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ID I & II
Nursing Pharm Exam 3
21
Nursing
Undergraduate 3
12/07/2011

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Cards

Term
Penicillin
Definition
infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria including Streptococci and Neisseria

PBP binding cell lysis and death

allergic reactions (minor rash to anaphylaxis), confusion, hallucination, seizure, hyperkalemia, pain at injection site; caution-lactam allergy
Term
Cephalexin
Definition
infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria including Staphylococci and Streptococci

PBP binding cell lysis and death

N,V, maculopapular rash, allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), C.difficilecolitis/diarrhea; caution-lactam allergy
Term
Cefotaxime
Definition
infections caused by susceptible strains of GN bacteria including Neisseria, Hemophilus, Proteus, Salmonella, Klebsiella, and Serratia

PBP bindinggcell lyysis and death

Rash, allergic reaction, thrombophlebitis, resistance, (painful if IM injection); caution-lactam allergy
Term
Imipenem
Definition
infections caused by susceptible strains of GP cocci, GN bacilli and cocci, and mixed aerobic/anaerobic infections

PBP bindinggcell lyysis and death

N,V,D, hypersensitivity (rash, pruritus), seizures, suprainfections; caution-lactam allergy, seizure history
Term
Vancomycin
Definition
Serious infections caused by MRSA or MRSE, or Infections caused by susceptible strains of GP bacteria in patients with -lactamallergy

precursor molecules binding to cell wall & cell lysis/death

Ototoxicity Histamine release (rash, flushing, hypotension, tachycardia), Thrombophlebitis,neutropenia
Term
Gentamicin
Definition
serious infections caused by susceptible strains of GN bacilli

Binding to 30s-ribosomal subunit to disrupt bacteria protein synth

ototoxicity(auditory & vestibular), nephrotoxicity, hypersensitivity reaction
Term
Daptomycin
Definition
infections caused by susceptible GP bacteria

inserts into cell membrane to form a channel that allows K + efflux depolarizes cell, reduces protein synthesis

nausea, constipation, diarrhea, rash, headache, insomnia, myopathy
Term
Erythromycin
Definition
infections caused by susceptible strains of GP and some GN bacteria

binding to 50-S ribosomal subunit to disrupt bacterial protein synthesis

N,V, abd pain, D, thrombophlebitis, hepatotoxicity, ototoxicity, dysrhythmia
Term
Tetracycline
Definition
infections caused by susceptible strains of GP and GN organisms including Ricketts, spirochetes, Chlamydia, Mycloplasma, and Vibrio

binding to 30-S ribosomal subunit to disrupt bacterial protein synthesis

N,V, D, dyspepsia, photosensitivity, fatty liver, tooth discoloration, renal toxicity, suprainfections; avoid in pregnancy, children
Term
Clindamycin
Definition
infections caused by susceptible anaerobes and some strains of GP aerobes

binding to 50-S ribosomal subunit to disrupt bacterial protein synthesis (overlaps macrolide site)

D (including C. difficilepseudo-membranous colitis), hypersensitivity rash, hepatotoxicity, blood dyscrasias, cardiovascular
Term
Linezolid
Definition
severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant strains of GP organisms (e.g., VRE, VISA, MRSA)

binding to 50-S ribosomal subunit (23-S portion) to disrupt bacterial protein synthesis

N, D, headache, bone marrow suppression; avoid in phenylketonurics;
Term
Ciprofloxacin
Definition
infections caused by susceptible GN and some GP organisms

inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, preventing DNA supercoiling

N,V,D, abd pain, dizziness, headache, confusion (seizure?), tendon rupture, candidal overgrowth; avoidif pregnant or < 18 years old; interaction warfarin
Term
Metronidazole
Definition
infections caused by susceptible anaerobes includingg B. fraggilis, C. difficile, and strains of Fusobacterium, Peptococcus, and Peptostreptococcus

causes strand breaks in DNA structure

headache, A, N, dry mouth, metallic taste; avoidfirst trimester of pregnancy; interaction ethanol, warfarin, phenobarbital, phenytoin
Term
Sulfamethoxazole
Definition
infections caused by susceptible GP cocci, GN bacilli

inhibits folic acid synthesis required for growth

hypersensitivity reactions (rash, fever, photosensitivity, SJS), blood dyscrasias, kernicterus, renal failure; avoidif sulfonamide allergy; interaction phenytoin, warfarin, sulfonylureas
Term
Trimethoprim
Definition
infections caused by susceptible GP bacilli and some protozoa

inhibits folic acid synthesis required for growth

rash, itching, N, V, glossitis, stomatitis; avoid in pregnancy and lactation, if folate deficient
Term
CoCo--trimoxazoletrimoxazole
Definition
infections caused by susceptible organisms (from E. colito Yersinia pestis)

synergistic effect on folic acid metabolism

Adverse effects ┬ľN, V, rash, hyperkalemia as well as those AEs due to trimethoprim or sulfamethoxazole alone (e.g., allergy)
Term
Isoniazid
Definition
infections caused by susceptible strains of Myygcobacterium including M. tuberculosis

inhibits mycolic acid needed for cell wall (bactericidal in dividing cells, bacteriostatic in dormant cells)

peripheral neuropathy, hepatotoxicity; interactions phenytoin, ethanol, rifampin, pyrazinamide
Term
Rifampin
Definition
infections caused by susceptible strains of Mycobacterium including M.tuberculosis ;also some GN

inhibits bacterial DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase to decrease RNA and protein synthesis (bactericidal)

ANV, skin reaction, flu-like symptoms,hepatotoxicity, red-orange discoloration of body fluid;
Interactions oral contraceptives, warfarin, protease inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, hepatotoxins
Term
Amphotericin B deoxycholate
Definition
severe systemic infections caused by susceptible strains of ppggathogenic fungi

binds to cell membrane ergosterol to increase permeability fungicidal or fungistatic

infusion-related (F/C, rigor, nausea, headache), nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia, phlebitis
interactions flucytosine, nephrotoxins
Term
Ketoconazole
Definition
systemic (and superficial) infections caused by susceptible strains of pathogenic fungi

inhibits fungal CYP-dependent enzymes in ergosterol synthesis, thereby increasing cell permeability (fungistatic fungicidal

NV, abdominal pain, headache/photophobia, gynecomastia, menstrual irregularities, hepatic necrosis
Term
Clotrimazole
Definition
superficial infections caused by susceptible strains of pathogenic fungi

inhibits fungal CYP-dependent enzymes in ergosterol synthesis

local stinging, erythema, edema, urticaria, pruritus, and peeling
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