# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

IEB PHYSICS FLASH
Definitions
89
Physics
05/11/2022

Term
 VECTOR
Definition
 physical quantity that has both magnitude and direction and give examples
Term
 SCALAR
Definition
 a physical quantity that has magnitude only and give examples
Term
 RESULTANT VECTOR
Definition
 the single vector which has the same effect as the original vectors acting together
Term
 DISTANCE
Definition
 as the length of path travelled and know that distance is a scalar quantity
Term
 DISPLACEMENT
Definition
 a change in position (vector quantity that points from the initial to the final position)
Term
 SPEED
Definition
 the rate of change of distance and know that speed is a scalar quantity
Term
 VELOCITY
Definition
 the rate of change of position or the rate of displacement or the rate of change of displacement and know that velocity is a vector quantity
Term
 ACCELERATION
Definition
 the rate of change of velocity
Term
 WEIGHT
Definition
 the gravitational force the Earth exerts on any object on or near its surface
Term
 NORMAL FORCE
Definition
 the perpendicular force exerted by a surface on an object in contact with it
Term
 FRICTIONAL FORCE
Definition
 the force that opposes the motion of an object and acts parallel to the surface with which the object is in contact
Term
 MAXIMUM STATIC FRICTION
Definition
 The point of friction just before an object starts to move
Term
 NEWTON'S FIRST LAW
Definition
 An object continues in a state of rest or uniform (moving with constant) velocity unless it is acted upon by a net or resultant force
Term
 INERTIA
Definition
 the property of an object that causes it to resist a change in its state of rest or uniform motion
Term
 NEWTON'S SECOND LAW
Definition
 When a net force, Fnet, is applied to an object of mass, m, it accelerates in the direction of the net force. The acceleration, a, is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass
Term
 NEWTON'S THIRD LAW
Definition
 When object A exerts a force on object B, object B simultaneously exerts an oppositely directed force of equal magnitude on object A
Term
 Force of donkey on cart in direction of motion
Definition
 Identify action-reaction pairs (e.g. for a donkey pulling a cart, for a book on a table)
Term
 vs
Definition
Term
 Force of cart on donkey in opposite direction.
Definition
Term
 LINEAR MOMENTUM
Definition
 the product of the mass and velocity of the object. (vector and is the same direction as the velocity vector)
Term
 NEWTON'S SECOND LAW IN TERMS OF MOMENTUM
Definition
 The net force acting on an object is equal to the rate of change of momentum. (Note: there are two acceptable statements of Newton's Second Law)
Term
 ISOLATED SYSTEM
Definition
 Explain that an________ is one that has no net external force acting on it
Term
 LAW OF CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM
Definition
 The total linear momentum in a closed system stays conserved
Term
 ELASTIC COLLISION
Definition
 a collision in which both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved
Term
 INELASTIC COLLISION
Definition
 a collision in which only momentum is conserved
Term
 IMPULSE (J)
Definition
 the product of the net force and the contact time. ( impulse is a vector quantity and is in the same direction as the net force vector)
Term
 #NAME?
Definition
 Impulse =
Term
Definition
 Apply the concept of impulse in everyday life, e.g. airbags, catching a hard ball
Term
 WORK DONE ON AN OBJECT BY A FORCE
Definition
 the product of the displacement and the component of the force parallel to the displacement . (work is a scalar quantity and is measured in joules (J))
Term
 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY
Definition
 the energy an object possesses due to its position relative to a reference point
Term
 KINETIC ENERGY
Definition
 the energy an object has as a result of the object's motion
Term
 MECHANICAL ENERGY
Definition
 the sum of gravitational potential and kinetic energy at a point
Term
 THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Definition
 the total energy in a system cannot be created nor destroyed; only transformed from one form to another
Term
 THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY
Definition
 In the absence of air resistance or any external forces, the mechanical energy of an object is constant
Term
 WORK-ENERGY THEOREM
Definition
 State that the work done by a net force on an object is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the object
Term
 POWER
Definition
 the rate at which work is done or the rate at which energy is transferred
Term
 WATT (W)
Definition
 the power when one joule of work is done in one second. (1 W = 1 J
Term
 EFFICIENCY
Definition
 the ratio of output power to input power
Term
 NEWTON'S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
Definition
 Every particle with mass in the universe attracts every other particle with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres
Term
 WEIGHT
Definition
 the gravitational force the Earth exerts on any object on or near its surface
Term
 GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
Definition
 a region in space where a mass will experience a force
Term
 (DESCRIBE)
Definition
Term
 GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
