# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

IB Physics SL Option D
Assessment Statements
39
Physics
05/11/2011

Term
 D.4.1 State what is meant by an elementaryparticle.
Definition
 Particles are called elementary if they have no internal structure, that is, they are not made out of smaller constituents.
Term
 D.4.2 Identify elementary particles.
Definition
 The classes of elementary particles are quarks, leptons and exchange particles. The Higgs particle could be elementary.
Term
 D.4.3 Describe particles in terms of mass and various quantum numbers.
Definition
 Students must be aware that particles (elementary as well as composite) are specified in terms of their mass and various quantum numbers. They should consider electric charge, spin, strangeness, colour, lepton number and baryon number.
Term
 D.4.4 Classify particles according to spin.
Definition
 Fermions (Leptons and Quarks): 1/2Bosons: 1
Term
 D.4.5 State what is meant by an antiparticle.
Definition
 Has the same mass as its particle but all its quantum numbers are opposite.
Term
 D.4.6 State the Pauli exclusion principle.
Definition
 No two fermions can occupy the same quantum state. No two fermions in the same quantum system can have the same set of quantum numbers as each other.
Term
 D.4.7 List the fundamental interactions.
Definition
 gravitational, electroweak (weak and electromagnetic) and strong (fundamental and residual).
Term
 D.4.8 Describe the fundamental interactions in terms of exchange particles.
Definition
 gravitational: graviton (theoretical)electroweak: W+, W-, Z, photonstrong: gluons, mesons
Term
 D.4.9 Discuss the uncertainty principle for time and energy in the context ofparticle creation.
Definition
 A simple discussion is needed in terms of a particle being created with energy ΔE existing no longer than a time Δt given by ΔEΔt ≥ h/4π.
Term
 D.4.10 Describe what is meant by a Feynmandiagram.
Definition
 Feynman diagrams are used to represent possible particle interactions. The diagrams are used to calculate the overall probability of an interaction taking place.
Term
 D.4.11 Discuss how a Feynman diagram maybe used to calculate probabilities for fundamental processes.
Definition
 In calculating probability in quantum mechanics, it's necessary to add together all the possible ways in which an interaction can take place.
Term
 D.4.12 Describe what is meant by virtualparticles.
Definition
 A particle that appears as an intermediate particle in a Feynman diagram.
Term
 D.4.13 Apply the formula for the range R for interactions involving the exchangeof a particle.
Definition
 Applications include Yukawa’s prediction of the pion or determination of the masses of the W ±, Z 0 from knowledge of the range of the weak interaction.
Term
 D.4.14 Describe pair annihilation andpair production through Feynmandiagrams.
Definition
Term
 D.4.15 Predict particle processes usingFeynman diagrams.
Definition
Term
 D.5.1 List the six types of quark.
Definition
 up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom
Term
 D.5.2 State the content, in terms of quarks and antiquarks, of hadrons (that is, baryons and mesons).
Definition
 E.g. proton: uudantiproton: anti-u anti-u anti-dneutron: uddlambda: udsomega: ssspion: u anti-dkaon: s anti-urho: u anti-dB-zero: d anti-beta-c: c anti-c
Term
 D.5.3 State the quark content of the proton and the neutron.
Definition
 p - uudn - udd
Term
 D.5.4 Define baryon number and applythe law of conservation of baryon number.
Definition
 baryons have baryon number +1,antibaryons have baryon number -1. In all interactions, baryon number is always conserved.
Term
 D.5.5 Deduce the spin structure of hadrons(that is, baryons and mesons).
Definition
Term
 D.5.6 Explain the need for colour in forming bound states of quarks.
Definition
 Students should realize that colour is necessary to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle. The fact that hadrons have no colour is a consequence of confinement.
Term
 D.5.7 State the colour of quarks and gluons.
Definition
 quarks can be red, yellow, or blue. Gluons have eight types.
Term
 D.5.8 Outline the concept of strangeness.
Definition
 It is sufficient for students to know that the strangeness of a hadron is the number of anti‑strange quarks minus the number of strange quarks it contains.Students must be aware that strangeness is conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions, but not always in weak interactions.
Term
 D.5.9 Discuss quark confinement.
Definition
 Students should know that isolated quarks and gluons (that is, particles with colour) cannot be observed. The strong (colour) interaction increases with separation. More hadrons are produced when sufficient energy is supplied to a hadron in order to isolate a quark.
Term
 D.5.10 Discuss the interaction that binds nucleons in terms of the colour forcebetween quarks.
Definition
 It is sufficient to know that the interaction between nucleons is the residual interaction between the quarks in the nucleons and that this is a short-range interaction.
Term
 D.1.1 Describe what is meant by a frame ofreference.
Definition
 A three-dimensional coordinate system.
Term
 D.1.2 Describe what is meant by a Galileantransformation.
Definition
 Using measurements in one frame of reference to work out the measurements that would be recorded in another frame of reference.
Term
 D.1.3 Solve problems involving relative velocities using the Galilean transformation equations.
Definition
Term
 D.2.1 Describe what is meant by an inertial frame of reference.
Definition
 A frame of reference in which Newton's laws apply. The observer is not accelerating.
Term
 D.2.2 State the two postulates of the special theory of relativity.
Definition
 The speed of light in a vacuum is constant for all inertial observers.Laws of physics are the same for all inertial observers.
Term
 D.2.3 Discuss the concept of simultaneity.
Definition
 Students should know that two events occurring at different points in space and which are simultaneous for one observer cannot be simultaneous for another observer in a different frame of reference. Similarly, simultaneous events taking place in the same point in space are simultaneous for all observers.
Term
 D.3.1 Describe the concept of a light clock.
Definition
 An imaginary device that measures time using the speed of light.
Term
 D.3.2 Define proper time interval.
Definition
 the time measured in a frame of reference stationary with the measured event.
Term
 D.3.2 Define proper time interval.
Definition
 Oh god. This won't go well.
Term
 D.3.4 Sketch and annotate a graph showing the variation with relative velocity of the Lorentz factor.
Definition
 Can't be bothered to go add the picture. Lorentz factor increases drastically when nearing speed of light, c being a vertical asymptote.
Term
 D.3.5 Solve problems involving timedilation.
Definition
 Apply the formula.
Term
 D.3.6 Define proper length.
Definition
 length as measured stationary with the object.
Term
 D.3.7 Describe the phenomenon of lengthcontraction.
Definition
 According to a stationary observer, the separation between two points in space contracts in the direction of the relative motion.
Term
 D.3.8 Solve problems involving lengthcontraction.
Definition
 Apply formula.
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