inside the nucleus
Term
 Know how to find the number of protons, electrons, and nuetrons off the periodic table.
Definition
 protons and electrons are the atomic number and neutrons plus protons equal the atomic mass
Term
 Be able to compare and contrast elements off the periodic table.
Definition
 Group one is alkali metals and Boron is a metalloiod
Term
 Know the trends of the periodic table families: alkali metals, alkali earth metals, transition metals, halogens, semiconductors/metalloid, and noble gases.
Definition
 Alkali metal are the first group
Term
 Why do atoms have no electric charge?
Definition
 Since there are an equal of positively charged particles and negatively charged particles then the net charge is zero.
Term
 Why is a mixture different from a compound?
Definition
 a mixture is two different substances while a compound are substances that are chemically bonded to each other.
Term
 Elements on the periodic table are organized by what two things?
Definition
 Groups and Rows
Term
 How do elements bond?
Definition
 An element can donate one or more to another element to make it equal. when it gives off its anion when it gains its cation
Term
 What are two types of bonding?
Definition
 Covalent bonding an dionic bonding.
Term
 How many galaxies exist in the universe?
Definition
 over 125 billion
Term
 What are the main differences between the inner and outter planets in our galaxy?
Definition
 inner planets small size outter planets huge!
Term
 How are galaxies classified?
Definition
 spiral, barred spiral, elliptical and irregular
Term
 Why do we have day and night on earth? Why do we have seasons?
Definition
 we have day and night because the earth rotates on its axis and as it rotates the sun would hit it on some postitions
Term
 How will the sun change as it ages? What would happen to the inner planets?
Definition
 The sun might become a nebula and its starting to expand
Term
 Know the difference the main difference between a heliocentric and geocentic belief.
Definition
 heliocentric is when the sun is the center of the universe while geocentric is when the earth is the center of the universe.
Term
 Approximately how old is the universe?
Definition
 around 14 billion years old
Term
 If an object is at rest, what are its speed, velocity, and acceleration?
Definition
 the speed is 0 the velocity is 0 and the acceleration is 0, since its at rest.
Term
 Tell me what the name of the slope on a distance-time graph or velocity-time graph.
Definition
 distance vs time velocity vs time
Term
 Can you have a negative slope on a graph. Tell me how.
Definition
 yes. when the acceleration is negative. if the slope goes upwards.
Term
 Why is a computer more accurate than a person when timing data.
Definition
 a computer is more accurate then a person because, a computer has a mind of its own. it has all the great minds into one. and us humans dont know many things so a computer can do things faster then humans.
Term
 Matter
Definition
 Anything that has mass and takes up space
Term
 Molecule
Definition
 A very small particle
Term
 Heterogeneous mixture
Definition
 Are also called solutions. two substances that are mixed in equal proportions throughout.
Term
 Pulsar
Definition
 A neutron star (burnt-out star) that emits radio waves which pulse on and off.
Term
 Solution
Definition
 A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. A solution may exist in any phase.
Term
 Solid
Definition
 Has a rigid structure, has true shape, not able to move as easily.
Term
 Atomic number
Definition
 The number of protons. Also the number of electrons.
Term
 Electron
Definition
 Has a negative charge found outside the nucleus
Term
 Chemical symbol
Definition
 1 or 2 letter code for a chemical element
Term
 Speed
Definition
 Distance divided by time
Term
 Net force
Definition
 2 people pushing at different directions the force that is stronger is the net force
Term
 Friction
Definition
 Is the resistive force when two surfaces travel along each other when forced against each other
Term
 Revolution
Definition
 the earth and other planets rotate around the sun
Term
 Heliocentric
Definition
 The sun is the center of the earth
Term
 Elliptical
Definition
 Kepler discovered that the planets go in elliptical orbit
Term
 Evaporation
Definition
 something that dissolves
Term
 Melting Point
Definition
 When a solid changes its state into a liquid
Term
 Metal
Definition
 Conduct heat and electricity very reactive stretched and shaped into wires, or flat shapes
Term
 Accuracy
Definition
 Exactness
Term
 Atom
Definition
 Smallest particle of matter
Term
 Compound
Definition
 Compounds are substances containing atoms that are chemically bonded to each other. Separating the atoms requires a chemical change.
