Term
D.4.1 State what is meant by an elementary particle. 

Definition
Particles are called elementary if they have no internal structure, that is, they are not made out of smaller constituents. 


Term
D.4.2 Identify elementary particles. 

Definition
The classes of elementary particles are quarks, leptons and exchange particles. The Higgs particle could be elementary. 


Term
D.4.3 Describe particles in terms of mass and various quantum numbers. 

Definition
Students must be aware that particles (elementary as well as composite) are specified in terms of their mass and various quantum numbers. They should consider electric charge, spin, strangeness, colour, lepton number and baryon number. 


Term
D.4.4 Classify particles according to spin. 

Definition
Fermions (Leptons and Quarks): 1/2 Bosons: 1 


Term
D.4.5 State what is meant by an antiparticle. 

Definition
Has the same mass as its particle but all its quantum numbers are opposite. 


Term
D.4.6 State the Pauli exclusion principle. 

Definition
No two fermions can occupy the same quantum state. No two fermions in the same quantum system can have the same set of quantum numbers as each other. 


Term
D.4.7 List the fundamental interactions. 

Definition
gravitational, electroweak (weak and electromagnetic) and strong (fundamental and residual). 


Term
D.4.8 Describe the fundamental interactions in terms of exchange particles. 

Definition
gravitational: graviton (theoretical) electroweak: W+, W, Z, photon strong: gluons, mesons 


Term
D.4.9 Discuss the uncertainty principle for time and energy in the context of particle creation. 

Definition
A simple discussion is needed in terms of a particle being created with energy ΔE existing no longer than a time Δt given by ΔEΔt ≥ h/4π. 


Term
D.4.10 Describe what is meant by a Feynman diagram. 

Definition
Feynman diagrams are used to represent possible particle interactions. The diagrams are used to calculate the overall probability of an interaction taking place. 


Term
D.4.11 Discuss how a Feynman diagram may be used to calculate probabilities for fundamental processes. 

Definition
In calculating probability in quantum mechanics, it's necessary to add together all the possible ways in which an interaction can take place. 


Term
D.4.12 Describe what is meant by virtual particles. 

Definition
A particle that appears as an intermediate particle in a Feynman diagram. 


Term
D.4.13 Apply the formula for the range R for interactions involving the exchange of a particle. 

Definition
Applications include Yukawa’s prediction of the pion or determination of the masses of the W ±, Z 0 from knowledge of the range of the weak interaction. 


Term
D.4.14 Describe pair annihilation and pair production through Feynman diagrams. 

Definition


Term
D.4.15 Predict particle processes using Feynman diagrams. 

Definition


Term
D.5.1 List the six types of quark. 

Definition
up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom 


Term
D.5.2 State the content, in terms of quarks and antiquarks, of hadrons (that is, baryons and mesons). 

Definition
E.g. proton: uud antiproton: antiu antiu antid neutron: udd lambda: uds omega: sss
pion: u antid kaon: s antiu rho: u antid Bzero: d antib etac: c antic 


Term
D.5.3 State the quark content of the proton and the neutron. 

Definition


Term
D.5.4 Define baryon number and apply the law of conservation of baryon number. 

Definition
baryons have baryon number +1, antibaryons have baryon number 1. In all interactions, baryon number is always conserved. 


Term
D.5.5 Deduce the spin structure of hadrons (that is, baryons and mesons). 

Definition


Term
D.5.6 Explain the need for colour in forming bound states of quarks. 

Definition
Students should realize that colour is necessary to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle. The fact that hadrons have no colour is a consequence of confinement. 


Term
D.5.7 State the colour of quarks and gluons. 

Definition
quarks can be red, yellow, or blue. Gluons have eight types. 


Term
D.5.8 Outline the concept of strangeness. 

Definition
It is sufficient for students to know that the strangeness of a hadron is the number of anti‑strange quarks minus the number of strange quarks it contains. Students must be aware that strangeness is conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions, but not always in weak interactions. 


Term
D.5.9 Discuss quark confinement. 

Definition
Students should know that isolated quarks and gluons (that is, particles with colour) cannot be observed. The strong (colour) interaction increases with separation. More hadrons are produced when sufficient energy is supplied to a hadron in order to isolate a quark. 


Term
D.5.10 Discuss the interaction that binds nucleons in terms of the colour force between quarks. 

Definition
It is sufficient to know that the interaction between nucleons is the residual interaction between the quarks in the nucleons and that this is a shortrange interaction. 


Term
D.1.1 Describe what is meant by a frame of reference. 

Definition
A threedimensional coordinate system. 


Term
D.1.2 Describe what is meant by a Galilean transformation. 

Definition
Using measurements in one frame of reference to work out the measurements that would be recorded in another frame of reference. 


Term
D.1.3 Solve problems involving relative velocities using the Galilean transformation equations. 

Definition


Term
D.2.1 Describe what is meant by an inertial frame of reference. 

Definition
A frame of reference in which Newton's laws apply. The observer is not accelerating. 


Term
D.2.2 State the two postulates of the special theory of relativity. 

Definition
The speed of light in a vacuum is constant for all inertial observers. Laws of physics are the same for all inertial observers. 


Term
D.2.3 Discuss the concept of simultaneity. 

Definition
Students should know that two events occurring at different points in space and which are simultaneous for one observer cannot be simultaneous for another observer in a different frame of reference. Similarly, simultaneous events taking place in the same point in space are simultaneous for all observers. 


Term
D.3.1 Describe the concept of a light clock. 

Definition
An imaginary device that measures time using the speed of light. 


Term
D.3.2 Define proper time interval. 

Definition
the time measured in a frame of reference stationary with the measured event. 


Term
D.3.2 Define proper time interval. 

Definition
Oh god. This won't go well. 


Term
D.3.4 Sketch and annotate a graph showing the variation with relative velocity of the Lorentz factor. 

Definition
Can't be bothered to go add the picture. Lorentz factor increases drastically when nearing speed of light, c being a vertical asymptote. 


Term
D.3.5 Solve problems involving time dilation. 

Definition


Term
D.3.6 Define proper length. 

Definition
length as measured stationary with the object. 


Term
D.3.7 Describe the phenomenon of length contraction. 

Definition
According to a stationary observer, the separation between two points in space contracts in the direction of the relative motion. 


Term
D.3.8 Solve problems involving length contraction. 

Definition

