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Humans & Atmospheric Change
this class blows
64
Meteorology
Undergraduate 3
11/18/2010

Additional Meteorology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

·        

 

 

Global Cooling for 55 Million Years

(Northern Hemisphere)

Definition

  50 – Palm-like trees, crocodile ancestors


  40-30: Broad-Leafed evergreen & deciduous forest in the Arctic

 

 20 – Spread of cool boreal spruce forest in the Arctic


 10 – First North American & Eurasian Ice

Term

  Global Cooling for 55 Million Years

(Southern Hemisphere)

Definition

  30- 20: ?, Last trees (Beech family) on Antarctic; ?First local ice on Antarctic

 

15-10: Increased Ice on Antarctica

 

  10-0: First glaciations in the Andes

Term
Oxygen Isotope Ration
Definition

 Oxygen 16

 99.75%

  Evaporates more easily since it is lighter (2 fewer neutrons)

  Especially when it’s cold

 

  Oxygen 18

  0.25%

  As water removed to ice sheets, 18O increases in ocean

  Positive 18O (what is left varies with temp) means O18 Enriched

  Negative 18O (What is left varies with temp) means O18 depleted

Term
Uplift Weathering
Definition

Increase in high-elevation terrain

 

High terrain causes unusual amounts of rock fragmentation

 

Fresh debris was exposed

 

(also: high elevation causes precipitation, chemical weathering)

Term
Opening of Drake’s Passage
Definition

20-25 Million Years Ago

 

Allowed ocean currents to circle Antarctica

 

This kept water there cold since none came from higher and warmer latitudes

 

This keeps Antarctica cool so ice can form

 

Land & Ocean temp cause strong winds (isolates air over Antarctica.

Term

 

         Closing of Isthmus of Panama

Definition

4-10 Million Years Ago

 

Diverts warm water to North Atlantic

 

Cuts off warm salty water flow from Pacific / Cuts off cool low salt flow from Atlantic

 

Causes warm water to flow North East in Atlantic melting sea ice and warming air near Western Europe.

Term

Biological effects of global warming

Definition

change in insect vectors


more frequent extreme heat events


ideal crop locations move pole ward


areas can get much more or much less water

Term

Effect of air pollution on health

Definition

people live longer than they were evolved to live


the more people age the more they are affected to chronic conditions like


cancer

industry brought brown lung (from weaving lint) and black lung (from coal dust) disease

hospitalizations better indicator of air pollution disasters than excess deaths

Term
effect of isolation of Antarctica (opening of Drake Passage)
Definition

Allowed ocean currents to circle Antarctica


This kept water there cold since none came from higher and warmer latitudes


This keeps Antarctica Cold so ice can form


Temperature difference between ocean and land causes strong wind which also isolates air over Antarctica especially in winter

Term

closing of Isthmus of Panama

Definition

Separates Warm, salty water flow from Pacific to Atlantic


Separates Cold, low-salty water flow from Atlantic to Pacific

Term

climate required for ice ages

(warm winter, cold summer)

Definition

Warm winter & non-frozen oceans (Causes evaporation & snowfall)


Cool summers so ice doesn’t melt

Term

 

obliquity of ecliptic - 41,000 yr

Definition

Variation of tilt of Earth relative to plane of orbit


Caused by torque of Sun & moon on Earth

Term

precession of equinoxes -

20,000 yr

Definition
Caused by torque of Sun & moon on Earth
Term
eccentricity of orbit - 100,000 yr
Definition

Caused by pull of Jupiter on Earth

Term
general ice sheet locations
Definition
on continents near the North Pole (Arctic Ocean)
Term

Early Agriculture & Climate Change

Definition

1100 Years ago: Early people invented agriculture in Mesopotamia and China


8000 years ago: Late Stone Age Europeans begin clearing forest to grow wheat, barley, peas, and other no indigenous crop plants


7500 years ago: Humans adapt wild rice for cultivation


5000 years ago: farmers in the south of China begin flooding lowlands near rivers to grow rice

Term
Factors Causing Sea Level Rise
Definition

Melting Glaciers

Melting of glaciers cause more water to enter back into oceans

More Run Off Back to Ocean

Less absorption of water on land it runs back into oceans

Thermal Expansion

Increases volume of ocean waters

Erosion of Shoreline

Removes soil.

Ocean Current Variations

                    Moves volume of ocean water between oceans

Term

Volcanoes and Their Effect On Climate

(Sulfate Aerosols)

Definition

Released from volcanic eruptions, shooting into atmosphere. (greenhouse gas)

This reflects Sun’s radiation back into space, cooling the Earth

Term
Sunspots
Definition
When sunspots are abundant there are strong solar emissions from the bright margins of the sunspots sent increased levels of radiation to Earth
Term

natural temperature changes

(Major Gases)

Definition

water vapor

 

carbon dioxide

Term

Natural Temperature Changes

(Minor Gases)


Definition

CFC's,

 


methane,

 


nitrous oxide,


 

ozone

Term
correlation of methane with population
Definition

^ People^

 

=

 

^ Methane^

Term

feedback effects of increasing carbon dioxide

Definition

  positive = glacial retreat, release of carbon in permafrost

    reduce ocean currents, increase humidity


 negative = plants grow faster, increase in low clouds

Term

Effects of greenhouse

Definition

more days over 90°F


 jet stream, corn belt, population & diseases move north


  higher temperature detrimental to cattle

 

more extinctions

 

  various effects on agriculture

Term

Output of models

Definition

more temperature rise in polar regions than tropical


more temperature rise over land than oceans


more temperature rise at night than during day


less precipitation in Midwest US       


more precipitation in Siberia

Term
Ozone formation
Definition

 O2 + E1 > O+O (E1 = UV increase 0.1 - 0.2 um range)

Works only high in Atmosphere


O + O2 + M > O3 + M

Works only low in Atmosphere

Term

Natural destruction of Ozone

 

Definition
O3 + E2 > O2 + O (E2 = UV Increase 0.2 – 0.3 u m ragne
Term
Ozone destruction by CFC's
Definition