# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

IB Physics SL
Just a few important terms/equations for IB Physics SL
69
Physics
05/09/2012

Term
 Pressure
Definition
 Force per unit surface areaP= F/A
Term
 Ammeter
Definition
 -Measures current (amps)-Must be put in series with what you are measuring
Term
 Power
Definition
 The rate at which energy is transferred.Power=Work/(Unit Time)Power=Current*Voltage
Term
 Ohm's Law
Definition
 When the temperature of a resistor is constant then the current is proportional to voltage.
Term
 Green House Gases
Definition
 Water Vapor, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Ozone, Nitrous Oxide
Term
 Pump Storage
Definition
 Pumps water upwards where it is stored. This way, it will act as a battery for gravitational energy to be used later.
Term
 Efficiency of Natural Gas Power Plant
Definition
 50-60%
Term
 Efficiency of Coal Power Plant
Definition
 40%
Term
 Intensity
Definition
 Amount of power fer unit areaI=Power/A
Term
 Stephan-Boltsman Constant
Definition
 -Symbol is σ-Used to solve for radiated power of a black body in this equation:Radiated Pwr=σAT^4Where A is surface area and T is temperature in units of K
Term
 Emissivity
Definition
 The ratio of power emitted by an object to the power emitted if that object were a black body, symbol e.It is stated as a number 0-1, like a percentage.
Term
 Albedo
Definition
 The ratio of energy that is reflected vs. the incident intensity.∝=(total reflected power)/(total incident power)Things that affect the Earth's are the seasons, temperature, cloud cover, and vegetation.Earth's average is .3, which means 30% of energy is reflected.
Term
 Surface Heat Capacity
Definition
 How much heat it takes to heat the Earth's surface by one degree.C_s=Q/(A*∆T)
Term
 Solenoid
Definition
 A coil that creates an electric field. It becomes an electromagnet if a metal is put through the middle.
Term
 Black Body
Definition
 An object that absorbs all light and can emit light of its own. An example is a star. Also known as a "prefect emitter."
Term
 Gold Foil Experiment
Definition
 An experiment that shot particles through gold foil, and proved the plum pudding atomic model wrong when some of the particles bounced back.
Term
 Electron Volt
Definition
 -Amount of energy released when an electron moves across 1 volt of Potential difference.-1eV=1.6*10^-19J <---(elementary charge)
Term
 Super-critical mass
Definition
 A state where for every atom you split, it causes a chain reaction that splits more than one additional atom each time.
Term
 Critical mass
Definition
 A state where for every atom you split, exactly one other atom is caused to split. This is used in nuclear power plants.
Term
 Sub-Critical mass
Definition
 A state where when one atom splits, it doesn't cause more atoms to split. This is most common in nature.
Term
 Nuclear Fusion
Definition
 Binds atoms together. This naturally occurs in the sun.
Term
 AMU- atomic mass unit- (u)
Definition
 A unit of mass. One unit of this is equal to the mass of 1/12 of a carbon atom. Therefore, the mass of carbon is 12 of this unit.1 of this unit is equal to 1.66*10^-27kg. This conversion is at the bottom of the constants list in the IB equations packet.
Term
 Mass defect
Definition
 -The difference between mass of a nucleus and mass of the separate nucleons in the nucleus.-Can be used to find energy released in binding with the equation E=mc^2
Term
 Binding Energy
Definition
 The energy released when binding nucleons in a nucleus. It comes from mass.Can be found with the equation E=mc^2
Term
 Efficiency
Definition
 Energy out/Energy in
Term
Definition
 When energy is lost but isn't useful to us. Examples are in car exhaust, noise, and a heated up engine.