Definition
 the force acting per unit mass where F is the force experienced by mass m in a gravitational field g
Term
 (DEFINE)
Definition
Term
 COULOMB'S LAW
Definition
 Two point charges in free space or air exert forces on each other. The force is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges
Term
 ELECTRIC FIELD
Definition
 a region of space in which an electric charge experiences a force. The direction of the electric field at a point is the direction that a positive test charge would move if placed at that point
Term
 (DESCRIBE)
Definition
Term
 ELECTRIC FIELD AT A POINT
Definition
 the force per unit positive charge
Term
 (DEFINE)
Definition
Term
 POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
Definition
 the work done per unit positive charge
Term
 CURRENT
Definition
 the rate of flow of charge
Term
 OHM'S LAW
Definition
 Current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the conductor at constant temperature
Term
 OHMIC CONDUCTOR
Definition
Term
 NON-OHMIC CONDUCTOR
Definition
Term
 RESISTANCE
Definition
 a material's opposition to the flow of electric current
Term
 KILOWATT HOUR (kWh)
Definition
 a unit of energy and that 1 kWh is the amount of energy used when 1 kilowatt of electricity is used for 1 hour
Term
 EMF
Definition
 the total energy supplied per coulomb of charge by the cell
Term
 MAGNETIC FIELD
Definition
 State that a ______ exists around a permanent magnet or a current-carrying conductor
Term
Definition
 Determine the direction of the magnetic field associated with A straight current-carrying conductor
Term
Definition
 Determine the direction of the magnetic field associated with A current-carrying loop (single) coil of wire
Term
Definition
 Determine the direction of the magnetic field associated with A solenoid
Term
Definition
 Determine the direction of the force acting on a current-carrying conductor when the current-carrying conductor is perpendicular to the magnetic field
Term
Definition
 Qualitatively explain the factors that affect the magnitude of the force on a current-carrying conductor using the equation
Term
 ENERGY CONVERTION IN MOTORS
Definition
 electrical energy to mechanical energy
Term
 SPLIT RING COMMUTATOR
Definition
 Explain that a d.c. motor has a
Term
 MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY (B)
Definition
 A representation of the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field
Term
Definition
 the product of the number of turns on the coil and the flux through the coil (N?)
Term
Definition
 The factors affecting the magnitude of the induced emf
Term
Definition
 the emf induced is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux (flux linkage)
Term
 LENZ'S LAW
Definition
 the induced current flows in a direction so as to set up a magnetic field to oppose the change in magnetic flux
Term
Definition
 When given a magnetic flux vs time graph, sketch the corresponding induced emf vs time graph (and vice versa)
Term
 ENERGY CONVERTION IN GENERATORS
Definition
 mechanical energy to electrical energy
Term
Definition
 State with reasons which factors affect the emf induced
Term
 SLIP RINGS
Definition
 AC GENERATORS & MOTORS
Term
Definition
 Show an understanding of the principle of operation of a simple iron-cored transformer
Term
Definition
 Discuss the scientific and economic advantages of high voltages and low currents for the transmission of electrical energy through the national grid
Term
 DIODE
Definition
 a component that only allows current to flow in one direction
Term
 full-wave rectification
Definition
 A bridge rectifier - four diodes are used for the full-wave rectification of an alternating current
Term
 half-wave rectification
Definition
 single diode is used for the half-wave rectification of an alternating current
Term
 SPEED OF LIGHT
Definition
 constant (3
Term
 ENERGY OF A PHOTON
Definition
 State that the ________is directly proportional to the frequency of the light
Term
 1 eV =
Definition
 = 1,6
Term
 PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
Definition
 the process that occurs when light shines on a metal and electrons are ejected
Term
 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
Definition
 it establishes the quantum theory and it illustrates the particle nature of light
Term
 THRESHOLD FREQUENCY
Definition
 the minimum frequency of incident radiation at which electrons will be emitted from a particular metal
Term
 WORK FUNCTION
Definition
 the minimum amount of energy needed to emit an electron from the surface of a metal and know that the work function is material specific
Term
 INTENSITY OF LIGHT WILL INFLUENCE
Definition
 Explain why the number of electrons ejected per second increases with the intensity of the incident radiation provided the frequency is above the threshold frequency
Term
 FREQUENCY OF LIGHT ABOVE THRESHOLD WILL INFLUENCE
Definition
 Explain why if the frequency of the incident radiation is above the threshold frequency, then increasing the frequency of the radiation will increase the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electrons
Term
Definition
 Explain the source of atomic emission spectra (of discharge tubes) and their unique relationship to each element
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