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Additional English Flashcards




architecture /ˈɑː.kɪ.tek.tʃə r / /ˈɑːr.kɪ.tek.tʃɚ/ noun [ U ]
1. the art and science of designing and making buildings
to study architecture
2. the style in which buildings are made
Roman architecture
centerpiece /ˈsen.tə.piːs/ /-t ̬ɚ-/ noun [ C ]



1. the most important or attractive part or feature of something
The reduction of crime levels is the centrepiece of the president's domestic policies.
The centrepiece of the shopping centre is a giant fountain.
centrepiece UK , US centerpiece /ˈsen.tə.piːs/ /-t ̬ɚ-/ noun [ C ] DECORATION
2. a decorative object put in the centre of a table, especially for a formal meal
clog /klɒg/ /klɑːg/ verb [ I or T ] -gg-
to (cause something to) become blocked or filled so that movement or activity is difficult
The roads are clogged with holiday traffic.
Eating too much fat causes your arteries to clog (up) .
Leaves are clogging (up) the drain.
clogged /klɒgd/ /klɑːgd/ adjective
clogged pipes

clog /klɒg/ /klɑːg/ noun [ C usually plural ]

a type of shoe made of wood, or with the top part made of leather and the bottom part of wood
decorate /ˈdek.ə.reɪt/ verb


MAKE ATTRACTIVE 1. [ T ] to add something to an object or place, especially in order to make it more attractive

They decorated the wedding car with ribbons and flowers.
2. [ I or T ] to paint the inside or outside of a house or put paper on the inside walls
We're going to decorate the kitchen next week.
I hate the smell of paint when I'm decorating.


decorate /ˈdek.ə.reɪt/ verb HONOUR
3. [ T ] to reward or honour a person by giving them something, especially a medal
They were decorated for their part in the rescue.


destruction /dɪˈstrʌk.ʃ ə n/ noun [ U ]

when something is destroyed

Many people are very concerned about the destruction of the rainforests.
Unusually high winds left a trail of destruction over southern Britain.
weapons of mass destruction (= those which kill or hurt large numbers of people)
disruptive /dɪsˈrʌp.tɪv/ adjective
causing trouble and therefore stopping something from continuing as usual
His teacher described him as a noisy, disruptive influence in class.

disruptively /dɪsˈrʌp.tɪ adverb

expand /ɪkˈspænd/ verb [ I or T ]


to increase in size, number or importance, or to make something increase in this way

The air in the balloon expands when heated.
They expanded their retail operations during the 1980s.

expand on sth phrasal verb

to give more details about something you have said or written
She mentioned a few ideas, but she didn't expand on them.
headquarters /ˌhedˈkwɔː.təz/ /-ˌkwɔːr.t ̬ɚz/ noun [ C + sing/pl verb ] plural headquarters ( abbreviation HQ )

the main offices of an organization such as the army, police or a business company

The company's headquarters is/are in Amsterdam.
intrinsic /ɪnˈtrɪn.zɪk/ adjective
being an extremely important and basic characteristic of a person or thing
works of little intrinsic value/interest
Maths is an intrinsic part of the school curriculum.

intrinsically /ɪnˈtrɪn.zɪ.kli/ adverb

operation /ˌɒp. ə rˈeɪ.ʃ ə n/ /ˌɑː.pəˈreɪ-/ noun


WORK1. [ U ] the fact of operating or being active

There are several reactors of the type in operation (= working) at the moment.
We expect the new scheme for assessing claims to come into operation (= start working) early next year.
2. [ U ] the way that parts of a machine or system work together, or the process of making parts of a machine or system work together
3. [ C ] a business organization
Less profitable business operations will have difficulty in finding financial support.
4. [ C ] an activity which is planned to achieve something
a military/peacekeeping operation.
Following the earthquake, a large-scale rescue operation was launched .
[ + to infinitive ] The operation to fly in supplies will begin as soon as possible.