Term
 Homogeneous mixture
Definition
 Are also called solutions two sun
Term
 Supernova
Definition
 A supernova is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. It is pronounced with the plural supernovae or supernovas.
Term
 Solute
Definition
 Substance being dissolved
Term
 Liquid
Definition
 closely packed matter but free to slide past each other, takes shape of container, has mass
Term
 Mass number
Definition
 number of protons plus the number of nuetrons
Term
 Proton
Definition
 Positively charged found outside the nucleus
Term
 Periods
Definition
 Each row is a period. There are 7 periods. Corresponds to the number of rings.
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 Like speed but it just involves direction
Term
 Balanced forces
Definition
 Two forces that are equal in size and opposite in direction
Term
 Perihelion
Definition
 When the Earth is closest to the sun
Term
 Geocentric
Definition
 Everything revolves around the Earth
Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 The controlled experiment. The variable that doesn't change
Term
 Condensation
Definition
 When a gas changes its state into a liquid.
Term
 Freezing point
Definition
 When a liquid becomes a solid
Term
 Non Metal
Definition
 No characteristics of metals.
Term
Definition
 Used for measuring volume
Term
 Element
Definition
 Are substances that are composed of one type of atom. These are the simplest units of matter that are able to retain all properties of matter.
Term
 Pure Substance
Definition
 Any substance that has a fixed composition and definite properties.
Term
 Suspension
Definition
 A heterogeneous mixture of two or more substances. In a suspension very few pieces of solid are spread through a liquid but do not dissolve.
Term
 Red Giant
Definition
 A very large star of high luminosity and low surface temperature.
Term
 Solvent
Definition
 Capable of dissolving another substance
Term
 Gas
Definition
 Smallest state of matter, no shape, fast moving, free to spread in all directions
Term
 Ions
Definition
 an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative charge
Term
 Neutron
Definition
 No charge. Found inside the nucleus.
Term
 Families
Definition
 Each column of the periodic table is a group. The vertical column.
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 a = f/m
Term
 Unbalanced Forces
Definition
 Increase in the rate or speed of something.
Term
 Aphelion
Definition
 When the Earth is farthest from the sun.
Term
 Parallax
Definition
 An apparent change in direction of an object, caused by a in observational position that provides a new sight.
Term
Definition
 Directed or moving backward
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 The output or the effect or is tested to see if it is the affect
Term
 Boiling Point
Definition
 A point at which a liquid turns into vapor
Term
 Density
Definition
 The degree of a compactness of a substance
Term
 Metalliod
Definition
 When elements have characteristics of metals and non-metals
Term
 Perisuan
Definition
Term
 Aristotle
Definition
 All the planets revolve around the sun
Term
 Newton
Definition
 Was the one who discovered the 3 laws of motion
Term
 Mendeleev
Definition
 Arranged and made the periodic table
Term
 Dalton
Definition
 According to Dalton all atoms of a given element were exactly alike and atoms of different elements could join and form compounds.
Term
 Kepler
Definition
 Discovered the place that is closest to the sun is perihelion and the place that is farthest is aphelion
Term
 Eratosthenes
Definition
 Calculated the earths circumference and knew the summer solstice
Term
 JJ Thompson
Definition
 Thompsons cathoderay tube experiment suggested that cathodes rays were made of negatively charged particles that came from inside atoms.
Term
 Copernicus
Definition
 Formed the heliocentric model earth rotates at its azis
Term
 Rutherford
Definition
 Proposed that most of the mass of an atom was concentrated at the atoms center.
Term
 Ptomely
Definition
 The earth is at the center of the universe with the sun, moon, planets, and stars revolving about it in circular orbits.
Term
 Bohr
Definition
 Suggested that energy of each electron was related to the electrons path around the nucleus
Term
 Galileo
Definition
 used telescope relied on venus and wrote dialogue on two great world systems.
Term
 Convert the following measurements: 2500 mm to dkm, 0.034hg to cg
Definition
 0.25
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