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of nuclear power
Definition
 7%
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of Fossil Fuels
Definition
 86%
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of oil (is a fossil fuel)
Definition
 40%
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of natural gas (is a fossil fuel)
Definition
 23%
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of coal (is a fossil fuel)
Definition
 23%
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of Solar
Definition
 <1%
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of Wind
Definition
 <1%
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of Hydroelectric
Definition
 7%
Term
 Percentage of World Usage of Wave
Definition
 <1%
Term
 Energy Density
Definition
 Total usable energy/mass
Term
 Requirements for Circular motion
Definition
 -Velocity tangetal to circle-Acceleration precipital (towards center of circle)
Term
 Specific Heat
Definition
 How much energy required to change temperature of an object by degreec=Q/m∆T
Term
 Latent Heat
Definition
 How much energy required to change phase per unit massL=Q/m
Term
 Vaporization
Definition
 A process that goes from liquid to gas.Involves:-Adding energy, which breaks bonds allowing particles to escape-the liquid turning into gas anywhere, which causes bubbles-the temperature not changing while phase change occurs.
Term
 Evaporation
Definition
 A process that goes from liquid to gas. Can happen at any temperature, but occurs more rapidly at higher temperaturesInvolves:-only happening at surface of liquid, so no bubbles are formed-temperature decreasing during phase change
Term
 Kinetic Theory of Matter
Definition
 A theory that simplifies particles to make them easier to understand. Just approximately true.States that:-the # of particles in a system is enormous and separation between particles is huger-all particles move randomly-no forces of attraction exist between particles of gas-all particle are identical
Term
 Conductor
Definition
 -A material that allows particles to flow freely.-Examples include metals like copper and aluminum-Charges spread out on the outside edge
Term
 Insulator
Definition
 Material that does not allow charged particles to flow freely.Examples include rubber and plastic-Charges reside wherever they are put
Term
 Law of Conservation of Charges
Definition
 States that charges can't be created or destroyed
Term
 Hook's Law
Definition
 F_s=-k∆xWhere F_s is spring forcek is spring constantand ∆x is distance stretched
Term
 Work Kinetic Energy Theorem
Definition
 ∆E_k=total work
Term
 Damped
Definition
 When an object is losing energy, would oscillate, but ends at equilibrium.
Term
 Critically Damped
Definition
 When an oscillating object loses energy as fast as physically possible
Term
 Under Damped
Definition
 When an oscillating object loses energy very slowly.
Term
 Forced Oscillation
Definition
 When you manually push something at a desired frequency
Term
 Natural Frequency
Definition
 The frequency an object naturally tends to oscillate at.
Term
 Work
Definition
 Amount of energy transferredForce*Displacement
Term
 Centripetal Acceleration
Definition
 The acceleration of a particle travelling in circular motionv^2/r
Term
 Heat
Definition
 The flow of thermal energy
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 Average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
Term
 Pressure Law
Definition
 States that macroscopically, at a constant volume the pressure of a gas is proportional to its temperature in kelvin (very similar to Charles's Law)
Term
 Charles's Law
Definition
 States that macroscopically, at a constant pressure, the volume of a gas is proportional to its temperature in kelvin (very similar to Pressure Law)
Term
 Boyle's Law
Definition
 Macroscopically, at a constant temperature, the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
Term
 Amplitude, A
Definition
 The maximum displacement from the mean position
Term
 Frequency, f
Definition
 The number of oscillations completed per unit time. Measured in number of cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz)=1/T
Term
 Period, T
Definition
 The time taken for one complete oscillation=1/f
Term
 Angular Frequency
Definition
 The constant of proportionality between acceleration and displacement. Identified as ω
Term
 Over damped
Definition
 When an oscillating object is almost completely prevented from oscillating. Relatable to moving through a very viscous liquid. It take a long time to reach equilibrium.
Term
 Resonance
Definition
 Occurs when a system is subject to an oscillating force at exactly the same frequency as the natural frequency of oscillation of the system.
Term
 Electric Potential Difference
Definition
 The energy difference per unit charge. For any given electric field, this is between any two points a single fixed scalar quantity. Measured in Joules/Coulomb, which is given a new name, the volt (V).
Term
 Coulomb (C)
Definition
 A unit for charge. One of these units of negative charge is equal to the charge carried by a total of 6.25*10^18 electrons.
Term
 Current
Definition
 The rate of flow of electrical charge. Given the symbol I. I=charge flowed/time takenI=Q/tMeasured in amps
Term
 Resistance
Definition
 The mathematical ratio between potential difference and current. If something has high of this, it means that you would need a large potential difference across it in order to get a current of flow. Symbol is R.R=V/IMeasured in units of ohms, Ω
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