pedestrian /pəˈdes.tri.ən/ noun [ C ]

a person who is walking, especially in an area where vehicles go
A few pedestrians carrying their evening shopping sheltered from the rain in doorways.
The death rate for pedestrians hit by cars is unacceptably high.
release /rɪˈliːs/ verb [ T ]

MAKE FREE 1. to give freedom or free movement to someone or something

He was released from prison after serving two years of a five-year sentence.
She was arrested for shoplifting but was released on bail (= after paying a sum of money to the law court) .figurative The operation released him from years of pain.2. to move a device from a fixed position to allow it to move freely He released the handbrake and the car jumped forwards. 3. to fire a bomb or a missile, or to allow it to fall The plane released its bombs at 10 000 feet.4. to allow a substance to flow out from somewhere Coal power stations release sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere. Hormones are released from glands into the bloodstream. 5. to express a feeling which you have been trying not to show He punched the pillow in an effort to release his anger.
release /rɪˈliːs/ verb [ T ]


6. to allow something to be shown in public or to be available for use
Police have released a picture of the man they want to question.
The minister has released a statement explaining the reasons for his resignation.
7. If a company releases a film or musical recording, it allows the film to be shown in cinemas, or makes the musical recording available for the public to buy
The band's latest album will be released next week.
rival /ˈraɪ.v ə l/ noun [ C ]


a person, group, etc. competing with others for the same thing or in the same area

He beat his closest/nearest rival by 20 marks.
The companies produce rival versions of the toy.

rival /ˈraɪ.v ə l/ verb [ T ] -ll- or US USUALLY -l-

to be as good, clever, beautiful, etc. as someone or something else No computer can rival a human brain for/in complexity. The beauty of the country is only rivalled by (= is equal to) the violence of its politics.

shield /ʃiːld/ noun [ C ]


1. in the past, a large flat object made of metal or leather that soldiers held in front of their bodies to protect themselves 2. a large flat object made of strong plastic that policemen hold in front of their bodies to protect themselvesThe police held up their riot shields against the flying rocks and bricks. 3. something or someone used as protection or providing protection The anti-personnel mines were laid as a protective shield around the town. Anger can function as a shield against (= a way of avoiding) even more painful emotions of loss and hurt. 4. a flat object with two straight sides, a rounded or pointed lower edge and usually a straight top edge, on which there is a coat of arms 5. an object shaped like a shield, which is given as a prize or used as a symbol or badge Our school won the county football shield this year.


showcase /ˈʃəʊ.keɪs/ /ˈʃoʊ-/ noun [ C ]

CONTAINER 1. a container with glass sides in which valuable or important objects are kept so that they can be looked at without being touched, damaged or stolen

showcase /ˈʃəʊ.keɪs/ /ˈʃoʊ-/ noun [ C ] OPPORTUNITY
2. a situation or event which makes it possible for the best features of something to be seen
The Venice Film Festival has always been the showcase of Italian cinema.
The exhibition is an annual showcase for British design and innovation.
showcase /ˈʃəʊ.keɪs/ /ˈʃoʊ-/ verb [ T ]to show the best qualities or parts of something
The main aim of the exhibition is to showcase British design.


spring up verb

to appear

surface /ˈː.fɪs/ /ˈː-/ noun

TOP 1. [ C ] the outer or top part or layer of something

Tropical rain forests used to cover 10% of the Earth's surface.
The marble has a smooth, shiny surface.
Neil Armstrong was the first person to set foot on the surface of the moon.
2. [ C ] the top layer of a field or track on which sports are played
The match will be played on an artificial/all-weather surface.
3. [ C ] the flat top part of a table, cupboard, etc.
a work surface
Don't put anything wet on a polished surface, or it will leave a mark.
underground /ˌʌn.dəˈgraʊnd/ /-dɚ-/ adjective , adverb


1. below the surface of the Earth; below ground
an underground cave/passage/cable
Moles live underground.
utilize , UK usually utilise /ˈjuː.tɪ.laɪz/ /-t ̬ ə l.aɪz/ verb [ T ] formal
to use something in an effective way
The vitamins come in a form that is easily utilized by the body.
utilizable , UK usually utilisable /ˈjuː.tɪ.laɪ.zə.bl ̩/ /-t ̬ ə l.aɪ-/ adjective

utilization , UK usually utilisation /ˌjuː.tɪ.laɪˈzeɪ.ʃ ə n/ /-t ̬ ə l.ɪ-/ noun [ U ]

Sensible utilization of the world's resources is a priority.
vent /vent/ noun


1. [ C ] a small opening which allows air, smoke or gas to enter or leave a closed space
If you have a gas fire in a room, you should have some kind of outside vent.
2. [ C ] a cut in the bottom of a piece of clothing to allow the person wearing it to move more easily
The skirt is long and straight with two side vents.
accelerate /əkˈsel.ə.reɪt/ /-ɚ.eɪt/ verb
1. [ I ] When a vehicle or its driver accelerates, the speed of the vehicle increases
I accelerated to overtake the bus.
Compare decelerate
2. [ I ] If a person or object accelerates, it goes faster.
3. [ I or T ] to happen or make something happen sooner or faster
Inflation is likely to accelerate this year, adding further upward pressure on interest rates.
They use special chemicals to accelerate the growth of crops.
appeal ˈpiːl/ verb

ATTRACT 4. [ I not continuous ] to interest or attract someone

I've haven't been skiing - it's never really appealed.
It's a programme designed to appeal mainly to 16 to 25 year-olds.
I think what appeals to me about his painting is the colours he uses.

charge /tʃɑːdʒ/ /tʃɑːrdʒ/ noun



10. [ C usually singular ] specialized the amount of electricity that an electrical device stores or that a substance carries
11. on charge
UK If something is on charge, you are putting an amount of electricity into it
Is it all right to leave/put the battery on charge overnight?
classify /ˈklæs.ɪ.faɪ/ verb [ T ]

to divide things into groups according to their type
The books in the library are classified by/according to subject.
Biologists classify animals and plants into different groups.

classifiable /ˈklæs.ɪ.faɪ.ə.bl ̩/ adjective


commuter /kəˈmjuː.tə r / /-t ̬ɚ/ noun [ C ]

someone who regularly travels between work and home
The train was packed with commuters.
consume /kənˈsjuːm/ /-ˈsuːm/ verb [ T ]

USE RESOURCE 1. to use fuel, energy or time, especially in large amounts Our high living standards cause our present population to consume 25 percent of the world's oil.

2. formal to eat or drink, especially a lot of something He consumes vast quantities of chips with every meal. consume /kənˈsjuːm/ /-ˈsuːm/ verb [ T ] DESTROY
3. If a fire consumes something, it destroys it completely.
4. be consumed by/with sth
to have so much of a feeling that it affects everything you do
He was consumed with jealousy.
As a teenager, I was consumed by passion for the boy next door.
embrace /ɪmˈbreɪs/ verb

ACCEPT 1. [ T ] formal to accept something enthusiastically

This was an opportunity that he would embrace.
HOLD 2. [ I or T ] literary to hold someone tightly with both arms to express love, liking or sympathy, or when greeting or leaving someone
She saw them embrace on the station platform.
He leant over to embrace the child.
 INCLUDE 3. [ T ] formal to include something, often as one of a number of things
Linguistics embraces a diverse range of subjects such as phonetics and stylistics.

flair /fleə r / /fler/ noun

1. [ S ] natural ability to do something well
He has a flair for languages.
2. [ U ] when something is done in an exciting and interesting way
He played with great imagination and flair.
It's a competent enough piece of writing but it lacks flair.

fume /fjuːm/ verb [ I ]

to be very angry, sometimes without expressing it
I saw her a week after they'd had the argument and she was still fuming.
The whole episode left me fuming at the injustice of it all.
hamper /ˈhæm.pə r / /-pɚ/ verb [ T ]


to prevent someone doing something easily
Fierce storms have been hampering rescue efforts and there is now little chance of finding more survivors.

hamper /ˈhæm.pə r / /-pɚ/ noun [ C ]

1. a large rectangular container with a lid
a picnic hamper
2. UK a box containing food and drink, usually given as a present, for example at Christmas
3. US old-fashioned a container used for carrying dirty clothes and bed sheets and for storing them while they are waiting to be washed


incentive /ɪnˈsen.tɪv/ /-t ̬ɪv/ noun [ C or U ]

something which encourages a person to do something

Tax incentives have been very effective in encouraging people to save and invest more of their income.
[ + to infinitive ] There is little incentive for people to leave their cars at home when public transport remains so expensive.
Bonus payments provide an incentive to work harder.
marked /mɑːkt/ /mɑːrkt/ adjective
describes a change or difference in behaviour or a situation that is very obvious or noticeable
There was a marked improvement in my health when I gave up smoking.
Unemployment has fallen again, although the change is less marked than last month.
The president spoke with passion for an hour, in marked contrast to his subdued address to the parliament yesterday.

markedly /ˈː.kɪ /ˈːr-/ adverb

Eye-witness accounts of the fighting differ markedly from police reports of what happened.
monetary /ˈmʌn.ɪ.tri/ adjective

relating to the money in a country

monetary policy
monetary control
The monetary unit of the UK is the pound.
plod /plɒd/ /plɑːd/ verb [ I + adv/prep ] -dd- 

WALK 1. to walk taking slow steps, as if your feet are heavy

We plodded through the mud.
Despite the wind and the rain, they plodded on until they reached the cottage.
 WORK 2. to work slowly and continuously, but without imagination, enthusiasm or interest
For years, he's plodded away at the same dull routine job.
Alex is just plodding along at school, making very little progress.
plodder /ˈplɒd.ə r / /ˈplɑː.dɚ/ noun [ C ]
Dennis is a bit of a plodder, but he gets the job done in the end.
plodding /ˈplɒd.ɪŋ/ /ˈplɑː.dɪŋ/ adjective
rural /ˈrʊə.rəl/ /ˈrʊr. ə l/ adjective

in, of or like the countryside

The area is still very rural and undeveloped.
Compare urban
span /spæn/ verb


To cross


3. [ T ] -nn- If a bridge spans a river, it goes from one side to the other
An old bridge spans the river just outside the town.


sprawl /sprɔːl/ /sprɑːl/ verb disapproving

BODY 1. [ I ] to spread the arms and legs out carelessly and untidily while sitting or lying down

I knocked into her in the corridor and sent her sprawling (= knocked her over) .
 CITY 2. [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] (especially of a city) to cover a large area of land with buildings which have been added at different times so that it looks untidy 
The refugee camps sprawl across the landscape.
sprawled /sprɔːld/ /sprɑːld/ adjective [ after verb ]
He was sprawled ( out) on the floor.
sprawling /ˈsprɔː.lɪŋ/ /ˈsprɑː-/ adjective
sprawling suburbs
sprawl /sprɔːl/ /sprɑːl/ noun disapproving


1. [ U ] a position with the arms and legs spread out carelessly and untidily while sitting or lying down

sprawl /sprɔːl/ /sprɑːl/ noun disapproving CITY

2. [ C usually singular ] a large area of land covered with buildings which have been added at different times so that it looks untidy
the urban sprawl of South Florida

suburban /səˈː.b ə n/ /-ˈː-/ adjective

1. relating to a suburb suburban schools/housin. They live in suburban Washington. 2. disapproving used to suggest that something is boring and has no excitement
suburban life suburb /ˈsʌb.ɜːb/ /-ɝːb/ noun
1. [ C ] an area on the edge of a large town or city where people who work in the town or city often live
Box Hill is a suburb of Melbourne.
We drove from middle-class suburbs to a very poor inner-city area.
2. the suburbs; the outer area of a town, rather than the shopping and business centre in the middle The company decided to relocate to the suburbs because the rent was much cheaper.
urban /ˈɜː.b ə n/ /ˈɝː-/ adjective [ before noun ]

of or in a city or town

urban development
urban decay
Compare rural
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